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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545143/haemophilus-parasuis-cytolethal-distending-toxin-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-p53-dependent-apoptosis
#1
Gang Li, Hui Niu, Yanhe Zhang, Yanling Li, Fang Xie, Paul R Langford, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glasser's disease in pigs. Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is an important virulence factor of H. parasuis. It is composed of three subunits: CdtA, CdtB and CdtC and all were successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli when the signal peptides were removed. Purified CdtB had DNase activity, i.e. caused DNA double strand damage, in vitro and in vivo prior to cell arrest and apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis showed CdtB alone could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PK-15 porcine kidney and pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells, which could be enhanced by CdtA or/and CdtC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545122/spot-a-novel-and-streamlined-microarray-platform-for-observing-cellular-trna-levels
#2
Simon Grelet, Ariel McShane, Eveline Hok, Jensen Tomberlin, Philip H Howe, Renaud Geslain
Recent studies have placed transfer RNA (tRNA), a housekeeping molecule, in the heart of fundamental cellular processes such as embryonic development and tumor progression. Such discoveries were contingent on the concomitant development of methods able to deliver high-quality tRNA profiles. The present study describes the proof of concept obtained in Escherichia coli (E. coli) for an original tRNA analysis platform named SPOt (Streamlined Platform for Observing tRNA). This approach comprises three steps. First, E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544984/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-mediators-of-infections
#3
REVIEW
Julie E Heggelund, Annabelle Varrot, Anne Imberty, Ute Krengel
The critical first step of a microbial infection is usually the attachment of pathogens to host cell glycans. Targets on host tissues are in particular the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are present in rich diversity in the mucus layer and on the underlying mucosa. Recent structural and functional studies have revealed significant new insight into the molecular mechanisms, explaining why individuals with certain blood groups are at increased risk of some infections. The most prominent example of blood-group-associated diseases is cholera, caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544962/effect-of-immobilization-on-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-cysteine-terminated-antimicrobial-peptide-cecropin-p1-tethered-to-silica-nanoparticle-against-e-coli-o157-h7-edl933
#4
Xi Wu, Pei-Hsun Wei, Xiao Zhu, Mary J Wirth, Arun Bhunia, Ganesan Narsimhan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have the ability to penetrate the cell membrane, form pores which eventually lead to cell death. Immobilization of AMP on nanoparticles can play a major role in antimicrobial materials, biosensors for pathogen detection and in food safety. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of free Cecropin P1 (CP1, sequence SWLSTAKKLENSAKKRLSEGIAIAIQGGPR) and adsorbed on silica nanoparticle against E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 were 0.78μg/ml. This was found to be consistent with preservation of α-helical secondary structure of CP1 upon adsorption as indicated by circular dichroism (CD)...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544494/4-substituted-thieno-2-3-d-pyrimidines-as-potent-antibacterial-agents-rational-design-microwave-assisted-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-docking-studies
#5
Rupinder K Gill, Harpreet Singh, Tilak Raj, Anuradha Sharma, Gagandeep Singh, Jitender Bariwal
In an attempt to discover a new class of antibacterial agents with improved efficacy and to overcome the drug resistant problems, some novel 4-substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been synthesized via microwave assisted methodology and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacterial strains. Compounds 12b and 13c showed the promising inhibitory potencies against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli with MICs ranging from 2 to 10 μg/ml. Compound 13c was also found to be highly potent against methicillin resistant S...
May 23, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543736/a-rapid-expression-and-purification-condition-screening-protocol-for-membrane-protein-structural-biology
#6
Dan Sjöstrand, Riccardo Diamanti, Camilla A K Lundgren, Benjamin Wiseman, Martin Högbom
Membrane proteins control a large number of vital biological processes and are often medically important - not least as drug targets. However, membrane proteins are generally more difficult to work with than their globular counterparts, and as a consequence comparatively few high-resolution structures are available. In any membrane protein structure project, a lot of effort is usually spent on obtaining a pure and stable protein preparation. The process commonly involves the expression of several constructs and homologs, followed by extraction in various detergents...
