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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915375/identification-of-enzymes-responsible-for-extracellular-alginate-depolymerization-and-alginate-metabolism-in-vibrio-algivorus
#1
Hidetaka Doi, Yuriko Tokura, Yukiko Mori, Kenichi Mori, Yoko Asakura, Yoshihiro Usuda, Hiroo Fukuda, Akito Chinen
Alginate is a marine non-food-competing polysaccharide that has potential applications in biorefinery. Owing to its large size (molecular weight >300,000 Da), alginate cannot pass through the bacterial cell membrane. Therefore, bacteria that utilize alginate are presumed to have an enzyme that degrades extracellular alginate. Recently, Vibrio algivorus sp. SA2(T) was identified as a novel alginate-decomposing and alginate-utilizing species. However, little is known about the mechanism of alginate degradation and metabolism in this species...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915294/insightful-directed-evolution-of-escherichia-coli-quorum-sensing-promoter-region-of-the-lsracdbfg-operon-a-tool-for-synthetic-biology-systems-and-protein-expression
#2
Pricila Hauk, Kristina Stephens, Ryan Mckay, Chelsea Ryan Virgile, Hana Ueda, Marc Ostermeier, Kyoung-Seok Ryu, Herman O Sintim, William E Bentley
Quorum sensing (QS) regulates many natural phenotypes (e.q. virulence, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance), and its components, when incorporated into synthetic genetic circuits, enable user-directed phenotypes. We created a library of Escherichia coli lsr operon promoters using error-prone PCR (ePCR) and selected for promoters that provided E. coli with higher tetracycline resistance over the native promoter when placed upstream of the tet(C) gene. Among the fourteen clones identified, we found several mutations in the binding sites of QS repressor, LsrR...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915251/identification-of-a-campylobacter-coli-methyltransferase-targeting-adenines-at-gatc-sites
#3
Vikrant Dutta, Eric Altermann, Maria D Crespo, Jonathan W Olson, Robin M Siletzky, Sophia Kathariou
Campylobacter coli can infect humans and colonize multiple other animals but its host-associated genes or adaptations are poorly understood. Adenine methylation at GATC sites, resulting in MboI resistance of genomic DNA, was earlier frequently detected among C. coli from swine but not among turkey-derived isolates. The underlying genetic basis has remained unknown. Comparative genome sequence analyses of C. coli 6461, a swine-derived strain with MboI-resistant DNA, revealed two chromosomal ORFs, 0059 and 0060, encoding a putative DNA methyltransferase and a conserved hypothetical protein, respectively, which were lacking from the genome of the turkey-derived C...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915028/catalytic-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-amino-chromone-phosphonates-and-their-antimicrobial-toxicity-and-potential-hiv-1-rt-inhibitors-based-on-silico-screening
#4
Abosede Oluwabukola Jaiyeola, K Anand, K Kasumbwe, M Ramesh, R M Gengan
The α-amino phosphonates exhibit a wide range of biological properties which create demand for simple and efficient synthetic routes of new molecules. In this study synthesis of a new series of derivatives of α-amino chromone phosphonates (ACPs) was reported using RhBT catalyst. The RhBT was first prepared by simply mixing boron nitride in a solution of rhodium acetate, under inert atmosphere for a week followed by filtration (yield: 92%). The catalyst can be re-used for up to four times and showed minimal loss of activity...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914959/virulence-traits-and-different-nle-profiles-in-cattle-and-human-verotoxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-strains-from-argentina
#5
Juliana González, Andrea Mariel Sanso, Jimena Soledad Cadona, Ana Victoria Bustamante
Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) O157:H7 is the dominant serotype isolated from patients with HUS and, Argentina has the highest rate of HUS in the world. Molecular typing had allowed to identify subpopulations related to the origin and virulence of O157:H7 strains. Our aim was to perform a genetic characterization of 43 O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentine mostly from cattle and humans in order to establish the potential public health risk. For it, we used a combination of molecular subtyping methods in order to identify clade 8_rhsA (C3468G), LSPA-6 and virulence profiles and, a cytotoxicity assay on Vero cell...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914892/straightforward-approach-to-produce-recombinant-scorpion-toxins-pore-blockers-of-potassium-channels
#6
Oksana Nekrasova, Ksenia Kudryashova, Arkadiy Fradkov, Sergey Yakimov, Maria Savelieva, Mikhail Kirpichnikov, Alexey Feofanov
Scorpion venom peptide blockers (KTx) of potassium channels are a valuable tool for structure-functional studies and prospective candidates for medical applications. Low yields of recombinant KTx hamper their wide application. We developed convenient and efficient bioengineering approach to a large-scale KTx production that meets increasing demands for such peptides. Maltose-binding protein was used as a carrier for cytoplasmic expression of folded disulfide-rich KTx in E. coli. TEV protease was applied for in vitro cleavage of the target peptide from the carrier...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914361/development-of-cxcr4-modulators-by-virtual-hts-of-a-novel-amide-sulfamide-compound-library
#8
Renren Bai, Qi Shi, Zhongxing Liang, Younghyoun Yoon, Yiran Han, Amber Feng, Shuangping Liu, Yoonhyeun Oum, C Chris Yun, Hyunsuk Shim
