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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167427/scallop-genome-reveals-molecular-adaptations-to-semi-sessile-life-and-neurotoxins
#1
Yuli Li, Xiaoqing Sun, Xiaoli Hu, Xiaogang Xun, Jinbo Zhang, Ximing Guo, Wenqian Jiao, Lingling Zhang, Weizhi Liu, Jing Wang, Ji Li, Yan Sun, Yan Miao, Xiaokang Zhang, Taoran Cheng, Guoliang Xu, Xiaoteng Fu, Yangfan Wang, Xinran Yu, Xiaoting Huang, Wei Lu, Jia Lv, Chuang Mu, Dawei Wang, Xu Li, Yu Xia, Yajuan Li, Zhihui Yang, Fengliang Wang, Lu Zhang, Qiang Xing, Huaiqian Dou, Xianhui Ning, Jinzhuang Dou, Yangping Li, Dexu Kong, Yaran Liu, Zhi Jiang, Ruiqiang Li, Shi Wang, Zhenmin Bao
Bivalve molluscs are descendants of an early-Cambrian lineage superbly adapted to benthic filter feeding. Adaptations in form and behavior are well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the genome, various transcriptomes, and proteomes of the scallop Chlamys farreri, a semi-sessile bivalve with well-developed adductor muscle, sophisticated eyes, and remarkable neurotoxin resistance. The scallop's large striated muscle is energy-dynamic but not fully differentiated from smooth muscle...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167114/exocrine-pancreas-glutamate-secretion-help-to-sustain-enterocyte-nutritional-needs-under-protein-restriction
#2
Selene Araya, Evelyne Kuster, Dino Gluch, Luca Mariotta, Christian Lutz, Theresia V Reding, Rolf Graf, François Verrey, Simone M R Camargo
Glutamine (Gln) is the most concentrated amino acid in blood and considered conditionally essential. Its requirement is increased during physiological stress, such as malnutrition or illness, despite its production by muscle and other organs. In the malnourished state Gln has been suggested to have a trophic effect on the exocrine pancreas and small intestine. However, the Gln transport capacity, the functional relationship of these two organs and the potential role of the Gln-glutamate (Glu) cycle are unknown...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166164/a-physiological-signature-of-the-cost-of-reproduction-associated-with-parental-care
#3
Melinda A Fowler, Tony D Williams
Costs of reproduction are an integral and long-standing component of life-history theory, but we still know relatively little about the specific physiological mechanisms underlying these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated workload during parental care in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using attachment of radios and/or wing clipping and assessed measures of workload, current breeding productivity, future fecundity, and survival (local return rate) in relation to treatment. Females with wing clipping and radio attachment paid a clear cost of reproduction compared with all other treatment groups: they had lower future fecundity and lower return rates despite having lower current breeding productivity...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165099/recent-patents-and-formulation-of-nanopharmaceuticals-using-ultrasonication-technique
#4
Nidhi Saiwal, Mandeep Dahiya, Harish Dureja
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) has the ever-rising role in the delivery of therapeutic agents that includes chemotherapeutic agents, proteins, and genetic material. The microbubbles are the cavitating gas bodies that act as the mediators through which the energy of relatively non-interactive pressure waves is accumulated to produce forces that can permeabilize cell membranes and disrupt the vesicles that carry the therapeutic agent. This shows that the microbubbles greatly enhance the delivery of smaller chemical agents, proteins and genetic material...
November 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164834/effects-of-next-generation-low-energy-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-on-erectile-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-diabetes
#5
Hyun Cheol Jeong, Seung Hwan Jeon, Zhu Guan Qun, Kang Sup Kim, Sae Woong Choi, Fahad Bashraheel, Woong Jin Bae, Su Jin Kim, Hyuk Jin Cho, U Syn Ha, Sung Hoo Hong, Ji Youl Lee, Du Geon Moon, Sae Woong Kim
PURPOSE: Gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and low-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) have been investigated as treatments for refractory erectile dysfunction (ED), but inconclusive evidence has been obtained. We investigated the effect of a next-generation electromagnetic cylinder ESWT device on an animal model of ED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced rats were divided into 3 groups: group 1, control; group 2, DM; and group 3, DM+ESWT...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160051/irisin-as-a-regulator-of-bone-and-glucose-metabolism-a-narrative-review
#6
Silvia I Briganti, Gianluigi Gaspa, Gaia Tabacco, Anda M Naciu, Roberto Cesareo, Silvia Manfrini, Andrea Palermo
In humans, irisin is produced mainly by skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. It has been demonstrated that irisin plays a pivotal role in inducing fat browning and regulating energy expenditure. New findings from various studies conducted in both animals and humans suggest that irisin can affect bone and glucose metabolism. In particular, irisin is able to increase bone cortical mass by stimulating the osteoblast pathways, and irisin levels are inversely correlated with the incidence of fragility fractures among postmenopausal women affected by osteoporosis...
