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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923765/preparation-and-investigation-of-p28gst-loaded-plga-microparticles-for-immunomodulation-of-experimental-colitis
#1
T H Hoang Thi, P A Priemel, Y Karrout, V Driss, M Delbeke, A Dendooven, M P Flament, M Capron, J Siepmann
The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize (in vitro and in vivo) PLGA-based microparticles loaded with an enzymatic protein derived from the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium: glutathione S-transferase P28GST (P28GST). This protein is not only a promising candidate vaccine against schistosomiasis, it also exhibits interesting immunomodulating effects, which can be helpful for the regulation of inflammatory diseases. Helminths express a regulatory role on intestinal inflammation, and immunization by P28GST has recently been shown to be as efficient as infection to reduce inflammation in a murine colitis model...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923091/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-risk-factors-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-some-school-children-in-a-suburb-in-accra-ghana
#2
Akua Obeng Forson, Isaac Arthur, Michael Olu-Taiwo, Kathrine Korkor Glover, Prince Jonathan Pappoe-Ashong, Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and establish some risk factors associated with the acquisition of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in school children in Accra, Ghana. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 15%. Giardia lamblia (10%) and Schistosoma mansoni (1.7%) were the common parasites found. Out of the 15% students postive for intestinal parasites, 13.6% had single parasites and 1.3% had double parasitic infections...
September 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917306/evaluation-of-surface-antigen-tf1-17-in-feline-tritrichomonas-foetus-isolates
#3
E N Gould, L B Corbeil, S A Kania, M K Tolbert
Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoa that infects the distal ileum and proximal colon of domestic cats, as well as the urogenital tract of cattle. Feline trichomonosis is recognized as a prevalent cause of chronic diarrhea in cats worldwide. The suspected route of transmission is fecal-oral, with cats in densely crowded environments at highest risk for infection. Thus, the recommended strategy for minimizing spread of infection is to identify and isolate T. foetus-positive cats from the general population...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917301/cysteine-protease-30-cp30-contributes-to-adhesion-and-cytopathogenicity-in-feline-tritrichomonas-foetus
#4
Emily N Gould, Richard Giannone, Stephen A Kania, M Katherine Tolbert
Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in domestic cats with a prevalence rate as high as 30%. No drugs have been shown to consistently eliminate T. foetus infection in all cats. Cysteine proteases (CPs) have been identified as mediators of T. foetus-induced adhesion-dependent cytotoxicity to the intestinal epithelium. These CPs represent novel targets for the treatment of feline trichomonosis. However, cats also produce CPs that are part of life-critical systems...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916732/il-4-producing-b-cells-regulate-t-helper-cell-dichotomy-in-type-1-and-type-2-controlled-diseases
#5
Ramona Hurdayal, Hlumani H Ndlovu, Mélanie Revaz-Breton, Suraj P Parihar, Justin Komguep Nono, Melissa Govender, Frank Brombacher
Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced T helper (Th) 2 cells promote susceptibility to the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, while conferring immunity to the intestinal trematode Schistosoma mansoni Here, we report that abrogation of IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling on B cells in BALB/c mice (mb1(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox)) transformed nonhealer BALB/c to a healer phenotype with an early type 1 and dramatically reduced type 2 immune response and an absence of ulceration and necrosis during cutaneous leishmaniasis. From adoptive reconstitution and mixed bone-marrow chimera studies in B cell-deficient (µMT) mice, we reveal a central role for B cell-derived IL-4 and IL-4Rα in the optimal induction of the susceptible type 2 phenotype to L...
September 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915270/the-single-cyclic-nucleotide-specific-phosphodiesterase-of-the-intestinal-parasite-giardia-lamblia-represents-a-potential-drug-target
#6
Stefan Kunz, Vreni Balmer, Geert Jan Sterk, Michael P Pollastri, Rob Leurs, Norbert Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Cornelia Spycher
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912038/proton-pump-inhibitor-use-is-associated-with-a-reduced-risk-of-infection-with-intestinal-protozoa
#7
Johnathan M Sheele
OBJECTIVE: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can kill some human protozoan parasites in cell culture better than the drug metronidazole. Clinical data showing an antiprotozoal effect for PPIs are lacking. The objective of the study is to determine if PPI use is associated with a reduced risk of having intestinal parasites. METHODS: We obtained electronic medical record data for all persons who received a stool ova and parasite (O & P) examination at our tertiary care academic medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 2000 and September 2014...
