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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775988/effects-of-different-resistance-training-frequencies-on-fat-in-overweight-obese-older-women
#1
Edilaine F Cavalcante, Alex S Ribeiro, Matheus A do Nascimento, Analiza M Silva, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Hellen C G Nabuco, Fábio L C Pina, Jerry L Mayhew, Marzo E Da Silva-Grigoletto, Danilo R P da Silva, Steven J Fleck, Edilson S Cyrino
AIM: This study compared the effect of different resistance training (RT) frequencies on total, android, gynoid and trunk body fat in overweight/obese older women. METHODS: Fifty-seven overweight/obese older women (66.9±5.3 years and 39.9±4.9% body fat) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group performing RT twice a week (G2X), a group performing RT three times a week (G3X), or a non-exercise control group (CG). Both training groups performed the same 12-week RT program consisting of 8 exercises that trained all major muscle groups...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#2
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774894/value-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-monitoring-tissue-change-during-magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-therapy-in-bone-applications-an-ex-vivo-study
#3
Sharon L Giles, Jessica M Winfield, David J Collins, Ian Rivens, John Civale, Gail R Ter Haar, Nandita M deSouza
Background: Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can palliate metastatic bone pain by periosteal neurolysis. We investigated the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for monitoring soft tissue changes adjacent to bone during MR-guided HIFU. We evaluated the repeatability of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement, the temporal evolution of ADC change after sonication, and its relationship with thermal parameters. Methods: Ex-vivo experiments in lamb legs ( n = 8) were performed on a Sonalleve MR-guided HIFU system...
2018: European radiology experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774118/proteomic-profiling-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-in-cancer-cachexia-alterations-in-sarcomeric-and-mitochondrial-protein-expression
#4
Angie M Y Shum, Anne Poljak, Nicholas L Bentley, Nigel Turner, Timothy C Tan, Patsie Polly
Background: Cancer cachexia is observed in more than 50% of advanced cancer patients, and impairs quality of life and prognosis. A variety of pathways are likely to be dysregulated. Hence, a broad-spectrum understanding of the disease process is best achieved by a discovery based approach such as proteomics. Results: More than 300 proteins were identified with > 95% confidence in correct sequence identification, of which 5-10% were significantly differentially expressed in cachectic tissues ( p -value of 0...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#5
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773650/the-exercise-inducible-bile-acid-receptor-tgr5-improves-skeletal-muscle-function-in-mice
#6
Takashi Sasaki, Ayane Kuboyama, Moeko Mita, Shotaro Murata, Makoto Shimizu, Jun Inoue, Kazutoshi Mori, Ryuichiro Sato
TGR5 (also known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, GPBAR1) is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor that is expressed in many diverse tissues. TGR5 is involved in various metabolic processes, including glucose metabolism and energy expenditure; however, TGR5's function in skeletal muscle is not fully understood. Using both gain- and loss-of-function mouse models, we demonstrate here that Tgr5 activation promotes muscle cell differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. Both young and old transgenic mice with muscle-specific Tgr5 expression exhibited increased muscle strength...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772707/pimt-ncoa6ip-deletion-in-the-mouse-heart-causes-delayed-cardiomyopathy-attributable-to-perturbation-in-energy-metabolism
#7
Yuzhi Jia, Ning Liu, Navin Viswakarma, Ruya Sun, Mathew J Schipma, Meng Shang, Edward B Thorp, Yashpal S Kanwar, Bayar Thimmapaya, Janardan K Reddy
PIMT/NCOA6IP, a transcriptional coactivator PRIP/NCOA6 binding protein, enhances nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. Germline disruption of PIMT results in early embryonic lethality due to impairment of development around blastocyst and uterine implantation stages. We now generated mice with Cre-mediated cardiac-specific deletion of PIMT (csPIMT-/- ) in adult mice. These mice manifest enlargement of heart, with nearly 100% mortality by 7.5 months of age due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Significant reductions in the expression of genes (i) pertaining to mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I to IV; (ii) calcium cycling cardiac muscle contraction ( Atp2a1 , Atp2a2 , Ryr2 ); and (iii) nuclear receptor PPAR- regulated genes involved in glucose and fatty acid energy metabolism were found in csPIMT-/- mouse heart...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771953/mitochondrial-disease-patient-motivations-and-barriers-to-participate-in-clinical-trials
#8
Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham, Rui Xiao, Amy Stoddart, Elizabeth M McCormick, Amy Holberts, Natalie Burrill, Shana McCormack, Lauren Williams, Xiaoyan Wang, John L P Thompson, Marni J Falk
