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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339828/single-session-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-assisted-walking-produces-corticomotor-symmetry-changes-related-to-changes-in-poststroke-walking-mechanics
#1
Jacqueline A Palmer, HaoYuan Hsiao, Tamara Wright, Stuart A Binder-Macleod
Background: Recent research demonstrated that symmetry of corticomotor drive to paretic and nonparetic plantarflexor muscles are related to the biomechanical ankle moment strategy that individuals with chronic stroke used to achieve their greatest walking speeds. Rehabilitation strategies that promote corticomotor balance could potentially improve post-stroke walking mechanics and enhance functional ambulation. Objective: To 1) test the effectiveness of a single session of gait training using functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry and 2) determine if changes in corticomotor symmetry relate to changes in ankle moment symmetry within the session...
February 23, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334138/working-memory-modulation-of-frontoparietal-network-connectivity-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#2
Jesper Duemose Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Zheng Wang, Zhening Liu, Karl J Friston, Yuan Zhou
Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323419/the-role-of-sufs-is-restricted-to-fes-cluster-biosynthesis-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Martin Bühning, Angelo Valleriani, Silke Leimkühler
In Escherichia coli two different systems have been identified that are important for the coordinate formation of Fe-S clusters, namely the ISC and SUF systems. The ISC system is the housekeeping Fe-S machinery, which provides Fe-S clusters for numerous cellular proteins. The IscS protein of this system was additionally revealed to be the primary sulfur donor for numerous sulfur-containing molecules with important biological functions, among which are the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and thiolated nucleosides in tRNA...
March 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321787/a-mathematical-theory-of-shape-and-neuro-fuzzy-methodology-based-diagnostic-analysis-a-comparative-study-on-early-detection-and-treatment-planning-of-brain-cancer
#4
Subrata Kar, D Dutta Majumder
BACKGROUND: Investigation of brain cancer can detect the abnormal growth of tissue in the brain using computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients. The proposed method classifies brain cancer on shape-based feature extraction as either benign or malignant. The authors used input variables such as shape distance (SD) and shape similarity measure (SSM) in fuzzy tools, and used fuzzy rules to evaluate the risk status as an output variable. We presented a classifier neural network system (NNS), namely Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), which is a feed-forward back-propagation learning algorithm used to train the NN for the status of brain cancer, if any, and which achieved satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318836/early-onset-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factor-profiles-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#5
Desheng Zhai, Yan Lang, Yihang Feng, Yijun Liu, Gaopan Dong, Xin Wang, Ying Cao, Taizhen Cui, Chenyang Ni, Yonggan Ji, Xiaodan Zhang, Ying Zhao, Ruiling Zhang
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We performed a case-control study, which included antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) of adolescents and young adults and general population controls, to investigate the early-onset cardiometabolic risk factors in FES. RESULTS: FES had more frequent lower HDL-C when compared to controls. However, the distribution of BMI and the frequency of hypercholesterolemia, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia in FES were not significantly different to controls...
March 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301954/the-role-of-bacillithiol-in-gram-positive-firmicutes
#6
Pete Chandrangsu, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann, John D Helmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Since the discovery and structural characterization of bacillithiol (BSH), the biochemical functions of BSH-biosynthesis enzymes (BshA/B/C) and BSH-dependent detoxification enzymes (FosB, Bst, GlxA/B) have been explored in Bacillus and Staphylococcus species. It was shown that BSH plays an important role in detoxification of reactive oxygen and electrophilic species, alkylating agents, toxins and antibiotics. Recent Advances: More recently, new functions of BSH were discovered in metal homeostasis (Zn buffering, FeS-cluster and copper homeostasis) and virulence control in Staphylococcus aureus...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295776/compartmentalisation-of-fefe-hydrogenase-maturation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#7
Anne Sawyer, Yu Bai, Yinghua Lu, Anja Hemschemeier, Thomas Happe
Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) can be produced in green microalgae by [FeFe]-hydrogenases as a direct product of photosynthesis. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase HYDA1 contains a catalytic site comprising a classic [4Fe4S] cluster linked to a unique 2Fe sub-cluster. From in vitro studies it appears that the [4Fe4S] cluster is incorporated first by the housekeeping FeS cluster assembly machinery, followed by the 2Fe sub-cluster, whose biosynthesis requires the specific maturases HYDEF and HYDG. To investigate the maturation process in vivo, we expressed HYDA1 from the C...