September 11, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905520/vaginal-enterobius-vermicularis-diagnosed-on-liquid-based-cytology-during-papanicolaou-test-cervical-cancer-screening-a-report-of-two-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
Chun-Yi Tsai, Rachel Junod, Martine Jacot-Guillarmod, Charles Beniere, Sonia Ziadi, Massimo Bongiovanni
Enterobiasis is one of the most common human parasitic infections. It is considered an intestinal parasite, but cases of extra-intestinal affections exist, notably infections of the female genital tract. Enterobius vermicularis (EV) eggs (or ova) have been found in the cervical smears of two patients in our institute during the last 16 years. No gynaecological or gastrointestinal symptoms were reported, and there was no known intestinal infection in these two cases. A review of the available literature revealed rare cases of vaginal enterobiasis, with a wide range of clinical presentations, many patients being asymptomatic...
September 14, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903890/human-parasitic-diseases-in-bulgaria-2013-2014
#9
Iskra Rainova, Rumen Harizanov, Iskren Kaftandjiev, Nina Tsvetkova, Ognyan Mikov, Eleonora Kaneva
BACKGROUND: In Bulgaria, more than 20 autochthonous human parasitic infections have been described and some of them are widespread. Over 50 imported protozoan and helminthic infections represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and pose epidemiological risk due to the possibility of local transmission. AIMS: To establish the distribution of autochthonous and imported parasitic diseases among the population of the country and to evaluate their significance for the public health system...
September 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902908/histological-assessment-of-granulomas-in-natural-and-experimental-schistosoma-mansoni-infections-using-whole-slide-imaging
#10
Kátia B Amaral, Thiago P Silva, Felipe F Dias, Kássia K Malta, Florence M Rosa, Sócrates F Costa-Neto, Rosana Gentile, Rossana C N Melo
The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900448/scolicidal-agents-for-protoscolices-of-echinococcus-granulosus-hydatid-cyst-review-of-literature
#11
REVIEW
Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi, Raheleh Rafiei Sefiddashti, Behnam Sanei, Morteza Yousefi, Hossein Yousofi Darani
Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of dog tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices are parasite larvae that develop into adult worms in the final host intestine. During surgical treatment of human hydatidsosis spillage of live protoscolices is the major cause of hydatidosis recurrence. To prevent this problem scolicidal agent such as hypertonic salt are used to kill the protoscolices that may disseminate into the patient's tissues during surgery. However, they may have some unacceptable side effects. To find scolicidal agents with high efficacy, the effect of different compounds on protoscolices of hydatid cyst in vitro has been reviewed...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#12
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892507/extreme-genome-diversity-in-the-hyper-prevalent-parasitic-eukaryote-blastocystis
#13
Eleni Gentekaki, Bruce A Curtis, Courtney W Stairs, Vladimír Klimeš, Marek Eliáš, Dayana E Salas-Leiva, Emily K Herman, Laura Eme, Maria C Arias, Bernard Henrissat, Frédérique Hilliou, Mary J Klute, Hiroshi Suga, Shehre-Banoo Malik, Arthur W Pightling, Martin Kolisko, Richard A Rachubinski, Alexander Schlacht, Darren M Soanes, Anastasios D Tsaousis, John M Archibald, Steven G Ball, Joel B Dacks, C Graham Clark, Mark van der Giezen, Andrew J Roger
Blastocystis is the most prevalent eukaryotic microbe colonizing the human gut, infecting approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. Although Blastocystis has been linked to intestinal disorders, its pathogenicity remains controversial because most carriers are asymptomatic. Here, the genome sequence of Blastocystis subtype (ST) 1 is presented and compared to previously published sequences for ST4 and ST7. Despite a conserved core of genes, there is unexpected diversity between these STs in terms of their genome sizes, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, intron numbers, and gene content...
