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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902924/simple-mechanisms-of-early-life-simulation-model-on-the-origin-of-semi-cells
#1
Adrian Klein, Martin Bock, Wolfgang Alt
The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H2S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions...
November 27, 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893858/reversing-age-related-changes-of-the-laryngeal-muscles-by-chronic-electrostimulation-of-the-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve
#2
Michael Karbiener, Jonathan C Jarvis, Justin D Perkins, Hermann Lanmüller, Martin Schmoll, Hanna S Rode, Claus Gerstenberger, Markus Gugatschka
Age related atrophy of the laryngeal muscles -mainly the thyroarytenoid muscle (TAM)- leads to a glottal gap and consequently to a hoarse and dysphonic voice that significantly affects quality of life. The aim of our study was to reverse this atrophy by inducing muscular hypertrophy by unilateral functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in a large animal model using aged sheep (n = 5). Suitable stimulation parameters were determined by fatiguing experiments of the thyroarytenoid muscle in an acute trial...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881975/membrane-complexes-of-syntrophomonas-wolfei-involved-in-syntrophic-butyrate-degradation-and-hydrogen-formation
#3
Bryan R Crable, Jessica R Sieber, Xinwei Mao, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen, Robert Gunsalus, Rachel R Ogorzalek Loo, Hong Nguyen, Michael J McInerney
Syntrophic butyrate metabolism involves the thermodynamically unfavorable production of hydrogen and/or formate from the high potential electron donor, butyryl-CoA. Such redox reactions can occur only with energy input by a process called reverse electron transfer. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen production from butyrate requires the presence of a proton gradient, but the biochemical machinery involved has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, the gene and enzyme systems involved in reverse electron transfer by Syntrophomonas wolfei were investigated using proteomic and gene expression approaches...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879049/double-helix-structure-in-carrageenan-metal-hydrogels-a-general-approach-to-porous-metal-sulfides-carbon-aerogels-with-excellent-sodium-ion-storage
#4
Daohao Li, Dongjiang Yang, Xianfeng Yang, Yu Wang, Ziqi Guo, Yanzhi Xia, Shenglei Sun, Shaojun Guo
The metal sulfide-carbon nanocomposite is a new class of anode material for sodium ion batteries, but its development is restricted by its relative poor rate ability and cyclic stability. Herein, we report the use of double-helix structure of carrageenan-metal hydrogels for the synthesis of 3D metal sulfide (Mx Sy ) nanostructure/carbon aerogels (CAs) for high-performance sodium-ion storage. The method is unique, and can be used to make multiple Mx Sy /CAs (such as FeS/CA, Co9 S8 /CA, Ni3 S4 /CA, CuS/CA, ZnS/CA, and CdS/CA) with ultra-small nanoparticles and hierarchical porous structure by pyrolyzing the carrageenan-metal hydrogels...
November 23, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878949/dialytic-hemodynamics-are-associated-with-changes-in-gait-speed
#5
Dawn F Wolfgram, Zubin Lathara, Aniko Szabo, Jeff Whittle
Introduction Functional impairment and reduced mobility are prevalent in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). The impact of HD on physical performance and mobility needs evaluation. Methods We measured gait speed in a cohort of chronic HD patients both pre and post an HD session. We collected demographic and laboratory data and dialytic hemodynamic parameters for the HD session. Participants completed the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) survey to assess concern for falling. We used linear regression analysis to tests for associations between our predictor variables of intra-dialytic hemodynamic change and change in gait speed from pre to post HD (primary outcome) and FES-I score (secondary outcome)...
November 22, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876656/postural-sway-balance-confidence-and-fear-of-falling-in-women-with-knee-osteoarthritis-in-comparison-to-matched-controls
#6
Marcelo Taglietti, Laís Faganello Dela Bela, Josilainne Marcelino Dias, Alexandre Roberto Marcondes Pelegrinelli, Jéssyca Fernandes Nogueira, João Pedro Batista Júnior, Rodrigo Gustavo da Silva Carvalho, Joseph Gerard McVeigh, Ligia Maria Facci, Felipe Arruda Moura, Jefferson Rosa Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease that commonly affects the knee joints. Individuals over 65 years with knee OA have a greater risk of falls. However, there has be limited examination of the parameters of postural sway (increased time, speed and postural sway area (center of pressure area (CoP)), and OA of the knee. OBJECTIVES: Primary: to determine whether the CoP variables discriminate between patients with knee OA and matched healthy volunteers, and to correlate the CoP variables with the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and Falls Self-Efficacy Scale (FES); Secondary: to compare the CoP of the older women with OA with a control group in bipedal support condition with eyes opened and closed...
