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Sylwia Wrotek, Krzysztof Domagalski, Tomasz Jędrzejewski, Eliza Dec, Wiesław Kozak
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) - a glutathione depletor - on a course of endotoxic fever and IL-1β and IL-6 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli (50μg/kg, ip) to provoke fever. The level of spleen glutathione, plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and deep body temperature (Tb) were measured. RESULTS: The LPS administration provoked fever (the average Tb was 38...
October 17, 2016: Cytokine
Xiaobei Wang, Huaixu Cheng, Mingsheng Lu, Yaowei Fang, Yuliang Jiao, Weijuan Li, Gengmao Zhao, Shujun Wang
Dental plaque is a biofilm of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides, produced primarily by Streptococcus mutans. Dextranase can inhibit biofilm formation. Here, a dextranase gene from the marine microorganism Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11-1 is described, and cloned and expressed using E. coli DH5α competent cells. The recombinant enzyme was then purified and its properties were characterized. The optimal temperature and pH were determined to be 60°C and 6.5, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography data show that the final hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose...
November 2016: Biofouling
Fabio Marchetti, Jessica Palmucci, Claudio Pettinari, Riccardo Pettinari, Mirko Marangoni, Stefano Ferraro, Rita Giovannetti, Stefania Scuri, Iolanda Grappasonni, Mario Cocchioni, Francisco José Maldonado Hodar, Roberto Gunnella
Novel composite materials PEn (n = 1-9) have been prepared by an easily up-scalable embedding procedure of three different families of Ag(I) acylpyrazolonato complexes in polyethylene (PE) matrix. In details, PE1-PE3 composites contain polynuclear [Ag(Q(R))]n complexes, PE4-PE6 contain mononuclear [Ag(Q(R))(L)m] complexes and PE7-PE9 are loaded with mononuclear [Ag(Q(R)) (PPh3)2] complexes, respectively (where L = 1-methylimidazole or 2-ethylimidazole, m = 1 or 2, and HQ(R) = 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-RC(═O)-5-pyrazolone, where in detail HQ(fb), R = -CF2CF2CF3; HQ(cy), R = -cyclo-C6H11; HQ(be), R = -C(H)═C(CH3)2)...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marta Dec, Andrzej Puchalski, Anna Nowaczek, Andrzej Wernicki
This study was conducted to identify and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of some Lactobacillus isolates of chicken origin. Among 90 isolates 14 Lactobacillus species were distinguished using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S-ARDRA. The dominant species was L. salivarius (34.4%), followed by L. johnsonii (23.3%), L. crispatus (13.3%) and L. reuteri (11.1%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity against wild-type strains of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Tofayel Ahmed, Zhan Yin, Shashi Bhushan
Protein synthesis in the chloroplast is mediated by the chloroplast ribosome (chloro-ribosome). Overall architecture of the chloro-ribosome is considerably similar to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribosome but certain differences are evident. The chloro-ribosome proteins are generally larger because of the presence of chloroplast-specific extensions in their N- and C-termini. The chloro-ribosome harbours six plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs); four in the small subunit and two in the large subunit...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Angad P Mehta, Han Li, Sean A Reed, Lubica Supekova, Tsotne Javahishvili, Peter G Schultz
Several modified bases have been observed in the genomic DNA of bacteriophages, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes that play a role in restriction systems and/or epigenetic regulation. In our efforts to understand the consequences of replacing a large fraction of a canonical nucleoside with a modified nucleoside, we previously replaced around 75% of thymidine (T) with 5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5hmU) in the Escherichia coli genome. In this study, we engineered the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway using T4 bacteriophage genes to achieve approximately 63% replacement of 2'-deoxycytidine (dC) with 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmC) in the E...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lu Yang, Fangyun Ye, Peng Liu, Fazhou Wang
Visible light driven Ag/AgBr/TiO2 /activated carbon (AC) composite was prepared by sol-gel method coupled with photo-reduction method. For comparison, TiO2 , TiO2 /AC and Ag/AgBr/TiO2 were also synthesized. Their characteristics were analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDS, TG-DSC and UV-Vis techniques. Photocatalytic activity and antibacterial performance under visible light irradiation were investigated by ICP-AES, ATR-FT-IR and spectrophotometry methods using methylene blue and Escherichia coli as target systems, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Kwang Soo Shin, Sangwoo Kim, Sung Kuk Lee