November 20, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158357/evidence-for-a-role-of-vascular-endothelium-in-the-control-of-arterial-wall-viscosity-in-humans
#7
Frederic Roca, Michele Iacob, Isabelle Remy-Jouet, Jeremy Bellien, Robinson Joannides
Arterial wall viscosity (AWV) is a major cause of energy dissipation along the arterial tree. Its determinants remain controversial but an active endothelial regulation has been suggested. Our objective was to assess in humans the physiological role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and the effect of modulating smooth muscle tone in the regulation of AWV. We simultaneously measured radial artery diameter, wall thickness, and arterial pressure in healthy volunteers during the local infusion of inhibitors of NO-synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesis by cytochrome P450 (fluconazole), the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids cellular targets calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), alone and in combination...
November 20, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157904/anti-fatigue-activity-of-an-arabinan-rich-pectin-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#8
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Luiz K S Kanazawa, Ana L D M Furlanetto, Joao V C Peixoto, Claudia R Corso, Eliana R Adami, Marcello Iacomini, Rosalvo T H Fogaça, Alexandra Acco, Silvia M S C Cadena, Roberto Andreatini, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
A fraction composed of an arabinan-rich pectin was extracted from acerola fruit (Malpighia emarginata) and named ACWS. This fraction presented 93% of total carbohydrate, relative molecular weight of 7.5×10(4)g/mol, galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose in 52.1:32.4:7.2:4.8:3.5 molar ratio and had its structure confirmed by NMR analysis. The anti-fatigue activity of ACWS was evaluated using the weight load swim test on trained mice. ACWS was orally administered at doses of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg for 28 days...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157238/evaluation-of-normal-swallowing-functions-by-using-dynamic-high-density-surface-electromyography-maps
#9
Mingxing Zhu, Bin Yu, Wanzhang Yang, Yanbing Jiang, Lin Lu, Zhen Huang, Shixiong Chen, Guanglin Li
BACKGROUND: Swallowing is a continuous process with substantive interdependencies among different muscles, and it plays a significant role in our daily life. The aim of this study was to propose a novel technique based on high-density surface electromyography (HD sEMG) for the evaluation of normal swallowing functions. METHODS: A total of 96 electrodes were placed on the front neck to acquire myoelectric signals from 12 healthy subjects while they were performing different swallowing tasks...
November 21, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156421/impaired-mitochondrial-respiration-in-human-carotid-plaque-atherosclerosis-a-potential-role-for-pink1-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-energetics
#10
Craig K Docherty, Andy Carswell, Elaine Friel, John R Mercer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to play an essential role in ageing and the energetic decline of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) essential for maintaining plaque integrity. We aimed to better understand VSMCs and identify potentially useful compensatory pathways that could extend their lifespan. Moreover, we wanted to assess if defects in mitochondrial respiration exist in human atherosclerotic plaques and to identify the appropriate markers that may reflect a switch in VSMC energy metabolism...
November 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155456/identifying-sarcopenia-in-female-long-term-care-residents-a-comparison-of-current-guidelines
#11
Mary P Kotlarczyk, Subashan Perera, David A Nace, Neil M Resnick, Susan L Greenspan
OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in a long-term care population, assess agreement among different consensus sarcopenia diagnostic criteria, and examine agreement of a self-reported questionnaire with consensus guidelines. DESIGN: Cross-sectional secondary analysis. SETTING: Long-term care communities in the greater Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 65 and older (mean 83.6) undergoing eligibility screening for a fracture reduction trial (N = 141)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154420/relationship-between-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-cardiac-function-during-exercise-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#12
Masamitsu Sugie, Kazumasa Harada, Tetsuya Takahashi, Marina Nara, Joji Ishikawa, Teruyuki Koyama, Hunkyung Kim, Jun Tanaka, Hajime Fujimoto, Shuichi Obuchi, Stephan von Haehling, Syunei Kyo, Hideki Ito
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and cardiac functional parameters in older adults during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-three Japanese community-dwelling older adults were enrolled (20 men and 43 women; mean age 80 years, range 65-97 years). Cardiac functional parameters during exercise were assessed using CPET. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated by dividing the appendicular lean mass (measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) by height in metres squared...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154057/far-infrared-ray-patches-relieve-pain-and-improve-skin-sensitivity-in-myofascial-pain-syndrome-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Yen-Ting Lai, Hsiang-Lin Chan, Shu-Huan Lin, Chih-Ching Lin, Szu-Yuan Li, Chih-Kuang Liu, Hao-Wei Teng, Wen-Sheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common disorder characterized by muscle pain if myofascial trigger points (MTrP) are stimulated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of far-infrared ray (FIR) patches in reducing the severity of pain in patients with MPS. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized controlled study involving 125 patients with MPS and 201 MTrPs located in the trapezius muscle. A FIR patch was applied to 98 MTrPs for 24h in the intervention group (61 patients) and a placebo patch was applied to 91 MTrPs in the control group (57 patients) at the end...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153707/the-influence-of-muscle-activation-on-impact-dynamics-during-lateral-falls-on-the-hip
