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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915222/exoskeleton-plantarflexion-assistance-for-elderly
#1
S Galle, W Derave, F Bossuyt, P Calders, P Malcolm, D De Clercq
Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3...
November 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914915/physical-activity-modifies-the-association-between-dietary-protein-and-lean-mass-of-postmenopausal-women
#2
Jessica A Martinez, Betsy C Wertheim, Cynthia A Thomson, Jennifer W Bea, Robert Wallace, Matthew Allison, Linda Snetselaar, Zhao Chen, Rami Nassir, Patricia A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913823/mathematical-models-suggest-facilitated-fatty-acids-crossing-of-the-luminal-membrane-in-the-cardiac-muscle
#3
Efrath Barta
Long-chain fatty acids cross a few membranes on their way from the capillary blood to the cardiomyocyte cytosol, where they are utilized as an essential source of energy. Details of the transport mechanism across those membranes remained elusive despite decades of laboratory and theoretical work. Here we inspect several optional scenarios for the crossing of the luminal membrane of the endothelial cell, the first barrier that should be crossed: a passive diffusion, facilitation by receptors for albumin and facilitation by fatty acids transporters...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912153/overground-vs-treadmill-walking-on-biomechanical-energy-harvesting-an-energetics-and-emg-study
#4
Jean-Paul Martin, Qingguo Li
A biomechanical energy harvester is a wearable device that generates electricity from human motion. Walking on a treadmill has been used almost exclusively by researchers for studying the energetic effects of biomechanical energy harvesters and wearable robotics. A treadmill provides the advantage of having long duration trials within a stationary motion capture volume. However, no consensus exists on whether the results from treadmill walking accurately represent overground walking. We aim to investigate how a biomechanical energy harvester performs overground compared to on a treadmill by measuring energy expenditure and muscle activity...
November 19, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910744/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-ppar%C3%AE-a-key-regulator-of-lipid-metabolism-in-avians
#5
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910732/binding-of-anti-cardiovascular-drug-to-serum-albumin-an-insight-in-the-light-of-spectroscopic-and-computational-approaches
#6
Tajalli Ilm Chandel, Gulam Rabbani, MohsinVahid Khan, Masihuz Zaman, Parvez Alam, Yasser Shahein, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Isoprenaline hydrochloride is a potential cardiovascular drug helps in the smooth functioning of the heart muscles. So, we have performed the binding study of ISO with BSA. This study was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism etc. The analysis of intrinsic fluorescence data showed the low binding affinity of ISO. The binding constant Kb was 2.8×103 M-1 and binding stoichiometry (n) was approximately one and the Gibb's free energy change at 310 K was determined to be -8...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908464/effects-of-different-duration-exercise-programs-in-children-with-severe-burns
#7
Robert P Clayton, Paul Wurzer, Clark R Andersen, Ronald P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Burns lead to persistent and detrimental muscle breakdown and weakness. Standard treatment at our institution includes a voluntary 12-week rehabilitative exercise program to limit and reverse the effects of increased muscle catabolism. In the present work, we investigated if different durations of exercise, 6 or 12 weeks, produce comparable improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and cardiopulmonary fitness. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled and randomized patients with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned to receive 6 or 12 weeks of exercise rehabilitation...
November 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906110/failed-upregulation-of-tfam-protein-and-mitochondrial-dna-in-oxidatively-deficient-fibers-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-locomotor-muscle
#8
Yana Konokhova, Sally Spendiff, R Thomas Jagoe, Sudhakar Aare, Sophia Kapchinsky, Norah J MacMillan, Paul Rozakis, Martin Picard, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Charlotte H Pion, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
BACKGROUND: Low mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity are well-established features of locomotor muscle dysfunction, a prevalent and debilitating systemic occurrence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the exact cause is not firmly established, physical inactivity and oxidative stress are among the proposed underlying mechanisms. Here, we assess the impact of COPD pathophysiology on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, biogenesis, and cellular oxidative capacity in locomotor muscle of COPD patients and healthy controls...
February 18, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906092/alterations-to-mtorc1-signaling-in-the-skeletal-muscle-differentially-affect-whole-body-metabolism
#9
Maitea Guridi, Barbara Kupr, Klaas Romanino, Shuo Lin, Denis Falcetta, Lionel Tintignac, Markus A Rüegg
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. RESULTS: We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively...
