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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650976/effect-of-praziquantel-on-the-differential-expression-of-mouse-hepatic-genes-and-parasite-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-gene-family-members-during-schistosoma-mansoni-infection
#2
Melissa C Sanchez, Katina V Krasnec, Amalia S Parra, Christian von Cabanlong, Geoffrey N Gobert, Boris Umylny, Pauline M Cupit, Charles Cunningham
Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by sexually dimorphic blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug widely available to treat the disease but does not kill juvenile parasites. Here we report the use of next generation sequencing to study the transcriptional effect of PZQ on murine hepatic inflammatory, immune and fibrotic responses to Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs. An initial T helper cell 1 (Th1) response is induced against schistosomes in mice treated with drug vehicle (Vh) around the time egg laying begins, followed by a T helper cell 2 (Th2) response and the induction of genes whose action leads to granuloma formation and fibrosis...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650258/helper-t-cell-responses-to-respiratory-viruses-in-the-lung-development-virus-suppression-and-pathogenesis
#3
Kosuke Miyauchi
The lung is an important line of defense that is exposed to respiratory infectious pathogens, including viruses. Lung epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages are initially targeted by respiratory viruses. Once respiratory viruses invade the cells of the lung, innate immunity is activated to inhibit viral replication. Innate immune signaling also activates virus-specific adaptive immune responses. The helper T cells play pivotal roles in the humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Helper T cells are categorized into several distinct subsets (e...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649995/cytokines-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-far-beyond-th1-th2-dualism
#4
Poliana Macedo Guimarães, Bruna Miglioranza Scavuzzi, Nicole Perugini Stadtlober, Lorena Flor da Rosa Santos Silva, Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy, Tathiana Mayumi Veiga Iriyoda, Neide Tomimura Costa, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche, Michael Maes, Isaias Dichi, Andréa Name Colado Simão
The aims of this study were to delineate cytokines profiles of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), construct prediction models for diagnosis and disease activity using those profiles, and to examine the associations between TNFB Ncol polymorphism, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D levels with cytokine levels. 200 SLE patients and 196 healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Plasma cytokines levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL- 4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 were measured and cytokines profiles were computed...
June 26, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648621/differential-expression-of-circulating-th1-th2-th17-cytokines-in-serum-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infected-women-undergoing-incomplete-spontaneous-abortion
#5
Priya Prasad, Namita Singh, Banashree Das, Sheikh Raisuddin, Mridu Dudeja, Sangita Rastogi
The study aimed to elucidate role of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of spontaneous abortion in Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct)-positive first-trimester aborters. Endometrial curettage tissue and serum were collected from 145 aborters (spontaneous abortion (SA) group, n = 85; recurrent miscarriage (RM) group, n = 60) and 120 controls attending Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi (India). Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Ct plasmid/MOMP, while commercial cytometric bead array kit was utilized to estimate circulating serum cytokines...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646920/dynamics-of-th9-cells-and-their-potential-role-in-immunopathogenesis-of-murine-schistosomiasis
#6
Tingzheng Zhan, Tingting Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Cai Lin, Huihui Ma, Zhongliang Duan, Chunxiang Li, Jing Xu, Chaoming Xia
BACKGROUND: Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg and Tfh cells play important roles in schistosomiasis. Th9 cells secrete IL-9 as a signature cytokine and contribute to several classes of inflammatory disease. However, the effects of Th9 cells in schistosomiasis are unknown. We aimed to explore the dynamic changes and potential roles of Th9 cells in the pathogenesis of hepatic egg granulomatous inflammation in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Twenty mice with S...
June 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646393/the-changing-landscape-of-alopecia-areata-the-therapeutic-paradigm
#7
REVIEW
Yael Renert-Yuval, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Alopecia areata (AA), a prevalent inflammatory cause of hair loss, lacks FDA-approved therapeutics for extensive cases, which are associated with very poor rates of spontaneous hair regrowth and major psychological distress. Current treatments for severe cases include broad immune-suppressants, which are associated with significant adverse effects, precluding long-term use, with rapid hair loss following treatment termination. As a result of the extent of the disease in severe cases, topical contact sensitizers and intralesional treatments are of limited use...
