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Muscle energy

Young Nam Kwon, Sung Sang Yoon, Kyung-Hag Lee
Background: Sarcopenia causes loss of muscle mass in the elderly and is associated with development of metabolic syndrome in those with obesity. This study evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods: This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V, 2008-2011. Whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and body mass index measurement were performed for all patients...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Jeong Jae Moon, Sam-Guk Park, Seung Min Ryu, Chan-Ho Park
Background: We sought to develop a novel index based on the skeletal muscle mass that reflects the change of quality of life (QOL), and is the most appropriate index for the body composition of the elderly in Korea. Whether lower extremity skeletal muscle mass index (LESMI) is an appropriate novel new index to diagnose patients with sarcopenia was also evaluated. A cut-off value for each index was reported to facilitate the diagnosis of patients with sarcopenia in a Korean population...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Xiaolei Zhang, Michelle B Trevino, Miao Wang, Stephen J Gardell, Julio E Ayala, Xianlin Han, Daniel P Kelly, Bret H Goodpaster, Rick B Vega, Paul M Coen
The progression of age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following periods of disuse due to illness or immobilization. However, the mechanisms underlying poor recovery of aged muscle following disuse remain to be delineated. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial energetics play an important role in regulation of muscle mass. Here, we report that 22-24 month old mice with low muscle mass and low glucose clearance rate also display poor early recovery of muscle mass following 10 days of hind limb unloading...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Michael Kroeger, Horst Karl, Bernhard Simmler, Peter Singer
Up to now the visual inspection of mobility of isolated anisakid larvae serves as a measure of viability and possible risk of infection. This paper presents a new method to rule out unreliability - caused by the temporary immobility of the larvae and by the human uncertainty factor of visual observation. By means of a Near infrared (NIR) imaging method, elastic curvature energies and geometric shape parameters were determined from contours, and used as a measure of viability. It was based on the modelling of larvae as a cylindrical membrane system...
March 2018: Heliyon
Lynne A Fieber, Nicholas S Kron, Justin B Greer, Hailey Rooney, Rachel A Prostko, John D Stieglitz, Martin Grosell, Phillip R Gillette
Aplysia californica was hatchery-reared in two turbulence protocols intended to imitate the intermittent turbulence of the native habitat and to promote development of the foot muscle from the exercise of adhering to the substrate. Hatchery-reared animals in turbulence regimes were compared to siblings reared in quiet water, and to wild animals, using noninvasive assessments of the development of the foot muscle. The objective was to learn if the turbulence-reared phenotype mimicked laboratory-targeted aspects of the wild phenotype, that is, reflex behavior, swim tunnel performance, and resting oxygen consumption (MO2 )...
March 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
André Bonadias Gadelha, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, Martim Bottaro, Ana Cristina de David, Baruch Vainshelboim, Ricardo M Lima
Background/Study context: Falls represent the leading cause of accidental deaths in the elderly. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome defined as the loss of muscle mass and strength. However, the association between falls and sarcopenia is still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different stages of sarcopenia and postural balance, risk of falls, and fear of falling in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: A total of 196 women (68.6 ± 6...
March 20, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Marcello Panagia, Howard H Chen, Dominique Croteau, Yin-Ching Iris Chen, Chongzhao Ran, Ivan Luptak, Lee Josephson, Wilson S Colucci, David E Sosnovik
BACKGROUND: Substrate utilization in tissues with high energetic requirements could play an important role in cardiometabolic disease. Current techniques to assess energetics are limited by high cost, low throughput, and the inability to resolve multiple readouts simultaneously. Consequently, we aimed to develop a multiplexed optical imaging platform to simultaneously assess energetics in multiple organs in a high throughput fashion. METHODS AND RESULTS: The detection of 18F-Fluordeoxyglucose uptake via Cerenkov luminescence and free fatty acid uptake with a fluorescent C16 free fatty acid was tested...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrea Petronio Rossi, Gianluigi Zaza, Marina Zanardo, Francesco Pedelini, Laura Dalla Verde, Chiara Caletti, Alessia D'Introno, Antonio Lupo, Mauro Zamboni
BACKGROUND: Renal transplant (RTX) recipients seem to experience a better quality of life compared to dialysis patients. However, the factors responsible for this positive effect are not completely defined. Conceivably, a change in the physical performance of these patients could play a role. METHODS: To assess this, we measured: (1) waist circumference, fat mass and appendicular fat-free mass (aFFM) by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, (2) physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery, and (3) muscle strength with the handgrip test, in 59 male RTX, 11 chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment (CKD) and 10 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Friedrich C Jassil, Alisia Carnemolla, Helen Kingett, Bruce Paton, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Jacqueline Doyle, Stephen Morris, Neville Lewis, Amy Kirk, Andrea Pucci, Kusuma Chaiyasoot, Rachel L Batterham
INTRODUCTION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the two most common bariatric surgery performed in the UK that result in comparable weight loss and remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the impact of these procedures on body composition, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life and costs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study is a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study within a real-world routine clinical care setting aiming to recruit 100 patients with severe obesity undergoing either primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy from two bariatric centres in London, UK...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Ditte Beck Jepsen, Jesper Ryg, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Stinus Hansen, Tahir Masud
BACKGROUND: PaVOS is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which aims to address the use of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) in combination with parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment in patients with osteoporosis. PTH 1-34 is an effective but expensive anabolic treatment for osteoporosis. WBV has been found to stimulate muscle and bone growth. Animal studies have shown a beneficial effect on bone when combining PTH 1-34 with mechanical loading. A combined treatment with PTH 1-34 and WBV may potentially have beneficial effects on bone and muscles, and reduce fracture risk...