BACKGROUND: Clinical treatment trials are increasingly being designed in primary mitochondrial disease (PMD), a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous collection of inherited multi- system energy deficiency disorders that lack effective therapy. We sought to identify motivating factors and barriers to clinical trial participation in PMD. METHODS: A survey study was conducted in two independent mitochondrial disease subject cohorts. A discovery cohort invited subjects with well-defined biochemical or molecularly- confirmed PMD followed at a single medical center (CHOP, n = 30/67 (45%) respondents)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771627/efficiency-and-perceived-exertion-of-novel-wheelchair-wheels-a-comparative-study
#9
Laura Sanches Rocha, Bonita Sawatzky, W Ben Mortenson
New geared wheelchair wheels have been developed allowing the user to pull backwards on the rims to move forward. Theoretically, this utilizes larger muscle groups compared to conventional propulsion preventing repetitive stress injuries. This study compared the gross mechanical efficiency (GME), perceived effort and energy expenditure of propelling the wheelchair using two types of these geared wheels and standard forward propulsion wheels. A within participants repeated measures design was used. Participants' energy expenditure and perceived exertion were measured...
May 17, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768017/the-signaling-network-resulting-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-dysfunction
#10
Huibin Tang, Joseph B Shrager
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for those incapable of adequately ventilating or oxygenating without assistance. Unfortunately, even brief periods of MV result in diaphragm weakness (i.e., "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" - VIDD) that may render it difficult to wean the ventilator. Prolonged MV is associated with cascading complications and is a strong risk factor for death. Thus, prevention of VIDD may have a dramatic impact on mortality rates. Here, we summarized the current understanding of the pathogenic events underlying VIDD...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767564/interorgan-metabolic-crosstalk-in-human-insulin-resistance
#11
Sofiya Gancheva, Tomas Jelenik, Elisa Álvarez-Hernández, Michael Roden
Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767150/effect-of-storage-time-on-the-characteristics-of-corn-and-efficiency-of-its-utilization-in-broiler-chickens
#12
Dafei Yin, Jianmin Yuan, Yuming Guo, Lee I Chiba
Corn is one of the staple food and feed ingredients in China, therefore its storage is of particular importance. Corn is typically stored for 2 or more years in national barns before it is sold as a food or feed ingredient. However, the effects of stored corn in national barns on the animal performance and nutrient utilization have not been investigated thus far. This study attempted to determine the effects of storage time on the chemical and physical characteristics of corn and its nutritional value, broiler growth performance, and meat quality...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766349/recent-developments-in-the-role-of-coenzyme-q10-for-coronary-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Jessica Ayers, Jamie Cook, Rachel A Koenig, Evan M Sisson, Dave L Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent randomized clinical trials evaluating the role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the management of coronary heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: CoQ10 is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in the USA. Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, CoQ10 has been studied extensively for possible use in managing coronary heart disease. One of the most common applications of CoQ10 is to mitigate statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) based on the theory that SAMS are caused by statin depletion of CoQ10 in the muscle...
May 16, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760608/calf-circumference-as-a-simple-screening-marker-for-diagnosing-sarcopenia-in-older-korean-adults-the-korean-frailty-and-aging-cohort-study-kfacs
#14
Sunyoung Kim, Miji Kim, Yunhwan Lee, ByungSung Kim, Tai Young Yoon, Chang Won Won
Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the optimal cut-off point of calf circumference (CC) as a simple proxy marker of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and sarcopenia in the Korean elderly and to test the criterion-related validity of CC by analyzing its relationships with the physical function. Methods: The participants were 657 adults aged 70 to 84 years who had completed both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and physical function test in the first baseline year of the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758956/prediction-of-human-gait-trajectories-during-the-ssp-using-a-neuromusculoskeletal-modeling-a-challenge-for-parametric-optimization
#15
Mohammadali Rahmati Seyed, Rostami Mostafa, Beigzadeh Borhan
The parametric optimization techniques have been widely employed to predict human gait trajectories; however, their applications to reveal the other aspects of gait are questionable. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not the gait prediction model is able to justify the movement trajectories for the higher average velocities. A planar, seven-segment model with sixteen muscle groups was used to represent human neuro-musculoskeletal dynamics. At first, the joint angles, ground reaction forces (GRFs) and muscle activations were predicted and validated for normal average velocity (1...