November 19, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870934/remediation-of-hexavalent-chromium-spiked-soil-by-using-synthesized-iron-sulfide-particles
#7
Yujie Li, Wanyu Wang, Liqiang Zhou, Yuanyuan Liu, Zakaria A Mirza, Xiang Lin
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized microscale iron sulfide (FeS) particles were synthesized and applied to remediate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) spiked soil. The effects of parameters including dosage of FeS particles, soil moisture, and natural organic matter (NOM) in soil were investigated with comparison to iron sulfate (FeSO4). The results show that the stabilized FeS particles can reduce Cr(VI) and immobilize Cr in soil quickly and efficiently. The soil moisture ranging from 40% to 70% and NOM in soil had no significant effects on Cr(VI) remediation by FeS particles...
November 18, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866744/role-of-solution-chemistry-in-the-retention-and-release-of-graphene-oxide-nanomaterials-in-uncoated-and-iron-oxide-coated-sand
#8
Dengjun Wang, Chongyang Shen, Yan Jin, Chunming Su, Lingyang Chu, Dongmei Zhou
Understanding the fate and transport including remobilization of graphene oxide nanomaterials (GONMs) in the subsurface would enable us to expedite their benign use and evaluate their environmental impacts and health risks. In this study, the retention and release of GONMs were investigated in water-saturated columns packed with uncoated sand (Un-S) or iron oxide-coated sand (FeS) at environmentally relevant solution chemistries (1-100mM KCl and 0.1-10mM CaCl2 at pH7 and 11). Our results showed that increasing ionic strength (IS) inhibited GONMs' transport, and the impact of K(+) was less than Ca(2+)...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866621/biogenic-fes-accelerates-reductive-dechlorination-of-carbon-tetrachloride-by-shewanella-putrefaciens-cn32
#9
Ying-Chao Huo, Wen-Wei Li, Chang-Bin Chen, Chen-Xuan Li, Raymond Zeng, Tai-Chu Lau, Tian-Yin Huang
Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) widely exist in the subsurface environment and are involved in various contaminant degradation and element geochemical cycling processes. Recent studies suggest that DMRB can biosynthesize metal nanoparticles during metal reduction, but it is unclear yet how such biogenic nanomaterials would affect their decontamination behaviors. In this study, we found that the dechlorination rates of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was significantly increased by 8 times with the formation of biogenic ferrous sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852449/enhancing-as-v-adsorption-and-passivation-using-biologically-formed-nano-sized-fes-coatings-on-limestone-implications-for-acid-mine-drainage-treatment-and-neutralization
#10
REVIEW
Jing Liu, Lei Zhou, Faqin Dong, Karen A Hudson-Edwards
The iron-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryputum JF-5 and a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) collected and purified from the mine drainage of a copper mine in the northwest of Sichuan Province, China, were used to biologically synthesize nano-sized FeS-coated limestone to remove As(V) from solution. The adsorption efficiency of As(V) is improved from 6.64 μg/g with limestone alone to 187 μg/g with the FeS coated limestone in both batch and column experiments. The hydraulic conductivity of the columns are also improved by the presence of the nano-sized FeS coatings, but the solution neutralization performance of the limestone can be reduced by passivation by gypsum and Fe(III) precipitates...
November 13, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845664/the-time-varying-nature-of-electromechanical-delay-and-muscle-control-effectiveness-in-response-to-stimulation-induced-fatigue
#11
Ryan J Downey, Manelle Merad, Eric J Gonzalez, Warren E Dixon
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) are commonly prescribed rehabilitative therapies. Closed-loop NMES holds the promise to yield more accurate limb control, which could enable new rehabilitative procedures. However, NMES/FES can rapidly fatigue muscle, which limits potential treatments and presents several control challenges. Specifically, the stimulation intensity-force relation changes as the muscle fatigues. Additionally, the delayed response between the application of stimulation and muscle force production, termed electromechanical delay (EMD), may increase with fatigue...
November 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836608/an-improved-glycerol-biosensor-with-an-au-fes-nad-glycerol-dehydrogenase-anode
#12
Aishwarya Mahadevan, Sandun Fernando
An improved glycerol biosensor was developed via direct attachment of NAD(+)-glycerol dehydrogenase coenzyme-apoenzyme complex onto supporting gold electrodes, using novel inorganic iron (II) sulfide (FeS)-based single molecular wires. Sensing performance factors, i.e., sensitivity, a detection limit and response time of the FeS and conventional pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-based biosensor were evaluated by dynamic constant potential amperometry at 1.3V under non-buffered conditions. For glycerol concentrations ranging from 1 to 25mM, a 77% increase in sensitivity and a 53% decrease in detection limit were observed for the FeS-based biosensor when compared to the conventional PQQ-based counterpart...
