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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659947/pediatric-thoracic-trauma-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#1
Ryan J Keneally, Cynthia H Shields, Albert Hsu, Howard I Prior, Kevin M Creamer
Introduction: The objective of this study is to review available data on pediatric thoracic trauma seen at U.S. military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and describe the scope of injuries, patterns seen, and associated mortality. The results were compared with adults injured in Iraq and Afghanistan and other reports of pediatric thoracic trauma in the literature. Materials and Methods: The investigators received approval from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences' institutional review board before the study...
April 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595874/temporal-analysis-of-cardiovascular-control-and-function-following-incomplete-t3-and-t10-spinal-cord-injury-in-rodents
#2
Kathryn A Harman, Gregory States, Abigail Wade, Chad Stepp, Grace Wainwright, Kathryn DeVeau, Nicholas King, Alice Shum-Siu, David S K Magnuson
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that results in whole-body dysfunction, notably cardiovascular (CV) disruption and disease. Injury-induced destruction of autonomic pathways in conjunction with a progressive decline in physical fitness contribute to the poor CV status of SCI individuals. Despite the wide use of exercise training as a therapeutic option to reduce CV dysfunction, little is known about the acute hemodynamic responses to the exercise itself. We investigated CV responses to an exercise challenge (swimming) following both high and low thoracic contusion to determine if the CV system is able to respond appropriately to the challenge of swimming...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544413/pediatric-cardiac-trauma-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#3
Konstantinos S Mylonas, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Pavlos Texakalidis, Pouya Hemmati, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
Literature discussing cardiac injuries in children is limited. Systematic search of PubMed identified 21 studies enrolling 1,062 pediatric patients who experienced cardiac trauma in the United States during the period 1961 to 2012. The predominant type of injury was blunt cardiac contusion affecting 59.7% (n = 634/1,062) of the study population. Motor vehicle crashes (53.5%, n = 391/731) were the leading cause of blunt cardiac trauma, while gunshot wounds (50%, n = 150/300) accounted for most penetrating injuries...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379803/delayed-cardiac-rupture-induced-by-traumatic-myocardial-infarction-consequence-of-a-45-magnum-blast-injury-a-comprehensive-case-review
#4
Holger Rupprecht, Katharina Gaab
A penetrating chest trauma, a myocardial contusion or a myocardial infarction can lead to a cardiac rupture, which is linked to an extreme high death rate. Only few cases with delayed perforation of the myocardium have been reported in literature. We report about a penetrating gunshot injury, which led to a myocardial contusion with secondary delayed rupture of the left ventricle and the left inferior lobe of the lung. The leakage of the lesion in the left ventricle could be sealed sufficiently with fibrin-coated collagen fleeces after adapting stitches with Prolene 2-0...
January 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360016/blow-trauma-to-the-chest-and-sudden-cardiac-death-commotio-cordis-and-contusio-cordis-are-leading-causes
#5
Lydia Krexi, Mary N Sheppard
Background In forensic practice, a blow to the chest can lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Commotio cordis and contusio cordis are leading causes. Methods From a database of 4678 patients who suffered from SCD, we found three patients with commotio cordis and two patients with contusio cordis. All the patients were examined macroscopically and microscopically and had negative toxicology screen. Results The three patients who died due to commotio cordis were young males (16, 23 and 38 years old). The circumstances of death were: a blow to the chest by a football, by a friend during a party and during an assault...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241463/-myocardial-contusion-following-trauma
#6
R T Stolmeijer, H Lameijer
BACKGROUND: Myocardial contusion is a potentially life threatening condition, which should be considered in patients with a compatible thoracic trauma. Guidelines for diagnosis and determination of management are non-existent. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 51-year-old man arrived at the accident and emergency department with thoracic trauma after being knocked down by a bus. A myocardial contusion was diagnosed based on the ECG and elevated high-sensitivity (hs) troponin levels...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237455/molecular-and-histological-effects-of-mr-guided-pulsed-focused-ultrasound-to-the-rat-heart
#7
Kee W Jang, Tsang-Wei Tu, Matthew E Nagle, Bobbi K Lewis, Scott R Burks, Joseph A Frank
BACKGROUND: Image-guided high intensity focused ultrasound has been used as an extracorporeal cardiac pacing tool and to enhance homing of stem cells to targeted tissues. However, molecular changes in the myocardium after sonication have not been widely investigated. Magnetic-resonance (MR)-guided pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) was targeted to the rat myocardium over a range of pressures and the microenvironmental and histological effects were evaluated over time. METHODS: Eight-to-ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received T2-weighted MR images to target pFUS to the left ventricular and septum without cardiac or respiratory gating...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235182/spinal-cord-injury-induced-cardiomyocyte-atrophy-and-impaired-cardiac-function-are-severity-dependent
#8
Jordan W Squair, Jie Liu, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Andrei V Krassioukov, Christopher R West
What is the central question of this study? How does the severity of spinal cord injury affect left ventricular mechanics, function and the underlying cardiomyocyte morphology? What is the main finding and its importance? Here, we show that severe, but not moderate, spinal cord injury causes cardiomyocyte atrophy, altered left ventricular mechanics and impaired cardiac function. The principal aim of the present study was to assess how the severity of spinal cord injury (SCI) affects left ventricular (LV) mechanics, function and underlying cardiomyocyte morphology...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226380/acute-severe-mitral-regurgitation-after-blunt-chest-trauma
#9
Petar Saric, Benjamin D Ravaee, Toral R Patel, Brian D Hoit
Myocardial contusion and aortic injury are well-known cardiac complications of blunt chest trauma, but valvular injury is rare. Traumatic valve injuries most commonly involve the aortic valve, with isolated mitral valve injury being quite rare. We report a case of acute severe mitral regurgitation due to ruptured chordae tendineae requiring surgical repair following a motor vehicle accident.