April 27, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758570/acute-hip-abduction-fatigue-on-lumbopelvic-hip-complex-stability-in-softball-players
#16
Jessica Washington, Gabrielle Gilmer, Gretchen Oliver
During an overhead throw, the gluteal muscle group stabilizes the lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC), leading to efficient energy transfer from the lower to upper extremity. It has been shown that LPHC instability can lead to throwing pathomechanics. The single leg squat has become a common assessment for LPHC stability, and could be used to determine the effects of fatigue on throwing athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an acute abduction fatigue protocol on the LPHC of collegiate softball players via the single leg squat assessment of the leg ipsilateral to the throwing arm...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758402/lactation-related-changes-in-tissue-expression-of-pedf-in-dairy-cows
#17
H Sadri, B Saremi, S Dänicke, J Rehage, M Mielenz, A Hosseini, H Sauerwein
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is evolving as metabolic regulatory protein. Albeit mostly considered in only pathological conditions related to excess energy intake resulting in obesity and insulin resistance, PEDF is likely to be involved in other physiological processes such as the homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism to lactation. We aimed to characterize the expression of PEDF and its association to the concomitant mobilization of body reserves during lactation in nonobese subjects. This mobilization is particularly distinct in dairy cows, and we therefore assessed the mRNA expression of PEDF and its putative receptors in different tissues in 2 trials with dairy cows fed with or without conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs)...
April 17, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756995/guanidinoacetic-acid-supplementation-in-broiler-chickens-fed-corn-soybean-diets-affects-performance-in-the-finisher-period-and-energy-metabolites-in-breast-muscle-independent-of-diet-nutrient-density
#18
Maryam Majdeddin, Abolghasem Golian, Hassan Kermanshahi, Stefaan De Smet, Joris Michiels
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is the single immediate endogenous precursor of creatine. It was hypothesised that dietary GAA would have different effects on performance and energy metabolites in breast muscle depending on the nutrient density (ND) of corn-soybean based diets. A total of 540 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were allocated to nine dietary treatments with six replicates (10 birds each) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of ND (low, 2800; medium, 2950 and high, 3100 kcal ME/kg; and with the other nutrients being constant relative to ME) and supplemented with three levels of GAA (0, 0...
May 14, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755912/scrotal-rejuvenation
#19
REVIEW
Philip R Cohen
Genital rejuvenation is applicable not only to women (vaginal rejuvenation) but also to men (scrotal rejuvenation). There is an increased awareness, reflected by the number of published medical papers, of vaginal rejuvenation; however, rejuvenation of the scrotum has not received similar attention in the medical literature. Scrotal rejuvenation includes treatment of hair-associated scrotal changes (alopecia and hypertrichosis), morphology-associated scrotal changes (wrinkling and laxity), and vascular-associated scrotal changes (angiokeratomas)...
March 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754437/reduced-fiber-size-capillary-supply-and-mitochondrial-activity-in-constitutional-thinness-skeletal-muscle
#20
Bogdan Galusca, Julien Verney, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Yiin Ling, Pascal Edouard, Leonard Feasson, Marion Ravelojaona, Hubert Vidal, Bruno Estour, Natacha Germain
AIM: Constitutional thinness (CT) is a rare condition of natural low bodyweight, with no psychological issues, no marker of undernutrition and a resistance to weight gain. This study evaluated the skeletal muscle phenotype of CT women by comparison to a normal BMI control group. METHODS: 10 CT women (BMI< 17.5 kg/m2) and 10 female controls (BMI: 18.5-25 kg/m2) underwent metabolic and hormonal assessment along with muscle biopsies to analyse the skeletal muscular fibers pattern, capillarity, enzymes activities and transcriptomics...
May 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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