March 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294484/interactive-audience-response-systems-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-radiology-undergraduate-lectures
#8
Christiano de Oliveira-Santos, Camila Tirapelli, Clarissa Teles Rodrigues, Carina Domaneschi, Solange Aparecida Caldeira Monteiro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of audience response systems (ARS) on student participation (SP) during Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (OMR) undergraduate lectures and on final examination scores (FES). Furthermore, an analysis of unanimity assessed the influence of ARS on students' responses. Students' perceptions were also assessed. METHODS: A controlled crossover study was designed. Four lectures covering topics of OMR were each taught with ARS and without ARS (i...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291333/metallic-state-fes-anchored-fe-fe3o4-n-doped-graphitic-carbon-with-porous-spongelike-structure-as-durable-catalysts-for-enhancing-bioelectricity-generation
#9
Xin Xu, Ying Dai, Jia Yu, Liang Hao, Yaqiang Duan, Ye Sun, Yanhong Zhang, Yuhui Lin, Jinlong Zou
The critical issues in practical application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment are the high cost and poor activity and durability of precious metal catalysts. To alleviate the activity loss and kinetic barriers for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on cathode, (Fe)/Fe3O4/FeS/N-doped graphitic carbon ((Fe)/Fe3O4/FeS/NGC) is prepared as ORR catalyst through a one-step method using waste pomelo skins as carbon source. Various characterization techniques and electrochemical analyses are conducted to illustrate the correlation between structural characteristics and catalytic activity...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290073/prefrontal-dysconnectivity-links-to-working-memory-deficit-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#10
Xiaojing Fang, Yulin Wang, Luqi Cheng, Yuanchao Zhang, Yuan Zhou, Shihao Wu, Huan Huang, Jilin Zou, Cheng Chen, Jun Chen, Huiling Wang, Tianzi Jiang
Working memory (WM) deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia and is characterized by abnormal functional integration in the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vLPFC). However, the specific mechanism by which the abnormal neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to this deficit is still unclear. Therefore, this study focused on these regions and sought to answer which abnormal causal relationships in these regions can be linked to impaired WM in schizophrenia...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284029/shared-function-and-moonlighting-proteins-in-molybdenum-cofactor-biosynthesis
#11
Silke Leimkühler
The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is a highly conserved pathway in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. The molybdenum atom in Moco containing enzymes is coordinated to the dithiolene group of a tricyclic pyranopterin monophosphate cofactor. The biosynthesis of Moco can be divided into three conserved steps, with a fourth one present only in bacteria and archaea: 1) formation of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate, 2) formation of molybdopterin (MPT), 3) insertion of molybdenum into MPT to form Mo-MPT, and 4) additional modification of Mo-MPT in bacteria with the attachment of a GMP or CMP nucleotide, forming the dinucleotide variants of Moco...
March 11, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276474/multiunit-activity-based-real-time-limb-state-estimation-from-dorsal-root-ganglion-recordings
#12
Sungmin Han, Jun-Uk Chu, Hyungmin Kim, Jong Woong Park, Inchan Youn
Proprioceptive afferent activities could be useful for providing sensory feedback signals for closed-loop control during functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, most previous studies have used the single-unit activity of individual neurons to extract sensory information from proprioceptive afferents. This study proposes a new decoding method to estimate ankle and knee joint angles using multiunit activity data. Proprioceptive afferent signals were recorded from a dorsal root ganglion with a single-shank microelectrode during passive movements of the ankle and knee joints, and joint angles were measured as kinematic data...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273101/classical-and-adaptive-control-of-ex-vivo-skeletal-muscle-contractions-using-functional-electrical-stimulation-fes
#13
Paola Jaramillo Cienfuegos, Adam Shoemaker, Robert W Grange, Nicole Abaid, Alexander Leonessa
Functional Electrical Stimulation is a promising approach to treat patients by stimulating the peripheral nerves and their corresponding motor neurons using electrical current. This technique helps maintain muscle mass and promote blood flow in the absence of a functioning nervous system. The goal of this work is to control muscle contractions from FES via three different algorithms and assess the most appropriate controller providing effective stimulation of the muscle. An open-loop system and a closed-loop system with three types of model-free feedback controllers were assessed for tracking control of skeletal muscle contractions: a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, a Model Reference Adaptive Control algorithm, and an Adaptive Augmented PI system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271877/the-n-terminus-of-the-iron-sulfur-cluster-assembly-factor-isd11-is-crucial-for-subcellular-targeting-and-interaction-with-the-l-cysteine-desulfurase-nfs1
#14
Martin Friemel, Zvonimir Marelja, Kuanyu Li, Silke Leimkühler
Assembly of iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters is an important process in living cells. The initial sulfur mobilization step for FeS cluster biosynthesis is catalyzed by the L-cysteine desulfurase NFS1, a reaction which is localized in mitochondria in humans. In humans, the function of NFS1 depends on the ISD11 protein, which is required to stabilize its structure. The NFS1/ISD11 complex further interacts with the scaffold protein ISCU and the regulator protein frataxin thereby forming a quaternary complex for FeS cluster formation...