BACKGROUND: Microbial production of oleochemicals has been actively studied in the last decade. Free fatty acids (FFAs) could be converted into a variety of molecules such as industrial products, consumer products, and fuels. FFAs have been produced in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli cells expressing a signal sequence-deficient acyl-CoA thioesterase I ('TesA). Nonetheless, increasing the expression level of 'TesA seems not to be an appropriate approach to scale up FFA production because a certain ratio of each component including fatty acid synthase and 'TesA is required for optimal production of FFAs...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Olga Besharova, Verena M Suchanek, Raimo Hartmann, Knut Drescher, Victor Sourjik
Many bacteria primarily exist in nature as structured multicellular communities, so called biofilms. Biofilm formation is a highly regulated process that includes the transition from the motile planktonic to sessile biofilm lifestyle. Cellular differentiation within a biofilm is a commonly accepted concept but it remains largely unclear when, where and how exactly such differentiation arises. Here we used fluorescent transcriptional reporters to quantitatively analyze spatio-temporal expression patterns of several groups of genes during the formation of submerged Escherichia coli biofilms in an open static system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chijun Li, Brandon K Tan, Jinshi Zhao, Ziqiang Guan
Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) makes up 5-20% of the phospholipids of Escherichia coli and is essential for growth in wild-type cells. PG is synthesized from the dephosphorylation of its immediate precursor, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) whose synthase in E. coli is PgsA. Using genetic, biochemical and highly sensitive mass spectrometric approaches, we identified an alternative mechanism for PG synthesis in E. coli that is PgsA independent. The reaction of synthesis involves the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine and glycerol into PG and is catalyzed by ClsB, a phospholipase D-type cardiolipin synthase...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
K Luyckx, S Millet, S Van Weyenberg, L Herman, M Heyndrickx, J Dewulf, K De Reu
BACKGROUND: Biosecurity measures such as cleaning, disinfection and a vacancy period between production cycles on pig farms are essential to prevent disease outbreaks. No studies have tested the effect of a longer vacancy period on bacterial load in nursery units. METHODS: The present study evaluated the effect of a 10-day vacancy period in pig nursery units on total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
D Gączarzewicz, J Udała, M Piasecka, B Błaszczyk, T Stankiewicz
This study was designed to determine the degree and type of bacterial contamination in boar semen (79 ejaculates from Large White and Landrace boars) and its consequences for sperm quality during storage (27 extended semen samples, 16°C for five days) under practical conditions of artificial insemination (AI). The results revealed the presence of aerobic bacteria in 99% of the ejaculates (from 80 to 370 ×106 colony-forming units/mL). Most of the ejaculates contained two or three bacterial contaminants, while the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas bacterial genera were most frequently isolated...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
C H Dai, L N Gan, W U Qin, C Zi, G Q Zhu, S L Wu, W B Bao
An efficient and accurate method to test Escherichia coli (E. coli) adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells will contribute to the study of bacterial pathogenesis and the function of genes that encode receptors related to adhesion. This study used the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. qPCR primers were designed from the PILIN gene of E. coli F18ab, F18ac, and K88ac, and the pig β-ACTIN gene. Total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from E. coli and intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) were used as templates for qPCR...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Y Wang, J Guo, S Qiao, Q Li, J Yang, Q Jin, G Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen, causing huge economic losses each year worldwide. Immunization with vaccines containing the glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of PRRSV is the main measure to induce neutralizing antibodies and control the disease. Here, we developed a GP5 protein-based ELISA for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. The overall yield of purified GP5 in E. coli flask culture was more than 45 mg/L cell culture. Western blot and IFA indicated that the GP5 protein was highly immunogenic...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Ross D Blundell, Simon J Williams, Samantha D M Arras, Jessica L Chitty, Kirsten L Blake, Daniel J Ericsson, Nidhi Tibrewal, Jurgen Rohr, Y Q Andre E Koh, Ulrike Kappler, Avril A B Robertson, Mark S Butler, Matthew A Cooper, Bostjan Kobe, James A Fraser
Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised populations worldwide. To address the current paucity of antifungal therapeutic agents, further research into fungal-specific drug targets is required. Adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS) is a crucial enzyme in the adeosine triphosphate (ATP) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the formation of adenylosuccinate from inosine monophosphate and aspartate. We have investigated the potential of this enzyme as an antifungal drug target, finding that loss of function results in adenine auxotrophy in C...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Pingtao Ding, Dmitrij Rekhter, Yuli Ding, Kirstin Feussner, Lucas Busta, Sven Haroth, Shaohua Xu, Xin Li, Reinhard Jetter, Ivo Feussner, Yuelin Zhang
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an immune response induced in the distal parts of plants following defense activation in local tissue. Pipecolic acid (Pip) accumulation orchestrates SAR and local resistance responses. Here we report the identification and characterization of SAR-DEFICIENT 4 (SARD4), which encodes a critical enzyme for Pip biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of function of SARD4 leads to reduced Pip levels and accumulation of a Pip precursor, Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylic acid (P2C)...
October 6, 2016: Plant Cell
Jlenia Brunetti, Giulia Roscia, Ilaria Lampronti, Roberto Gambari, Leila Quercini, Chiara Falciani, Luisa Bracci, Alessandro Pini
The synthetic antimicrobial peptide SET-M33 has strong activity against bacterial infections due to Gram-negative bacteria. It is currently in preclinical development as a new drug to treat lung infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report its strong anti-inflammatory activity in terms of reduced expression of a number of cytokines, enzymes and signal transduction factors involved in inflammation triggered by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. Sixteen cytokines and other major agents involved in inflammation were analyzed in macrophages and bronchial cells after stimulation with LPS and incubation with SET-M33...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Prabodh Chander Sharma, Mona Piplani, Harish Rajak
In the present study, a novel strategy was developed to construct lipid prodrug of norfloxacin. N-Mannich base of norfloxacin was synthesized. The prodrug was obtained by covalently coupling this N-Mannich base with fatty acid hydrazide. The synthesized prodrug was characterized by spectral as well as other physical analysis. The hydrolytic studies of prodrug in buffers (pH 1.2 and 7.4), simulated gastric and intestinal fluid by HPLC analysis were undertaken. The studies revealed that prodrug liberates only about 2% of norfloxacin in HCl buffer (pH 1...
October 18, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Antonino Baez, Joseph Shiloach
The damaging effect of high oxygen concentration on growth of Escherichia coli is well established. Over-oxygenation increases the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing the destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of dehydratases and limiting the biosynthesis of both branched-chain amino acids and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A key enzyme that reduces the damaging effect of superoxide is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Its transcriptional regulation is controlled by global transcription regulators that respond to changes in oxygen and iron concentrations and pH...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Jihee Yoon, Ho-Seong Cho, Chul Park, Byoung-Yong Park, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
Yeast vacuoles, lysosomes, are cell organelles that have antimicrobial activity against several bacteria in vitro. Lysosomes have a potential application to the treatment of pathogens such as antibiotics in vivo. Therefore, the in vivo efficacy of lysosomes was examined in a rat infection model against pathogenic Escherichia coli with varying susceptibilities to standard antimicrobial agents. Before in vivo testing, the concentration-dependent safety of lysosomes was confirmed by blood test and histopathology of normal rats...
October 18, 2016: Current Microbiology
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