March 16, 2018: Trials
Laura Wallard, Sophie Boulet, Olivier Cornu, Jean-Emile Dubuc, Philippe Mahaudens, Didier Postlethwaite, Maïté Van Cauter, Christine Detrembleur
BACKGROUND: The gait mechanism requires an efficient intersegmental coordination in order to ensure the displacement of the body while simultaneously maintaining the postural stability. However, intersegmental coordination may be disrupted by neurological or orthopaedic involvement, this increasing the metabolic cost associated with excessive or prolonged muscle co-contraction. RESEARCH QUESTION: Our aim was to evaluate and to understand how hip OA affects lower limbs coordination during gait by using the kinematic segmental covariation law method and predict the energy expenditure...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Frederik Flenner, Nicole Arlt, Mahtab Nasib, Sophie Schobesberger, Thea Koch, Ursula Ravens, Felix Friedrich, Viacheslav Nikolaev, Torsten Christ, Sebastian N Stehr
BACKGROUND: Systemic toxicity of local anesthetics is predominantly complicated by their myocardial toxicity. Especially long-acting local anesthetics exert a negative inotropic effect that has been described at lower concentrations than defined for blockade of myocardial ion channels. We evaluated the negative inotropic effect of bupivacaine at a concentration described for clinical toxicity testing the hypothesis that negative inotropy is a result of reduced Ca sensitivity rather than blockade of ion channels...
March 16, 2018: Anesthesiology
Floriane Rudwill, Donal O'Gorman, Etienne Lefai, Isabelle Chery, Alexandre Zahariev, Sylvie Normand, Allan F Pagano, Angèle Chopard, Anthony Damiot, Claire Laurens, Leanne Hodson, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Martina Heer, Petra Frings Meuthen, Judith Buehlmeier, Natalie Baecker, Laure Meiller, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stéphane Blanc, Chantal Simon, Audrey Bergouignan
Context: The effects of energy balanced bed-rest on metabolic flexibility has not been thoroughly examined. Objective: We investigated the effects of 21-days bed-rest, with and without whey protein supplementation, on metabolic flexibility while maintaining energy balance. We further hypothesized protein supplementation mitigates metabolic inflexibility by preventing muscle atrophy. Design & Setting: Randomized cross-over longitudinal study conducted at the German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ji-Hye Do, Won-Gyu Yoo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a visual feedback-equipped reacher when performing reach-to-grasp tasks. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen healthy participants with no illnesses or physical disabilities were selected for this study. Activation of the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor digitorum muscles was assessed using electromyography. Wrist and shoulder momentums were calculated using a three-axis acceleration sensor. Participants were instructed to move 10 ears of plastic corn from right to left using a reacher with and without visual feedback...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Hobby Agarwal, Jitendra S Kanshana, Deepika Awasthi, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
Oxidative stress due to enhanced production or reduced scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with diet (dyslipidemia) induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The present study was undertaken to assess the role of p47phox in IR using wild type (WT) and p47phox-/- mice, fed with different diets (HFD, LFD or Chow). Augmented body weight, glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity were observed in p47phox-/- mice fed with 45% HFD and 10% LFD. Further, body fat and circulating lipids was increased significantly with 5 weeks LFD feeding in p47phox-/- mice, while parameters of energy homeostasis were reduced as compared to WT mice...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Kexin Wang, Yang Xu, Qiong Sun, Jiangang Long, Jiankang Liu, Jian Ding
The multipurpose organelle mitochondria play an essential role(s) in controlling cardiac muscle contraction. Mitochondria, not only function as the powerhouses and the energy source of myocytes, but also modulate intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, the production of intermediary metabolites/reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other cellular processes. Those molecular events can substantially influence myocardial contraction. Mitochondrial dysfunction is usually associated with cardiac remodeling, and is the causal factor of heart contraction defects in many cases...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
T Brusa, D Abler, R Tutuian, C Gingert, J T Heverhagen, M Adamina, L E Brügger, P Büchler
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of age-related fecal incontinence is attributed to weakness or degeneration of the muscles composing the anal continence organ. However, the individual role of these muscles and their functional interplay remain poorly understood. METHODS: This study employs a novel technique based on the combination of MR imaging and FLIP measurements (MR-FLIP) to obtain anatomical and mechanical information simultaneously. Unlike previous methods used to assess the mechanics of the continence organ, MR-FLIP allows inter-individual comparisons and statistical analysis of the sphincter morpho-mechanical parameters...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Antonio Gil-Gomez, Ana Isabel Gómez-Sotelo, Isidora Ranchal, Ángela Rojas, Marta García-Valdecasas, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Javier Ampuero, Manuel Romero Gómez
AIM: to analyze the effect of metformin on ammonia production derived from glutamine metabolism in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: twenty male Wistar rats were studied for 28 days after a porto-caval anastomosis (n = 16) or a sham operation (n = 4). Porto-caval shunted animals were randomized into two groups (n = 8) and either received 30 mg/kg/day of metformin for two weeks or were control animals. Plasma ammonia concentration, Gls gene expression and K-type glutaminase activity were measured in the small intestine, muscle and kidney...
March 15, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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