June 23, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646156/mahanine-exerts-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antileishmanial-activity-by-modulation-of-redox-homeostasis
#8
Saptarshi Roy, Devawati Dutta, Eswara M Satyavarapu, Pawan K Yadav, Chhabinath Mandal, Susanta Kar, Chitra Mandal
Earlier we have established a carbazole alkaloid (mahanine) isolated from an Indian edible medicinal plant as an anticancer agent with minimal effect on normal cells. Here we report for the first time that mahanine-treated drug resistant and sensitive virulent Leishmania donovani promastigotes underwent apoptosis through phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. An early induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) suggests that the mahanine-induced apoptosis was mediated by oxidative stress...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646042/on-the-role-il-4-il-13-heteroreceptor-plays-in-regulation-of-type-1-diabetes
#9
Tobechukwu K Ukah, Alexis N Cattin-Roy, Weirong Chen, Mindy M Miller, Subhasis Barik, Habib Zaghouani
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) manifests when the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells are destroyed as a consequence of an inflammatory process initiated by lymphocytes of the immune system. The NOD mouse develops T1D spontaneously and serves as an animal model for human T1D. The IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 heteroreceptor (HR) serves both IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines, which are believed to function as anti-inflammatory cytokines in T1D. However, whether the HR provides a responsive element to environmental (i.e., physiologic) IL-4/IL-13 in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and the development of T1D has yet to be defined...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645781/immunomodulatory-mechanism-of-bushen-huoxue-recipe-alleviates-cyclophosphamide-induced-diminished-ovarian-reserve-in-mouse-model
#10
Cong Huang, Kunkun Song, Wenwen Ma, Jiahui Ding, Zhuo Chen, Mingmin Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bushen Huoxue recipe (BHR) is a Chinese herbal prescription composed of ten herbs and it is widely used for the treatment of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). This study investigates the potentially beneficial effects and underlying mechanism of BHR on a cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced model of DOR in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Granules of BHR were first subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the exact ingredients within the mixture...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645772/increased-of-the-hepatocytes-and-splenocytes-apoptosis-accompanies-clinical-improvement-and-higher-survival-in-mice-infected-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-treated-with-highly-diluted-lycopodium-clavatum
#11
Gislaine Janaina Falkowski-Temporini, Carina Ribeiro Lopes, Paula Fernanda Massini, Camila Fernanda Brustolin, Fabiana Nabarro Ferraz, Patricia Flora Sandri, Luzmarina Hernandes, Denise Lessa Aleixo, Terezinha Fátima Barion, Luiz Gilson Esper, Silvana Marques de Araújo
Recent evidence includes apoptosis as a defense against Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which promotes an immune response in the host induced by T cells, type 1, 2 and 17. Currently, there is no medicine completely preventing the progression of this disease. We investigated the immunological and apoptotic effects, morbidity and survival of mice infected with T. cruzi and treated with dynamized homeopathic compounds 13c: Kalium causticum (GCaus), Conium maculatum, (GCon), Lycopodium clavatum (GLy) and 7% alcohol solution (control, vehicle compounds, GCI)...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645718/optimizing-adjuvants-for-intradermal-delivery-of-menc-glycoconjugate-vaccine
#12
Agnese Donadei, Cristiana Balocchi, Maria R Romano, Luigi Panza, Roberto Adamo, Francesco Berti, Derek T O'Hagan, Simona Gallorini, Barbara C Baudner
Intradermal vaccine delivery is a promising alternative to the conventional intramuscular route. The skin layer is immunologically supported by a densely network of antigen presenting cells, while the skeletal muscle is loaded with a relatively sparse population of APCs. Nevertheless, the vaccine to be suitable for intradermal delivery needs a new formulation to facilitate either smaller injection volumes or the introduction into new delivery devises as micro-needles. This study presents a proof of concept for intradermal delivery of the MenC-CRM197 glycoconjugate vaccine using a mouse model...
June 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643502/the-pathogenesis-and-potential-therapeutic-method-of-idiopathic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#13
Xiaohong Zhao, Xiaomei Qi, Chen Wang, Zhonghao Zhou, Haiwu Cao, Pin Wu, Linghao Li, Shiyun Lu, Zhi Wang
BACKGROUND: This study sought to clarify the pathogenesis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) and make preliminary investigations regarding a therapeutic method. METHODS: ELISA was used to establish and analyze the standard curve for interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 in order to determine a measurement method for these cytokines. Subsequently, cellular levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in the peripheral blood of patients in the treatment group (traditional Chinese medicine) was compared with those in the control group (Western-style care)...
