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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334545/bacterial-vaginosis-modifies-the-association-between-hormonal-contraception-and-hiv-acquisition
#1
Lisa Haddad, Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwailika, Naw Htee, Ilene Brill, Elwyn Chomba, Amanda Tichacek, Susan Allen
OBJECTIVE: To examine BV as an effect modifier for the association between hormonal contraception (HC) and incident HIV infection DESIGN:: Serodiscordant couples enrolled in an open longitudinal cohort in Lusaka, Zambia from 1994-2012. This analysis was restricted to couples with an HIV-positive man enrolled between1994-2002 when a quarterly genital tract examination and HIV testing was performed. METHODS: Multivariate Cox models evaluated the association between contraceptive method and HIV-acquisition, stratified by time-varying BV status...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334191/exogenous-oestrogen-inhibits-genital-transmission-of-cell-associated-hiv-1-in-dmpa-treated-humanized-mice
#2
Nirk E Quispe Calla, Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel, Melissa E Glick, Jesse J Kwiek, Janelle M Gabriel, Thomas L Cherpes
INTRODUCTION: HIV affects more women than any other life-threatening infectious agent, and most infections are sexually transmitted. HIV must breach the female genital tract mucosal barrier to establish systemic infection, and clinical studies indicate virus more easily evades this barrier in women using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and other injectable progestins for contraception. Identifying a potential mechanism for this association, we learned DMPA promotes susceptibility of wild-type mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection by reducing genital tissue expression of the cell-cell adhesion molecule desmoglein-1 (DSG-1) and increasing genital mucosal permeability...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333826/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#3
Gustavo Cediel, Johanna Pacheco-Acosta, Carlos CastiUo-Durdn
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D research suggests it has a role in disorders other than bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To update the information on vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pediatric clinical disorders. METHODS: Search in virtual libraries, giving priority to clinical and longitudinal studies and meta-analyses on VDD in the pediatric age group published in the past 20 years. The terms "vitamin D deficiency", "children and adolescents" (both in Spanish and English) were used as search descriptors...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333822/labial-adhesions-experience-in-a-children-s-hospital
#4
Anahí Rubinstein, Gisel Rahman, Paula Risso, Dolores Ocampo
Labial adhesions are defined as the complete or partial fusion of the pudendal cleft due to the agglutination of the labia minora in the midline. They most commonly occur between 3 months and 6 years of life. Between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st, 2015, 425 girls diagnosed with labial adhesions and seen at the Unit of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology of Hospital de Niños de La Plata, Argentina, were analyzed. Their average age was 2.7 years (standard deviation: 2.6 years). The most common presentation of labial adhesions was that involving more than 75% of the total length of the labia (p < 0...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333787/detection-of-ureaplasma-species-by-a-semi-quantitative-pcr-test-in-urine-samples-can-it-predict-clinical-significance
#5
Merav Strauss, Raul Colodner, Dana Sagas, Azmi Adawi, Hanna Edelstein, Bibiana Chazan
BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma species (Usp) are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Usp may be commensals in the genital tract but may also be contributors to a number of pathological conditions of the genital tract. Because they can also just colonize the genital tract of healthy people, their pathogenic role can be difficult to prove. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for the discrimination between infection and colonization by measuring prevalence of Usp in asymptomatic versus symptomatic patients...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333612/fosfomycin-residues-in-colostrum-impact-on-morpho-physiology-and-microbiology-of-suckling-piglets
#6
M B Fernández Paggi, G Martínez, S N Diéguez, D S Pérez Gaudio, J M Decundo, M B Riccio, F A Amanto, M O Tapia, A L Soraci
Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic widely used in pig farms for the treatment of a wide variety of bacterial infections. In this study, the elimination of disodium fosfomycin in colostrum/milk of the sow and the impact of this antibiotic on the microbiota and intestinal morpho-physiology of suckling piglets were analyzed. The average amount of fosfomycin eliminated in colostrum (after administration of 15 mg/kg IM) during the first 10 hr postpartum was 0.85 μg/ml, and the mean residual amount ingested by the piglets was 0...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333509/rate-and-association-of-lower-urinary-tract-infection-with-recurrence-after-transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumor
#7
Byung Soo Kim, Bum Sik Tae, Ja Hyeon Ku, Cheol Kwak, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Chang Wook Jeong
Purpose: To evaluate the rate of pyuria and bacteriuria after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data obtained from 363 patients who underwent TURBT between October 2012 and December 2013 at Seoul National University Hospital. Urinalysis and urine culture were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Primary endpoint was the rate of bacteriuria (≥105/mL in a midstream) and pyuria (white blood cells ≥5/high-power field)...