March 8, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269708/combining-a-hybrid-robotic-system-with-a-bain-machine-interface-for-the-rehabilitation-of-reaching-movements-a-case-study-with-a-stroke-patient
#15
F Resquin, J Ibañez, J Gonzalez-Vargas, F Brunetti, I Dimbwadyo, S Alves, L Carrasco, L Torres, Jose Luis Pons
Reaching and grasping are two of the most affected functions after stroke. Hybrid rehabilitation systems combining Functional Electrical Stimulation with Robotic devices have been proposed in the literature to improve rehabilitation outcomes. In this work, we present the combined use of a hybrid robotic system with an EEG-based Brain-Machine Interface to detect the user's movement intentions to trigger the assistance. The platform has been tested in a single session with a stroke patient. The results show how the patient could successfully interact with the BMI and command the assistance of the hybrid system with low latencies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268661/validation-of-empirical-mode-decomposition-combined-with-notch-filtering-to-extract-electrical-stimulation-artifact-from-surface-electromyograms-during-functional-electrical-stimulation
#16
Rakesh Pilkar, Arvind Ramanujam, Erica Garbarini, Gail Forrest
This paper presents the validity of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) combined with Notch filtering to remove the electrical stimulation (ES) artifact from surface electromyogram (EMG) data for interpretation of muscle responses during Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) experiments. We hypothesized that the EMD algorithm provides a suitable platform for decomposing the EMG signal into physically meaningful intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) which can be further used to isolate electrical stimulation (ES) artifact...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268041/task-and-resting-state-fmri-studies-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Tumbwene E Mwansisya, Aimin Hu, Yihui Li, Xudong Chen, Guowei Wu, Xiaojun Huang, Dongsheng Lv, Zhou Li, Chang Liu, Zhimin Xue, Jianfeng Feng, Zhening Liu
In the last two decades there has been an increase on task and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies that explore the brain's functional changes in schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear as to whether the brain's functional changes during the resting state are sensitive to the same brain regions during task fMRI. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature search of task and resting-state fMRI studies that investigated brain pathological changes in first-episode schizophrenia (Fleischhacker et al...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265148/the-effects-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-on-muscle-tone-and-stiffness-of-stroke-patients
#18
Sang-Hyun Moon, Jung-Hyun Choi, Si-Eun Park
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of functional electrical stimulation on muscle tone and stiffness in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients who had suffered from stroke were recruited. The intervention was functional electrical stimulation on ankle dorsiflexor muscle (tibialis anterior). The duration of functional electrical stimulation was 30 minutes, 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The Myoton was used a measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle (medial and lateral part) on paretic side...
February 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260377/magnetism-at-the-interface-of-magnetic-oxide-and-nonmagnetic-semiconductor-quantum-dots
#19
Avijit Saha, Ranjani Viswanatha
Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe3O4/CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature...
March 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255448/effects-of-different-early-rehabilitation-techniques-on-haemodynamic-and-metabolic-parameters-in-sedated-patients-protocol-for-a-randomised-single-bind-cross-over-trial
#20
Clément Medrinal, Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Aurora Robledo Quesada, Tristan Bonnevie, Francis Edouard Gravier, Éric Frenoy, Olivier Contal, Bouchra Lamia
INTRODUCTION: Early rehabilitation has become widespread practice for patients in intensive care; however, the prevalence of intensive care unit-acquired weakness remains high and the majority of physiotherapy is carried out in bed. Several inbed rehabilitation methods exist, but we hypothesise that techniques that provoke muscle contractions are more effective than passive techniques. METHODS: A randomised, controlled cross-over study will be carried out to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of early rehabilitation techniques on cardiac output (CO) in sedated patients in intensive care...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
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