May 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543534/a-chimeric-protein-of-cfa-i-cs6-subunits-and-ltb-sta-toxoid-could-protect-immunized-mice-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Narges Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Goli Goujani, Jafar Amani, Ghasem Ahangari, Asal Akhavian, Mahyat Jafari
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs commonly considered as the bottleneck to achieve an effective vaccine. On the other hand, it is believed that a broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be available when the anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity were induced simultaneously...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543177/fingerprints-of-resistant-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-from-vegetables-and-environmental-samples
#8
G O Abakpa, V J Umoh, S Kamaruzaman, A M Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Some routes of transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to fresh produce include contaminated irrigation water and manure polluted soils. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic relationships of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from some produce growing region in Nigeria using Enterorepititive Intergenic Consensus Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fingerprinting (ERIC-PCR) analysis. A total of four hundred and forty samples comprising leafy greens, irrigation water, manure, and soil were obtained from vegetable producing regions in Kano and Plateau States, Nigeria...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542913/reduction-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-biofilms-using-bacteriophage-bpeco-19
#9
Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Sungdae Yang, Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Sang-Do Ha
Biofilm formation is a growing concern in the food industry. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that can persists in food and food-related environments and subsequently produce biofilms. The efficacy of bacteriophage BPECO 19 was evaluated against three E. coli O157:H7 strains in biofilms. Biofilms of the three E. coli O157:H7 strains were grown on abiotic (stainless steel, rubber, and minimum biofilm eradication concentration [MBEC(TM) ] device) and biotic (lettuce) surfaces at different temperatures...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542638/a-single-amino-acid-mutation-affects-elicitor-and-expansins-like-activities-of-cerato-platanin-a-non-catalytic-fungal-protein
#10
Simone Luti, Federica Martellini, Francesco Bemporad, Lorenzo Mazzoli, Paolo Paoli, Luigia Pazzagli
Cerato-platanin (CP) is a non-catalytic, cysteine-rich protein, the first member of the cerato-platanin family. It is a single-domain protein with a double Ψ/β barrel domain resembling the D1 domain of plant and bacterial expansins. Similarly to expansins, CP shows a cell wall-loosening activity on cellulose and can be defined as an expanisin-like protein, in spite of the missing D2 domain, normally present in plant expansins. The weakening activity shown on cellulose may facilitate the CP-host interaction, corroborating the role of CP in eliciting plant defence response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542621/enzymatic-activity-necessary-to-restore-the-lethality-due-to-escherichia-coli-rnase-e-deficiency-is-distributed-among-bacteria-lacking-rnase-e-homologues
#11
Masaru Tamura, Daisuke Kageyama, Naoko Honda, Hirofumi Fujimoto, Atsushi Kato
Escherichia coli RNase E (Eco-RNase E), encoded by rne (Eco-rne), is considered the global RNA decay initiator. Although Eco-RNase E is an essential gene product in E. coli, some bacterial species, such as Bacillus subtilis, do not possess Eco-RNase E sequence homologues. B. subtilis instead possesses RNase J1/J2 (Bsu-RNase J1/J2) and RNase Y (Bsu-RNase Y) to execute RNA decay. Here we found that E. coli lacking the Eco-rne gene (Δrne E. coli) was viable conditional on M9 minimal media by introducing Bsu-RNase J1/J2 or Bsu-RNase Y...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542593/lack-of-the-pga-exopolysaccharide-in-salmonella-as-an-adaptive-trait-for-survival-in-the-host
#12
Maite Echeverz, Begoña García, Amaia Sabalza, Jaione Valle, Toni Gabaldón, Cristina Solano, Iñigo Lasa
Many bacteria build biofilm matrices using a conserved exopolysaccharide named PGA or PNAG (poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine). Interestingly, while E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae encode the pgaABCD operon responsible for PGA synthesis, Salmonella lacks it. The evolutionary force driving this difference remains to be determined. Here, we report that Salmonella lost the pgaABCD operon after the divergence of Salmonella and Citrobacter clades, and previous to the diversification of the currently sequenced Salmonella strains...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542503/biofilm-microenvironment-induces-a-widespread-adaptive-amino-acid-fermentation-pathway-conferring-strong-fitness-advantage-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Sylvie Létoffé, Sabina Chalabaev, José Dugay, Franziska Stressmann, Bianca Audrain, Jean-Charles Portais, Fabien Letisse, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Bacterial metabolism has been studied primarily in liquid cultures, and exploration of other natural growth conditions may reveal new aspects of bacterial biology. Here, we investigate metabolic changes occurring when Escherichia coli grows as surface-attached biofilms, a common but still poorly characterized bacterial lifestyle. We show that E. coli adapts to hypoxic conditions prevailing within biofilms by reducing the amino acid threonine into 1-propanol, an important industrial commodity not known to be naturally produced by Enterobacteriaceae...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542496/zinc-blocks-sos-induced-antibiotic-resistance-via-inhibition-of-reca-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Bryan E Bunnell, Jillian F Escobar, Kirsten L Bair, Mark D Sutton, John K Crane