February 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175085/ventilator-management-and-respiratory-care-after-cardiac-arrest-oxygenation-ventilation-infection-and-injury
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas J Johnson, David J Carlbom, David F Gaieski
Return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest results in a systemic inflammatory state called the post-cardiac arrest syndrome, which is characterized by oxidative stress, coagulopathy, neuronal injury, and organ dysfunction. Perturbations in oxygenation and ventilation may exacerbate secondary injury after cardiac arrest and have been shown to be associated with poor outcome. Further, patients who experience cardiac arrest are at risk for a number of other pulmonary complications. Up to 70% of patients experience early infection after cardiac arrest, and the respiratory tract is the most common source...
November 22, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138662/st-segment-elevation-after-blunt-chest-trauma-myocardial-contusion-with-normal-coronary-arteries-or-myocardial-infarction-following-coronary-lesions
#11
Amine Ghalem, Hanane Boussir, Kamal Ahsayan, Nabila Ismaili, Noha El Ouafi
Cardiac lesions secondary to blunt chest trauma vary from insignificant arrhythmias to fatal cardiac rupture. Of these, a distinction remains difficult; face to ST-segment elevation on ECG with positive cardiac biomarkers, is it a myocardial contusion or a genuine myocardial infarction (MI) secondary to coronary lesions? We report the case of a patient admitted for multiple trauma. Initial assessment showed an ST segment elevation on ECG, along with multiple fractures and abdominal injuries. We would like to discuss, through this case, the similarities and the differences between myocardial infarction due to coronary lesions and myocardial contusion in a traumatic context, but also emphasize the difficulty of striking the right balance between thrombotic and bleeding risks in this situation, and insist on the importance of a multidisciplinary and collegial reflexion so we can offer these patients the best care there is...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124026/risk-factors-for-pneumonia-in-ventilated-trauma-patients-with-multiple-rib-fractures
#12
Hyun Oh Park, Dong Hoon Kang, Seong Ho Moon, Jun Ho Yang, Sung Hwan Kim, Joung Hun Byun
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common disease that may contribute to morbidity and mortality among trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study evaluated the associations between trauma factors and the development of VAP in ventilated patients with multiple rib fractures. Methods: We retrospectively and consecutively evaluated 101 patients with multiple rib fractures who were ventilated and managed at our hospital between January 2010 and December 2015, analyzing the associations between VAP and trauma factors in these patients...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018518/cardiac-effects-of-lightning-strikes
#13
Theodoros Christophides, Sarosh Khan, Mahmood Ahmad, Hossam Fayed, Richard Bogle
Lightning strikes are a common and leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Multiple organ systems can be involved, though the effects of the electrical current on the cardiovascular system are one of the main modes leading to cardiorespiratory arrest in these patients. Cardiac effects of lightning strikes can be transient or persistent, and include benign or life-threatening arrhythmias, inappropriate therapies from cardiac implantable electronic devices, cardiac ischaemia, myocardial contusion, pericardial disease, aortic injury, as well as cardiomyopathy with associated ventricular failure...