January 2018: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333106/which-point-of-care-tests-would-be-most-beneficial-to-add-to-clinical-practice-findings-from-a-survey-of-3-family-medicine-clinics-in-the-united-states
#8
Victoria Hardy, William Alto, Gina A Keppel, Laura-Mae Baldwin, Matthew Thompson
Background: Point-of-care tests (POCTs) are increasingly used in family medicine to facilitate screening, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and referral decisions for a variety of conditions. Point-of-care tests that clinicians believe might be beneficial to add to clinical practice and the conditions for which they would be most useful in family medicine remain poorly understood in the United States. Methods: Forty-two clinicians at 3 family medicine residency clinics completed a brief survey asking which POCTs they believed would be beneficial to add to their clinical practice and the conditions POCTs would be most useful for...
December 2017: Point of Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332434/relationship-between-antimicrobial-resistance-programs-and-antibiotic-dispensing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-an-analysis-of-australian-data-between-2004-and-2015
#9
Jianyun Wu, Daniel Taylor, Ludmila Ovchinikova, Aine Heaney, Tessa Morgan, Jonathan Dartnell, Rachel Holbrook, Lauren Humphreys, Lynn Weekes, Suzanne Blogg
Objective NPS MedicineWise aims to ensure that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner consistent with current evidence-based best practice. A series of nationwide educational and advertising interventions for general practitioners and consumers were implemented in Australia between 2009 and 2015 with the aim of reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The work described in this paper quantifies the change in antibiotic dispensing following these interventions...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332209/the-rapid-diagnosis-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-and-its-impact-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs
#10
Şiran Keske, Önder Ergönül, Faik Tutucu, Doruk Karaaslan, Erhan Palaoğlu, Füsun Can
We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332116/applying-preventive-measures-leading-to-significant-reduction-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-intensive-care-unit
#11
Fahad M Al-Hameed, Gulam R Ahmed, Asim A AlSaedi, Muhammad J Bhutta, Faisal F Al-Hameed, Majid M AlShamrani
To determine the impact of applying the best available clinical evidence on the preventive measures to reduce the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) in adult intensive care units (ICU).     Methods:  Data were collected from adult ICUs (28 beds) from 2008 to 2016. The proper use of silicon catheter, aseptic insertion technique, emptying bag three-fourth via close circuit, the use of appropriate size catheter, securing the draining tube on the thigh to keep catheter bag below patient's bladder level and removal of the catheter as early as possible were ensured in all patients...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331548/effect-of-outpatient-antibiotics-for-urinary-tract-infections-on-antimicrobial-resistance-among-commensal-enterobacteriaceae-a-multinational-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Andrew J Stewardson, Jascha Vervoort, Niels Adriaenssens, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Benedikt Huttner, Christine Lammens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Stephan Harbarth
OBJECTIVES: We quantified the impact of antibiotics prescribed in primary care for urinary tract infections (UTIs) on intestinal colonisation by ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-RE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), while accounting for household clustering. METHODS: Prospective cohort study from January 2011 to August 2013 at primary care sites in Belgium, Poland and Switzerland. We recruited outpatients requiring antibiotics for suspected UTIs or asymptomatic bacteriuria (exposed patients), outpatients not requiring antibiotics (non-exposed patients), and 1-3 household contacts for each patient...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331160/reduction-in-rate-of-nosocomial-respiratory-virus-infections-in-a-children-s-hospital-associated-with-enhanced-isolation-precautions
#13
Lorry G Rubin, Nina Kohn, Susan Nullet, Margaret Hill
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital...
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331047/the-economic-burden-of-overactive-bladder-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Lauren C Powell, Shelagh M Szabo, David Walker, Katherine Gooch
AIMS: Overactive bladder (OAB) affects up to 17% of the United States (US) population. This study aimed to synthesize estimates of direct and indirect costs of OAB in the US and compare costs among those with and without OAB. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase, from 2003 to 2016, following PRISMA guidelines. The target population was adults with idiopathic OAB or urge urinary incontinence from the US. Data were extracted on study and patient characteristics, all-cause and OAB-specific direct costs, resource use, and indirect costs...