#14
Daniel R Martel, Iris C Levine, Steven P Pretty, Andrew C Laing
Muscle activation has been demonstrated to influence impact dynamics during scenarios including running, automotive impacts, and head impacts. This study investigated the effects of targeted muscle activation magnitude on impact dynamics during low energy falls on the hip with human volunteers. Fifteen university-aged participants (eight females, seven males) underwent 12 lateral pelvis release trials. Half of the trials were muscle-'relaxed'; in the remaining 'contracted' trials participants isometrically contracted their gluteus medius to 20-30% of maximal voluntary contraction before the drop was initiated onto a force plate...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153258/novel-equations-for-estimating-lean-body-mass-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Xue Tian, Yuan Chen, Zhi-Kai Yang, Zhen Qu, Jie Dong
OBJECTIVE: Simplified methods to estimate lean body mass (LBM), an important nutritional measure representing muscle mass and somatic protein, are lacking in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We developed and tested 2 reliable equations for estimation of LBM in daily clinical practice. DESIGN AND METHODS: The development and validation groups both included 150 nondialyzed patients with CKD Stages 3 to 5. Two equations for estimating LBM based on mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) or handgrip strength (HGS) were developed and validated in CKD patients with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as referenced gold method...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152898/tolerance-levels-of-ct-number-to-electron-density-table-for-photon-beam-in-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-system
#16
Minoru Nakao, Shuichi Ozawa, Kiyoshi Yamada, Katsunori Yogo, Fumika Hosono, Masahiro Hayata, Akito Saito, Kentaro Miki, Takeo Nakashima, Yusuke Ochi, Daisuke Kawahara, Yoshiharu Morimoto, Toru Yoshizaki, Hiroshige Nozaki, Kosaku Habara, Yasushi Nagata
The accuracy of computed tomography number to electron density (CT-ED) calibration is a key component for dose calculations in an inhomogeneous medium. In a previous work, it was shown that the tolerance levels of CT-ED calibration became stricter with an increase in tissue thickness and decrease in the effective energy of a photon beam. For the last decade, a low effective energy photon beam (e.g., flattening-filter-free (FFF)) has been used in clinical sites. However, its tolerance level has not been established yet...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152896/trimetazidine-restores-the-positive-adaptation-to-exercise-training-by-mitigating-statin-induced-skeletal-muscle-injury
#17
Ming Song, Fang-Fang Chen, Yi-Hui Li, Lei Zhang, Feng Wang, Ran-Ran Qin, Zhi-Hao Wang, Ming Zhong, Meng-Xiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Lu Han
BACKGROUND: Exercise rehabilitation is demonstrated to improve the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Statins, as the key medicine to lower cholesterol in CHD, result in skeletal muscle injury and impair exercise training adaptation. Energy metabolism dysfunction is identified as the potential mechanism underlying statin-induced skeletal muscle injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of the metabolic modulator trimetazidine on skeletal muscle energy metabolism and statin-associated exercise intolerance...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152137/emodin-and-rhein-decrease-levels-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells-and-attenuate-cancer-cachexia-in-athymic-mice-carrying-these-cells
#18
Lijuan Hu, Rui Cui, Hongyi Liu, Feng Wang
The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) consists of oxygen-sensitive HIF-1α and constitutive HIF-1β. HIF-1α is undetectable in normal cells, but cancer cells frequently express HIF-1α to support their growth, angiogenesis, and high glycolysis (also known as the Warburg effect). The Warburg effect in cancer cells increases energy expenditure and thus participates in cancer-induced metabolic disorder, cancer cachexia. In the present study, we investigated whether two components of Rheum palmatum, emodin and rhein, inhibited HIF-1α expression in human pancreatic cancer cells and whether the inhibiting effect, if any, attenuated cancer cachexia...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151592/diet-resistant-obesity-is-characterized-by-a-distinct-plasma-proteomic-signature-and-impaired-muscle-fiber-metabolism
#19
A B Thrush, G Antoun, M Nikpay, D A Patten, C DeVlugt, J-F Mauger, B L Beauchamp, P Lau, R Reshke, É Doucet, P Imbeault, R Boushel, D Gibbings, J Hager, A Valsesia, R Slack, O Y Al-Dirbashi, R Dent, R McPherson, M-E Harper
BACKGROUND/OBJECT: Inter-individual variability in weight loss during obesity treatment is complex and poorly understood. Here we use whole body and tissue approaches to investigate fuel oxidation characteristics in skeletal muscle fibers, cells, and distinct circulating protein biomarkers before and after a high fat meal (HFM) challenge in those who lost the most (obese diet-sensitive; ODS), vs the least (obese diet-resistant; ODR) amount of weight in a highly controlled weight management program...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150696/impact-of-prolonged-overfeeding-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-in-healthy-individuals
#20
Frederico G S Toledo, Darcy L Johannsen, Jeffrey D Covington, Sudip Bajpeyi, Bret Goodpaster, Kevin E Conley, Eric Ravussin
AIMS/HYPOTHESES: Reduced mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle has been observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In humans, the aetiology of this abnormality is not well understood but the possibility that it is secondary to the stress of nutrient overload has been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether sustained overfeeding decreases skeletal muscle mitochondrial content or impairs function. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers (21 men, 5 women, age 25...
November 17, 2017: Diabetologia
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