June 21, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642280/granulocytes-as-modulators-of-dendritic-cell-function
#14
REVIEW
Annelot Breedveld, Tom Groot Kormelink, Marjolein van Egmond, Esther de Jong
Effector T cell development is directly driven by APCs, in particular, by antigen-primed dendritic cells (DCs). Depending on the pathogenic stimulus and the microenvironment, DCs induce proliferation and polarization of naive CD4(+) T cells into different effector subsets, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, or regulatory T cells (Tregs). During inflammation, DCs are found in close proximity to other innate immune cells, including all granulocyte subtypes, which potentially influence the immunomodulatory capacities of DCs...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641100/bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-btk-as-a-promising-target-in-solid-tumors
#15
REVIEW
J Molina-Cerrillo, T Alonso-Gordoa, P Gajate, E Grande
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor intracellular kinase that belongs to the TEC-family tyrosine kinases together with bone marrow-expressed kinase (BMX), redundant-resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK), and IL-2 inducible T-Cell kinase (ITK). All these proteins play a key role in the intracellular signaling of both B and T lymphocytes. Recently, some preclinical data have demonstrated that BTK is present in certain tumor subtypes and in other relevant cells that are contributing to the tumor microenvironment such as dendritic cells, macrophages, myeloid derived suppressor cells and endothelial cells...
June 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638730/blockade-of-only-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-2-is-sufficient-to-enhance-the-efficacy-of-vaccine-and-pd-1-checkpoint-blockade-immunotherapy
#16
Masaki Terabe, Faith C Robertson, Katharine Clark, Emma De Ravin, Anja Bloom, David J Venzon, Shingo Kato, Amer Mirza, Jay A Berzofsky
Checkpoint inhibition has established immunotherapy as a major modality of cancer treatment. However, the success of cancer immunotherapy is still limited as immune regulation of tumor immunity is very complicated and mechanisms involved may also differ among cancer types. Beside checkpoints, other good candidates for immunotherapy are immunosuppressive cytokines. TGF-β is a very potent immunosuppressive cytokine involved in suppression of tumor immunity and also necessary for the function of some regulatory cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638447/serum-igg4-igg-ratio-predicts-recurrence-of-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-curative-resection
#17
Jiong Wu, Xiao-Lu Ma, Lu Tian, Chun-Yan Zhang, Bei-Li Wang, Yu-Yi Hu, Xing-Hui Gao, Yan Zhou, Min-Na Shen, Yin-Fei Peng, Bai-Shen Pan, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Xin-Rong Yang, Wei Guo
Aim: IgG4 is associated with a Th1-to-Th2 switch, which plays a vital role in metastasis, in patients with malignances; thus, we aimed to investigate its clinical significance in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence in the present study. Methods: The correlation between serum IgG4:IgG ratio and recurrence was analyzed in a cohort of 195 patients undergoing curative resection in 2012. Another 100 patients were analyzed in a prospective independent cohort during 2012-2013 to validate the value of serum IgG4...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638279/preventive-actions-of-allergen-immunotherapy-the-facts-and-the-effects-in-search-of-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Irene Martignago, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Erminia Ridolo
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that works on the causes of allergy. Available AIT nowadays are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis and asthma, while for allergy to Hymenoptera venom only subcutaneous route is recommended. A bulk of trials and meta-analyses demonstrated that efficacy and safety of AIT in decreasing allergic clinical symptoms and use of rescue medications, while its preventive capacity is yet under investigation. The most important of these effects is the prevention of potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera stings by venom immunotherapy (VIT)...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638225/sodium-selenite-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-chronic-colitis-in-mice-by-decreasing-th1-th17-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-and-increasing-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cell-responses
#19
Li-Xuan Sang, Bing Chang, Jun-Feng Zhu, Fang-Li Yang, Yan Li, Xue-Feng Jiang, Da-Nan Wang, Chang-Long Lu, Xun Sun
AIM: To assess the effect of sodium selenite on the severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10/group): normal group, selenium (Se) group, chronic colitis group, and Se + chronic colitis group. The mice were sacrificed on day 26. Survival rates, clinical symptoms, colon length, and histological changes were determined. The percentages and absolute numbers of immune system cells in the lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) of the colon, the expression of mRNA in colon tissue, and the concentrations of Th1, Th17, and Treg cytokines in LPL from the large intestine, were measured...
June 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637904/ifn-%C3%AE-expressing-th17-cells-are-required-for-development-of-severe-ocular-surface-autoimmunity
#20
Yihe Chen, Sunil K Chauhan, Chunyi Shao, Masahiro Omoto, Takenori Inomata, Reza Dana
Th17 cells are critical effectors mediating the ocular surface autoimmunity in dry eye disease (DED). Increased IFN-γ has also been implicated in DED; however, it remains unclear to what extent Th1 cells contribute to DED pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the cellular source of IFN-γ and assessed its contribution to corneal epitheliopathy in DED mice. We discovered a significant IL-17A(+)IFN-γ(+) (Th17/1) population and determined that these cells are derived from Th17 precursors. Adoptive transfer of Th17/1, but not Th1, cells confers the disease to naive recipients as effectively as do Th17 cells alone...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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