October 31, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834646/application-of-empirical-mode-decomposition-combined-with-notch-filtering-for-interpretation-of-surface-electromyograms-during-functional-electrical-stimulation
#13
Rakesh Pilkar, Mathew Yarossi, Arvind Ramanujam, Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Mehmed Bugrahan Bayram, Megan Mitchell, Stephan Canton, Gail Forrest
GOAL: The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel approach that combines Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with Notch filtering to remove the electrical stimulation (ES) artifact from surface electromyogram (EMG) data for interpretation of muscle responses during functional electrical stimulation (FES) experiments. METHODS: FES was applied to the rectus femoris (RF) muscle unilaterally of 6 able bodied (AB) and 1 individual with spinal cord injury (SCI). Each trial consisted of three repetitions of ES...
November 3, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825837/effects-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-on-reducing-falls-and-improving-gait-parameters-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-stroke
#14
Elisa Gervasoni, Riccardo Parelli, Marcin Uszynski, Alessandro Crippa, Alberto Marzegan, Angelo Montesano, Davide Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Loss of neuromuscular control of the ankle joint is a common impairment in neurologic conditions, leading to abnormal gait and a greater risk of falling. Limited information, however, is available on the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (FES) on reducing falls, and no studies have investigated its usefulness in improving lower limbs kinematics related to foot clearance and energy recovery. SETTING: Clinical setting. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study...
November 4, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824037/structure-of-the-ribosome-post-recycling-complex-probed-by-chemical-cross-linking-and-mass-spectrometry
#15
Kristin Kiosze-Becker, Alessandro Ori, Milan Gerovac, André Heuer, Elina Nürenberg-Goloub, Umar Jan Rashid, Thomas Becker, Roland Beckmann, Martin Beck, Robert Tampé
Ribosome recycling orchestrated by the ATP binding cassette (ABC) protein ABCE1 can be considered as the final-or the first-step within the cyclic process of protein synthesis, connecting translation termination and mRNA surveillance with re-initiation. An ATP-dependent tweezer-like motion of the nucleotide-binding domains in ABCE1 transfers mechanical energy to the ribosome and tears the ribosome subunits apart. The post-recycling complex (PRC) then re-initiates mRNA translation. Here, we probed the so far unknown architecture of the 1-MDa PRC (40S/30S·ABCE1) by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (XL-MS)...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810829/design-and-test-of-a-closed-loop-fes-system-for-supporting-function-of-the-hemiparetic-hand-based-on-automatic-detection-using-the-microsoft-kinect-sensor
#16
Daniel Simonsen, Erika G Spaich, John Hansen, Ole K Andersen
This paper describes the design of a FES system automatically controlled in a closed loop using a Microsoft Kinect sensor, for assisting both cylindrical grasping and hand opening. The feasibility of the system was evaluated in real-time in stroke patients with hand function deficits. A hand function exercise was designed in which the subjects performed an arm and hand exercise in sitting position. The subject had to grasp one of two differently sized cylindrical objects and move it forward or backwards in the sagittal plane...
October 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810665/cross-cultural-validation-of-the-falls-efficacy-scale-international-fes-i-in-portuguese-community-dwelling-older-adults
#17
Daniela Figueiredo, Sónia Santos
The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable instrument to assess fear of falling among older population. This study aimed to develop a European Portuguese version of the FES-I (FES-I(P)) and analyse its psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data collection integrated a socio-demographic questionnaire which included falls history and presence/absence of fear of falling, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST)...
January 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809923/functional-electrical-stimulation-of-gluteus-medius-reduces-the-medial-joint-reaction-force-of-the-knee-during-level-walking
#18
Lance Rane, Anthony Michael James Bull
BACKGROUND: By altering muscular activation patterns, internal forces acting on the human body during dynamic activity may be manipulated. The magnitude of one of these forces, the medial knee joint reaction force (JRF), is associated with disease progression in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA), suggesting utility in its targeted reduction. Increased activation of gluteus medius has been suggested as a means to achieve this. METHODS: Motion capture equipment and force plate transducers were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data for 15 healthy subjects during level walking, with and without the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to gluteus medius...
November 3, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808537/the-effect-of-positive-symptoms-on-social-cognition-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-is-modified-by-the-presence-of-negative-symptoms
#19
Vibeke Bliksted, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Chris Frith
Objective: There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. Method: Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were tested using the Danish version of NART (premorbid IQ), subtests from WAIS-III (current IQ), and global cognition using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrena (BACS), a neurocognitive test battery. Social perception was tested using film clips of everyday interactions (TASIT)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808003/effects-of-a-fifty-six-month-electrical-stimulation-cycling-program-after-tetraplegia-case-report
#20
David R Dolbow, Ashraf S Gorgey, Refka K Khalil, David R Gater
BACKGROUND: Functional electrical stimulation cycling is a common clinical treatment for individuals with spinal cord injury and other paralytic conditions, however, the long term effects of home-based functional electrical stimulation cycling remains unreported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a long-term home-based functional electrical stimulation lower extremities cycling (FES-LEC) program on body composition. PARTICIPANT: An adult male 52...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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