March 21, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906069/the-beneficial-role-of-proteolysis-in-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-stress-adaptation
#10
REVIEW
Ryan A V Bell, Mohammad Al-Khalaf, Lynn A Megeney
Muscle atrophy derived from excessive proteolysis is a hallmark of numerous disease conditions. Accordingly, the negative consequences of skeletal muscle protein breakdown often overshadow the critical nature of proteolytic systems in maintaining normal cellular function. Here, we discuss the major cellular proteolysis machinery-the ubiquitin/proteosome system, the autophagy/lysosomal system, and caspase-mediated protein cleavage-and the critical role of these protein machines in establishing and preserving muscle health...
April 6, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905858/seasonal-effects-on-body-composition-muscle-characteristics-and-performance-of-collegiate-swimmers-and-divers
#11
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
CONTEXT:  Previous researchers have indicated the importance of body composition and muscle quality in athletic performance. However, body composition and muscle-quality measures in swimmers and divers over a training season have yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE:  To identify changes in body composition and muscle characteristics over a competitive season and identify relationships between these variables and performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers and divers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905409/compound-danshen-dripping-pills-modulate-the-perturbed-energy-metabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-myocardial-ischemia
#12
Jiahua Guo, Yonghong Yong, Jiye Aa, Bei Cao, Runbin Sun, Xiaoyi Yu, Jingqiu Huang, Na Yang, Lulu Yan, Xinxin Li, Jing Cao, Nan Aa, Zhijian Yang, Xiangqing Kong, Liansheng Wang, Xuanxuan Zhu, Xiaohui Ma, Zhixin Guo, Shuiping Zhou, He Sun, Guangji Wang
The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905300/intravital-imaging-of-mouse-urothelium-reveals-activation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-by-stretch-induced-intravesical-release-of-atp
#13
Takeshi Sano, Takashi Kobayashi, Hiromitsu Negoro, Atsushi Sengiku, Takuya Hiratsuka, Yuji Kamioka, Louis S Liou, Osamu Ogawa, Michiyuki Matsuda
To better understand the roles played by signaling molecules in the bladder, we established a protocol of intravital imaging of the bladder of mice expressing a Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which plays critical roles not only in cell growth but also stress responses. With an upright two-photon excitation microscope and a vacuum-stabilized imaging window, cellular ERK activity was visualized in the whole bladder wall, from adventitia to urothelium...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903833/meal-distribution-of-dietary-protein-and-leucine-influences-long-term-muscle-mass-and-body-composition-in-adult-rats
#14
Layne E Norton, Gabriel J Wilson, Christopher J Moulton, Donald K Layman
BACKGROUND: Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. METHODS: Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903739/homocysteine-activates-b-cells-via-regulating-pkm2-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#15
Jiacheng Deng, Silin Lü, Huiying Liu, Bo Liu, Changtao Jiang, Qingbo Xu, Juan Feng, Xian Wang
The overactivation of immune cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis. Homocysteine (Hcy) activates B cell proliferation and Ab secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain largely unknown. Metabolic reprogramming is critical for lymphocyte activation and effector function. In this study, we showed that Hcy-activated B cells displayed an increase in both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, with a tendency to shift toward the latter, as well as an accumulation of intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway, to provide energy and biosynthetic substrates for cell growth and function...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#16
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903626/a-unified-perspective-on-ankle-push-off-in-human-walking
#17
REVIEW
Karl E Zelik, Peter G Adamczyk
Muscle-tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903350/-effect-of-lumbar-dorsal-muscle-injuries-on-lumbar-vertebral-bone-quality-of-rat
#18
X P Wang, S J Wang, P Yan, L L Zhu, M Q Li, Z Y Bian, J W Tian
Objective: To explored the effects of lumbar dorsal muscle damage on local lumbar vertebral bone quality. Methods: Thirty SD female rats, at age of 20 weeks, were randomly divided into three groups: control group, or say pseudo surgery group, an incision in the back were performed as CNT; bilateral erector spinal muscle group in which group bilateral lumbar erector spinal muscle were removed as RESM; castration group in which bilateral ovaries were resected as OVX.After three months, bone mineral density, microscopic CT and vertebral compression test were taken in lumbar vertebral (L4-6) in turn...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903148/obesity-and-energy-balance-in-gi-cancer
#19
Justin C Brown, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt
The prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) have increased dramatically in the United States. Because increasing BMI is associated with the development of multiple different cancer types, including most GI cancers, providers will frequently encounter patients with GI cancer who are overweight or obese. Mounting evidence associates overweight and/or obesity with worsened prognosis in multiple GI cancers, including esophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#20
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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