January 13, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330715/case-series-analysis-of-new-zealand-reports-of-rapid-intense-potentiation-of-warfarin-by-roxithromycin
#15
Ruth L Savage, Michael V Tatley
INTRODUCTION: We undertook an analysis of all the reports to the New Zealand Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring of a roxithromycin/warfarin interaction after two recent reports described intense rapid warfarin potentiation. The interaction was first published in 1995. Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition has been the proposed mechanism but has limited biologic plausibility. There are suggestions that the clinical significance of the interaction may be increased by severe illness, polypharmacy, renal dysfunction, older age and increased warfarin sensitivity...
January 12, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330443/an-insight-into-intestinal-mucosal-microbiota-disruption-after-stroke
#16
Dragana Stanley, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Recent work from our laboratory has provided evidence that indicates selective bacterial translocation from the host gut microbiota to peripheral tissues (i.e. lung) plays a key role in the development of post-stroke infections. Despite this, it is currently unknown whether mucosal bacteria that live on and interact closely with the host intestinal epithelium contribute in regulating bacterial translocation after stroke. Here, we found that the microbial communities within the mucosa of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were significantly different between sham-operated and post-stroke mice at 24 h following surgery...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329410/1918-h1n1-influenza-virus-replicates-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-responses-in-extra-respiratory-tissues-of-ferrets
#17
Emmie de Wit, Jurre Siegers, Jacqueline M Cronin, Sarah Weatherman, Judith van den Brand, Lonneke M Leijten, Peter van Run, Lineke Begeman, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Arno C Andeweg, Trenton Bushmaker, Dana P Scott, Greg Saturday, Vincent J Munster, Heinz Feldmann, Debby van Riel
Background: The 1918 Spanish H1N1 influenza pandemic was the most severe recorded influenza pandemic with an estimated 20-50 million deaths worldwide. Even though it is known that influenza viruses can cause extra-respiratory tract complications-which are often severe or even fatal- the potential contribution of extra-respiratory tissues to the pathogenesis of 1918 H1N1 virus infection has not been studied comprehensively. Methods: Here, we performed a time course study in ferrets inoculated intranasally with 1918 H1N1 virus, with special emphasis on the involvement of extra-respiratory tissues...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327820/gastroenterology-today-between-certainties-and-news-a-meeting-held-in-turin-on-may-27-2017
#18
Rinaldo Pellicano, Davide G Ribaldone, Marco Astegiano, Luca Dughera, Edda Battaglia, Anna Morgando, Arrigo Arrigoni, Mauro Spandre, Mario Grassini, Giorgio M Saracco, Francis Mégraud
This special article reports on two crucial issues discussed during a meeting. The first was the updated management of Helicobacter pylori infection. This was approached taking into account the recent European Guidelines, with a focus on novelties in treatment. In particular, considering the increasing H. pylori antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin, in countries with a high clarithromycin resistance rate the bismuth-containing quadruple therapies should be preferred. The new formulation, with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline contained in a single capsule (three-in-one), has shown exciting results both in naive and in non-responder patients...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327120/readmission-and-reoperation-after-midurethral-sling
#19
Erik D Hokenstad, Amy E Glasgow, Elizabeth B Habermann, John A Occhino
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to determine the rate of readmission and reoperation for patients undergoing midurethral sling (MUS) placement for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was queried to identify all isolated MUS placed from 2012 through 2015 using the Current Procedural Terminology 4 (CPT-4) code for MUS with or without cystoscopy (57,288 ± 52,000)...
January 11, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326206/whole-genome-draft-sequences-of-nine-asymptomatic-escherichia-coli-bacteriuria-isolates-from-diabetic-patients
#20
Christoph Stork, Beáta Kovács, Eva Trost, Tamás Kovács, György Schneider, Barnabás Rózsai, Monika Kerényi, Levente Emődy, Ulrich Dobrindt
Escherichia coli can colonize the urinary bladder without causing a disease response in the host. This asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) can protect against recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infection by virulent bacteria. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of nine E. coli ABU isolates from diabetic patients.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
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