August 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967243/blunt-thoracic-trauma-and-cardiac-injury-in-the-athlete-contemporary-management
#14
Cesare DE Gregorio, Ludovico Magaudda
INTRODUCTION: Commotion cordis and cardiac injuries are rare events usually following a chest blunt trauma during sports activities. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND SYNTHESIS: Various aetiologies have been identified to cause electrical (commotion cordis) and/or structural (contusion and further injuries) damage, but high-velocity tools such as baseballs or hockey pucks (also called projectiles) have been chiefly identified. Clinical consequences are challenging, varying from uncomplicated supraventricular arrhythmias to cardiac wall rupture...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810921/the-role-of-whole-body-computed-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-of-thoracic-injuries-in-severely-injured-patients-a-retrospective-multi-centre-study-based-on-the-trauma-registry-of-the-german-trauma-society-traumaregister-dgu-%C3%A2
#15
Patricia Lang, Martin Kulla, Fabian Kerwagen, Rolf Lefering, Benedikt Friemert, Hans-Georg Palm
BACKGROUND: Thoracic injuries are a leading cause of death in polytrauma patients. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance. Whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) has largely replaced traditional imaging techniques such as conventional radiographs and focused computed tomography (CT) as diagnostic tools in severely injured patients. It is still unclear whether WBCT has led to higher rates of diagnosis of thoracic injuries and thus to a change in outcomes. METHODS: In a retrospective study based on the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society (TraumaRegister DGU® ), we analysed data from 16,545 patients who underwent treatment in 59 hospitals between 2002 and 2012 (ISS ≥ 9)...
August 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764222/evaluation-of-myocardial-injury-using-standard-diagnostic-tools-and-tissue-doppler-imaging-in-blunt-trauma-chest
#16
Parshotam Lal Gautam, Neeru Luthra, Manpreet Kaur, Jaspal Singh, Gurpreet Singh Wander, Rohit Tandon, Namrata, Nikhil Gautam
INTRODUCTION: Myocardial contusion is an entity in chest trauma which is difficult to diagnose. Current practice relies more on cardiac-specific biochemical markers and standard echocardiography, but no gold standard test exists. The application of Tissue Doppler imaging is yet unexplored. AIM: The present study was designed to evaluate cardiac injury in patients with blunt trauma chest using conventional trans-thoracic echocardiography parameters and Tissue Doppler imaging...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740997/guidelines-for-bystander-first-aid-2016
#17
Jen Heng Pek
Cardiac life support is a form of first aid for cardiac emergencies. However, research and evidence in this field is lacking compared with other forms of first aid. Having identified the common emergencies that are encountered in the hospital, based on the available evidence, we have put together what could be an evidence-based approach to the first aid management of some of these common emergencies, viz. breathlessness, chest pain, allergies, stroke, heat injury, poisoning, unconsciousness, seizures, and trauma situations such as bleeding, wounds, contusions, head injury, burns and fractures...
July 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739617/paediatric-chest-wall-trauma-causing-delayed-presentation-of-ventricular-arrhythmia
#18
Angela M Tegethoff, Emerald Raney, Jenny Mendelson, Michael R Minckler
This report describes a paediatric patient presenting with haemodynamically stable non-sustained ventricular tachycardia 1 day after minor blunt chest trauma. Initial laboratory studies, chest X-ray and echocardiography were normal; however, cardiac MRI revealed precordial haematoma, myocardial contusion and small pericardial effusion. Throughout her hospital course, she remained asymptomatic aside from frequent couplets and triplets of premature ventricular contractions. Ectopy was controlled with oral verapamil...
July 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710067/a-comparison-of-passive-hindlimb-cycling-and-active-upper-limb-exercise-provides-new-insights-into-systolic-dysfunction-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kathryn M DeVeau, Kathryn A Harman, Jordan W Squair, Andrei V Krassioukov, David S K Magnuson, Christopher R West
Active upper-limb and passive lower-limb exercise are two interventions used in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Although the global cardiac responses have been previously studied, it is unclear how either exercise influences contractile cardiac function. Here, the cardiac contractile and volumetric responses to upper-limb (swim) and passive lower-limb exercise were investigated in rodents with a severe high-thoracic SCI. Animals were divided into control (CON), SCI no exercise (NO-EX), SCI passive hindlimb cycling (PHLC), or SCI swim (SWIM) groups...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599602/spinal-cord-injury-causes-systolic-dysfunction-and-cardiomyocyte-atrophy
#20
Jordan W Squair, Kathryn M DeVeau, Kathryn A Harman, Malihe-Sadat Poormasjedi-Meibod, Brian Hayes, Jie Liu, David S K Magnuson, Andrei V Krassioukov, Christopher R West
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to exhibit systolic, and to a lesser extent, diastolic cardiac dysfunction. However, previous reports of cardiac dysfunction in this population are confounded by the changing loading conditions after SCI and as such, whether cardiac dysfunction per se is present is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to establish if load-independent cardiac dysfunction is present after SCI, to understand the functional cardiac response to SCI, and to explore the changes within the cellular milieu of the myocardium...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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