CXCR4 plays a crucial role in recruitment of inflammatory cells to inflammation sites at the beginning of the disease process. Modulating CXCR4 functions presents a new avenue for anti-inflammatory strategies. However, using CXCR4 antagonists for a long term usage presents potential serious side effect due to their stem cell mobilizing property. We have been developing partial CXCR4 antagonists without such property. A new computer-aided drug design program, the FRESH workflow, was used for anti-CXCR4 lead compound discovery and optimization, which coupled both compound library building and CXCR4 docking screens in one campaign...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914352/searching-for-novel-modes-of-toxic-actions-of-oil-spill-using-e-%C3%A2-coli-live-cell-array-reporter-system-a-hebei-spirit-oil-spill-study
#9
Dawoon Jung, Miao Guan, Sangwoo Lee, Cheolmin Kim, Hyesoo Shin, Seongjin Hong, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim, Xiaowei Zhang, Kyungho Choi
Oil is a complex mixture of numerous compounds. Therefore, oil spills near shore can cause various adverse effects on coastal ecosystems. However, most toxicological assessments conducted on oil spill sites have focused on limited modes of toxic actions. In the present study, we utilized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) live cell array system (LCA) to identify novel modes of toxicities of the oil spill-affected sediments. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from an area heavily polluted by Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) incident of 2007...
November 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914220/modulation-of-the-innate-immune-related-genes-expression-in-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-infected-chicken-macrophage-like-cells-hd11-in-response-to-escherichia-coli-lps-stimulation
#10
Xuefeng Qi, Caihong Liu, Ruiqiao Li, Huizhu Zhang, Xingang Xu, Jingyu Wang
Macrophages play important roles in mediating virus-induced innate immune responses and are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial superinfections. The innate immune response initiated by both low pathogenicity AIV and bacterial superinfection in their avian host is not fully understood. We therefore determine the transcripts of innate immune-related genes following avian H9N2 AIV virus infection and E. coli LPS co-stimulation of avian macrophage-like cell line HD11 cells. More pronounced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β) as well as the inflammatory chemokines (CXCLi1 and CXCLi2) was observed in virus infected plus LPS treated HD11 cells compared to H9N2 virus solely infected control...
November 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914120/effect-of-glycosylation-on-the-biocatalytic-properties-of-hydroxynitrile-lyase-from-the-passion-fruit-passiflora-edulis-a-comparison-of-natural-and-recombinant-enzymes
#11
Aem Nuylert, Yuko Ishida, Yasuhisa Asano
A hydroxynitrile lyase from the passion fruit, Passiflora edulis (PeHNL) was isolated from the leaves and showed high stability in biphasic co-organic solvent systems for cyanohydrin synthesis. Cyanohydrins are important building blocks for the production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Thus, to enhance production yields of PeHNL for industrial applications, we cloned and expressed recombinant PeHNL in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and P. pastoris GS115 cells without a signal peptide sequence. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of N-glycosylation on enzyme stability and catalytic properties in microbial expression systems...
December 3, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914106/effect-of-cranberry-extract-on-the-frequency-of-bacteriuria-in-dogs-with-acute-thoracolumbar-disk-herniation-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
N J Olby, S L Vaden, K Williams, E H Griffith, T Harris, C L Mariani, K R Muñana, P J Early, S R Platt, L Boozer, C Giovanella, R Longshore
BACKGROUND: Dogs with spinal cord injury are at increased risk of developing bacteriuria due to increased residual urine volume. Cranberry extract inhibits binding of E. coli to uroepithelial cells, potentially reducing risk of bacteriuria. HYPOTHESIS: Cranberry extract reduces risk of bacteriuria in dogs after acute TL-IVDH. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with acute onset TL-IVDH causing nonambulatory status. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, prospective clinical trial...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913912/genetic-counselor-practices-involving-pediatric-patients-with-fap-an-investigation-of-their-self-reported-strategies-for-genetic-testing-and-hepatoblastoma-screening
#13
Caitlin E Lawson, Thomas M Attard, Hongying Dai, Seth Septer
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a cancer predisposition syndrome that causes early-onset polyposis and is associated with an increased risk for hepatoblastoma. There is currently a lack of consensus on when to order APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene testing or implement surveillance for hepatoblastoma. An online questionnaire was completed by 62 genetic counselors to capture their current practices regarding these questions. Extracolonic findings associated with FAP that were most likely to prompt APC testing in an otherwise asymptomatic 10 year-old child with a negative family history were multiple desmoid tumors, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), jaw osteomas, and hepatoblastoma...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913852/differential-effect-of-early-antibiotic-intervention-on-bacterial-fermentation-patterns-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-the-colon-of-pigs-under-diets-with-different-protein-levels
#14
Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on bacterial fermentation patterns and mucosal immune markers in the colon of pigs with different protein level diets. Eighteen litters of piglets at day (d) 7 were fed creep feed without or with growth promoting antibiotics until d 42. At d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly assigned to a normal- or low-crude protein (CP) diet. At d 77 and d 120, five pigs per group were slaughtered for analyzing colonic bacteria, metabolites, and mucosal gene expressions...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913217/integration-of-whole-cell-reaction-and-product-isolation-highly-hydrophobic-solvents-promote-in-situ-substrate-supply-and-simplify-extractive-product-isolation
#15
Dorothea Leis, Bernhard Lauß, Robert Macher-Ambrosch, Andreas Pfennig, Bernd Nidetzky, Regina Kratzer
Product isolation from aqueous-organic reaction mixtures that contain high concentrations of whole cells constitutes a challenging task in bioprocessing. Stirring of the biphasic reaction media leads to the formation of solvent droplets coated by surface active components and an emulsion forms. We used an early focus on phase separation to simplify a whole-cell bioreduction. Octanol, heptanol, hexanol, hexane and dipropylether were tested as co-solvents in the E. coli catalyzed reduction of o-chloroacetophenone...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912136/modeling-the-interannual-variability-of-microbial-quality-metrics-of-irrigation-water-in-a-pennsylvania-stream
#16
Eun-Mi Hong, Daniel Shelton, Yakov A Pachepsky, Won-Ho Nam, Cary Coppock, Richard Muirhead
Knowledge of the microbial quality of irrigation waters is extremely limited. For this reason, the US FDA has promulgated the Produce Rule, mandating the testing of irrigation water sources for many farms. The rule requires the collection and analysis of at least 20 water samples over two to four years to adequately evaluate the quality of water intended for produce irrigation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of interannual weather variability on surface water microbial quality. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model to simulate E...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912044/mutations-in-prosc-disrupt-cellular-pyridoxal-phosphate-homeostasis-and-cause-vitamin-b6-dependent-epilepsy
#17
Niklas Darin, Emma Reid, Laurence Prunetti, Lena Samuelsson, Ralf A Husain, Matthew Wilson, Basma El Yacoubi, Emma Footitt, W K Chong, Louise C Wilson, Helen Prunty, Simon Pope, Simon Heales, Karine Lascelles, Mike Champion, Evangeline Wassmer, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Philippa B Mills, Peter T Clayton
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor in humans for more than 140 enzymes, many of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. A deficiency of PLP can present, therefore, as seizures and other symptoms that are treatable with PLP and/or pyridoxine. Deficiency of PLP in the brain can be caused by inborn errors affecting B6 vitamer metabolism or by inactivation of PLP, which can occur when compounds accumulate as a result of inborn errors of other pathways or when small molecules are ingested...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911010/screening-of-mercury-resistant-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-producing-bacterial-consortium-for-growth-promotion-of-cicer-arietinum-l
#18
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R) ) bacteria were screened from industrial effluents and effluents-polluted rhizosphere soils near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Out of 60 isolates, three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. AZ-1, Bacillus cereus AZ-2, and Enterobacter cloacae AZ-3 showed Hg-resistance as 20 μg ml(-1) of HgCl2 and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production as 8-38 μg ml(-1) . Biochemical and molecular characterization of selected bacteria was confirmed by 16S ribotyping. Mercury resistant genes merA, merB, and merE of mer operon in Bacillus spp...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910948/improved-in-cell-structure-determination-of-proteins-at-near-physiological-concentration
#19
Teppei Ikeya, Tomomi Hanashima, Saori Hosoya, Manato Shimazaki, Shiro Ikeda, Masaki Mishima, Peter Güntert, Yutaka Ito
Investigating three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins in living cells by in-cell nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy opens an avenue towards understanding the structural basis of their functions and physical properties under physiological conditions inside cells. In-cell NMR provides data at atomic resolution non-invasively, and has been used to detect protein-protein interactions, thermodynamics of protein stability, the behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins, etc. in cells. However, so far only a single de novo 3D protein structure could be determined based on data derived only from in-cell NMR...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910897/genomic-variations-leading-to-alterations-in-cell-morphology-of-campylobacter-spp
#20
Diane Esson, Alison E Mather, Eoin Scanlan, Srishti Gupta, Stefan P W de Vries, David Bailey, Simon R Harris, Trevelyan J McKinley, Guillaume Méric, Sophia K Berry, Pietro Mastroeni, Samuel K Sheppard, Graham Christie, Nicholas R Thomson, Julian Parkhill, Duncan J Maskell, Andrew J Grant
Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease, is normally helical. However, it can also adopt straight rod, elongated helical and coccoid forms. Studying how helical morphology is generated, and how it switches between its different forms, is an important objective for understanding this pathogen. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic factors involved in generating the helical shape of Campylobacter. A C. jejuni transposon (Tn) mutant library was screened for non-helical mutants with inconsistent results...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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