September 11, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888392/toxocara-eggs-in-an-18th-century-franciscan-from-portugal-the-challenge-of-differentiating-between-parasitism-and-chance-in-paleoparasitology
#14
Luciana Sianto, Sérgio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Nathalie Antunes-Ferreira, Ana Raquel M Silva
In 2005, an adult male was excavated in the cloister of the former Convent of the Holy Spirit, in the Franciscan Province of Holy Mary of Arrábida, Lisbon district. From the anterior part of the sacrum, a darker organic agglomeration was collected and studied for intestinal parasites. Samples were rehydrated with Lycopodium tablets in a Na3PO4 5% solution for 72h, followed by the swirl technique. Organic material was concentrated at 2500rpm. At least 20 slides of each sample were examined using a light/polarized microscope...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883891/the-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-effect-of-auranta-3001-in-preventing-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#15
Alexandros Ch Stratakos, Filip Sima, Patrick Ward, Mark Linton, Carmel Kelly, Laurette Pinkerton, Lavinia Stef, Ioan Pet, Tiberiu Iancu, Gratiela Pircalabioru, Nicolae Corcionivoschi
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhea worldwide in both humans and farm animals with no completely effective treatment available at present. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of Auranta 3001 (0.1, 0.5 and 1%), a novel natural feed supplement, on C. hominis and C. parvum invasion of human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8), bovine primary cells and C. parvum invasion of HCT-8, bovine primary cells and bovine intestinal biopsies...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882168/detection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-and-cyclospora-cayetanensis-infections-among-people-living-in-a-slum-area-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#16
Balkrishna Bhattachan, Jeevan Bahadhur Sherchand, Sarmila Tandukar, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Leesa Gauchan, Ganesh Rai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. RESULTS: Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley...
September 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881035/protease-activated-receptor-2-contributes-to-toxoplasma-gondii-mediated-gut-inflammation
#17
Chrystelle Bonnart, Guylène Feuillet, Virginie Vasseur, Nicolas Cenac, Nathalie Vergnolle, Nicolas Blanchard
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread intracellular parasite, which naturally enters the organism via the oral route and cross the intestinal barrier to disseminate. In addition to neuronal and ocular pathologies, this pathogen also causes gut inflammation in a number of animals. This infection-triggered inflammation has been extensively studied in the C57BL/6 mice, highlighting the importance of the immune cells and their mediators in the development of gut pathology. However, despite their importance in inflammation, the role of Protease-Activated Receptors (PAR) was never reported in the context of T...
September 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877580/characterization-of-echinostoma-cinetorchis-endoribonuclease-rnase-h
#18
Sung-Bin Lim, Seok Ho Cha, Seung Jegal, Hojong Jun, Seo Hye Park, Bo-Young Jeon, Jhang Ho Pak, Young Yil Bakh, Tong-Soo Kim, Hyeong-Woo Lee
Echinostoma cinetorchis is an oriental intestinal fluke causing significant pathological damage to the small intestine. The aim of this study was to determine a full-length cDNA sequence of E. cinetorchis endoribonuclease (RNase H; EcRNH) and to elucidate its molecular biological characters. EcRNH consisted of 308 amino acids and showed low similarity to endoribonucleases of other parasites (<40%). EcRNH had an active site centered on a putative DDEED motif instead of DEDD conserved in other species. A recombinant EcRNH produced as a soluble form in Escherichia coli showed enzymatic activity to cleave the 3'-O-P bond of RNA in a DNA-RNA duplex, producing 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphate...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877573/hookworm-infection-caused-acute-intestinal-bleeding-diagnosed-by-capsule-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Xia Tan, Meichu Cheng, Jie Zhang, Guochun Chen, Di Liu, Yexin Liu, Hong Liu
Hookworm infections are rare causes of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a middle aged man with primary nephrotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism. During the treatment with steroids and anticoagulants, the patient presented acute massive hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal tract. The results of gastroscopy showed red worms in the duodenum. Colonoscopy and CT angiogram of abdomen were unremarkable. Capsule endoscopy revealed fresh blood and multiple hookworms in the jejunum and ileum. Hookworms caused the acute intestinal bleeding...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877570/hookworm-infection-a-neglected-cause-of-overt-obscure-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#20
Kun-Yan Wei, Qiong Yan, Bo Tang, Shi-Ming Yang, Peng-Bing Zhang, Ming-Ming Deng, Mu-Han Lü
Hookworm infections are widely prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, especially in low income regions. In the body, hookworms parasitize the proximal small intestine, leading to chronic intestinal hemorrhage and iron deficiency anemia. Occasionally, hookworms can cause overt gastrointestinal bleeding, but this is often ignored in heavily burdened individuals from endemic infectious areas. A total of 424 patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were diagnosed by numerous blood tests or stool examinations as well as esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, capsule endoscopy or double-balloon enteroscopy...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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