Zinc inhibits the virulence of diarrheagenic E. coli by inducing the envelope stress response and inhibiting the SOS response. The SOS response is triggered by damage to bacterial DNA. In Shiga-toxigenic E. coli, the SOS response strongly induces the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and of the bacteriophages that encode the Stx genes. In E. coli, induction of the SOS response is accompanied by a higher mutation rate, called the mutator response, caused by a shift to error-prone DNA polymerases when DNA damage is too severe to be repaired by canonical DNA polymerases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542462/a-human-monocytic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-fluorescent-reporter-cell-line-for-detection-of-microbial-contaminants-in-biological-samples
#15
Claire Battin, Annika Hennig, Patrick Mayrhofer, Renate Kunert, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Peter Steinberger, Wolfgang Paster
Sensing of pathogens by innate immune cells is essential for the initiation of appropriate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are highly sensitive for various structurally and evolutionary conserved molecules derived from microbes have a prominent role in this process. TLR engagement results in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, which induces the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. The exquisite sensitivity of TLR signalling can be exploited for the detection of bacteria and microbial contaminants in tissue cultures and in protein preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542458/a-pilot-study-using-metagenomic-sequencing-of-the-sputum-microbiome-suggests-potential-bacterial-biomarkers-for-lung-cancer
#16
Simon J S Cameron, Keir E Lewis, Sharon A Huws, Matthew J Hegarty, Paul D Lewis, Justin A Pachebat, Luis A J Mur
Lung cancer (LC) is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, and responsible for over 1.3 million deaths each year. Currently, LC has a low five year survival rates relative to other cancers, and thus, novel methods to screen for and diagnose malignancies are necessary to improve patient outcomes. Here, we report on a pilot-sized study to evaluate the potential of the sputum microbiome as a source of non-invasive bacterial biomarkers for lung cancer status and stage. Spontaneous sputum samples were collected from ten patients referred with possible LC, of which four were eventually diagnosed with LC (LC+), and six had no LC after one year (LC-)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542279/oligopeptides-as-full-length-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1-ndm-1-inhibitors
#17
Bingzheng Shen, Chengliang Zhu, Xiang Gao, Gang Liu, Jinchun Song, Yan Yu
'Superbug' bacteria producing NDM-1 enzyme causing wide public concern were first detected in a patient who visited India in 2008. It's an effective approach to combining β-lactam antibiotics with NDM-1 inhibitor for treating NDM-1 producing strain infection. In our research, we designed ten oligopeptides, tested IC50 values against NDM-1 enzyme, determined the MIC values of synergistic antibacterial effect and explored the binding model. We found that the oligopeptides 2 (Cys-Phe) and 5 (Cys-Asp) respectively presented IC50 values of 113 μM and 68 μM and also displayed favorable synergistic effects of the inhibitors in combination with ertapenem against genetic engineering-host E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542223/measuring-changes-in-transmission-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-malaria-and-enteric-pathogens-from-quantitative-antibody-levels
#18
Benjamin F Arnold, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L Hamlin, Delynn M Moss, Thomas B Nutman, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541034/microfluidic-capillaric-circuit-for-rapid-and-facile-bacteria-detection
#19
Ayokunle Oluwafemi Olanrewaju, Andy Ng, Philippe Decorwin-Martin, Alessandra Robillard, David Juncker
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections and would greatly benefit from a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test. Although significant progress has been made in developing microfluidic systems for nucleic acid and whole bacteria immunoassay tests, their practical application is limited by complex protocols, bulky peripherals, and slow operation. Here we present a microfluidic capillaric circuit (CC) optimized for rapid and automated detection of bacteria in urine. Molds for CCs were constructed using previously-established design rules, then 3D-printed and replicated into poly(dimethylsiloxane)...
May 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540730/surface-confined-aqueous-reversible-addition-fragmentation-chain-transfer-scaraft-polymerization-method-for-preparation-of-coated-capillary-leads-to-over-10-000-peptides-identified-from-25-ng-hela-digest-by-using-capillary-zone-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Zhenbin Zhang, Elizabeth H Peuchen, Norman J Dovichi
A surface-confined aqueous reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SCARAFT) polymerization method was developed to coat capillaries for use in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). SCARAFT polymerization primarily takes place on the inner surface of the capillary instead of in solution, which greatly improves the homogeneity of the coating. Capillaries treated with this coating produced an electroosmotic mobility of 2.8 ± 0.2 × 10-6 cm2·V 1·s-1 (N=3), which is roughly an order of magnitude lower than that of commercial linear polyacrylamide (LPA) coated capillaries...
May 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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