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Ezgi Yalçıntaş, Andreas C Scheinost, Xavier Gaona, Marcus Altmaier
The mechanisms for the reduction and uptake of Tc by magnetite (Fe3O4) and mackinawite (FeS) are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), in combination with thermodynamic calculations of the Tc/Fe systems and accurate characterization of the solution properties (pHm, pe, [Tc]). Batch sorption experiments were performed under strictly anoxic conditions using freshly prepared magnetite and mackinawite in 0.1 M NaCl solutions with varying initial Tc(vii) concentrations (2 × 10(-5) and 2 × 10(-4) M) and Tc loadings (400-900 ppm)...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yun Li, Yongming Chen, Chaobo Tang, Shenghai Yang, Jing He, Motang Tang
In this work, a new innovative slag cleaning technique was presented to economically and environmentally friendly recover valuable metals from cobalt-bearing copper smelter slag. CaSO4-rich gypsum waste was used as sulfurizing agent to efficiently and selectively sulfurize and recover valuable metals lost in the slag at reductive atmosphere. Thermodynamic analysis and laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the feasibility and reliability of this new process. The optimum slag cleaning conditions were determined as follow: reductive agent coke dosage of 12%, 20% CaSO4 addition of smelter slag weight, smelting at 1350°C for 3h...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xiaoya Liu, Enbo Shangguan, Jing Li, Sashuang Ning, Litan Guo, Quanmin Li
In this paper, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile direct-precipitation method. For the first time, a novel electrochemical sensor is developed based on FeS/rGO nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It has been proved that the resultant FeS/rGO/GCE sensor is very suitable for the individual and simultaneous measurement of dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AC) and delivers excellent anti-interference ability to ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA)...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jasmine S Berg, Dolma Michellod, Petra Pjevac, Clara Martinez-Perez, Caroline R T Buckner, Philipp F Hach, Carsten J Schubert, Jana Milucka, Marcel M M Kuypers
Iron redox reactions play an important role in carbon remineralization, supporting large microbial communities in iron-rich terrestrial and aquatic sediments. Stratified water columns with comparably low iron concentrations are globally widespread, but microbial iron cycling in these systems has largely been ignored. We found evidence for unexpectedly high iron turnover rates in the low (1-2 µmol·l(-1) ) iron waters of Lake Cadagno. Light-dependent, biological iron oxidation rates (1.4-13.8 µmol·l(-1) ·d(-1) ) were even higher than in ferruginous lakes with well-studied microbial iron cycles...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Domenico Intiso, Andrea Santamato, Filomena Di Rienzo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electrical stimulation (ES) as an adjunct to BTX-A boosts botulinum activity and whether the combined therapeutic procedure is more effective than BTX-A alone in reducing spasticity in adult subjects. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and CINAHL from January 1966 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) involving the combination of BTX-A and ES were considered...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Robyn M Amos-Kroohs, Laurie L Davenport, Nina Atanasova, Zuhair I Abdulla, Matthew R Skelton, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element but neurotoxic at higher exposure levels. The effects of Mn overexposure (MnOE) on hippocampal and striatal-dependent learning and memory in rats were tested in combination with iron deficiency (FeD) and developmental stress that often co-occur with MnOE. Moderate FeD affects up to 15% of U.S. children and developmental stress is common in lower socio-economic areas where MnOE occurs. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and their litters were housed in cages with or without (barren cage (BAR)) standard bedding from embryonic day (E)7 to postnatal day (P)28...
October 15, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Lei Zhou, Jing Liu, Faqin Dong
Mackinawite (FeS), widespread in low temperature aquatic environments, is generally considered to be the first Fe sulfide formed in sedimentary environments which has shown effective immobilization of heavy metals and toxic oxyanions through various sorption reactions. The spectroscopic study researches on mackinawite formed by FRB and SRB and its environmental implication for in-situ remediation of acid mine drainage where contains large amounts of Fe(3+) and SO4(2-). The XRD result of biologically synthetic particles shows that these particles are mainly composed of mackinawite (FeS0...
September 29, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Bethel C A Osuagwu, Leslie Wallace, Mathew Fraser, Aleksandra Vuckovic
OBJECTIVE: To compare neurological and functional outcomes between two groups of hospitalised patients with subacute tetraplegia. APPROACH: Seven patients received 20 sessions of brain computer interface (BCI) controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) while five patients received the same number of sessions of passive FES for both hands. The neurological assessment measures were event related desynchronization (ERD) during movement attempt, Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) of the ulnar and median nerve; assessment of hand function involved the range of motion (ROM) of wrist and manual muscle test...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Stephen P Dzul, Agostinho G Rocha, Swati Rawat, Ashoka Kandegedara, April Kusowski, Jayashree Pain, Anjaneyulu Murari, Debkumar Pain, Andrew Dancis, Timothy L Stemmler
FeS-clusters are utilized by numerous proteins within several biological pathways that are essential for life. In eukaryotes, the primary FeS-cluster production pathway is the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, de novo FeS-cluster formation is accomplished through coordinated assembly with the substrates iron and sulfur by the scaffold assembly protein "Isu1". Sulfur for cluster assembly is provided by cysteine desulfurase "Nfs1", a protein that works in union with its accessory protein "Isd11"...
October 14, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Ashraf S Gorgey, Zachary A Graham, William A Bauman, Christopher Cardozo, David R Gater
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal design. OBJECTIVES: The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Marc Possover
We report on unexpected findings in 18 spinal cord injured peoples who underwent a laparoscopic bilateral implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) to the sciatic/femoral nerves pelvic somatic nerves for functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted locomotor training and continuous low-frequency electrical stimulation. Fifteen patients were paraplegics, three low tetraplegics, all of them fully dependent on a wheelchair. After a training period of at least one year, all patients not only started with electrical-assisted standing/stepping using a walker or crutches, but also developed some progressive caudalward recovery of lumbosacral sensoric functions and of supraspinal control of voluntary movements below the lesions...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Desheng Zhai, Yan Lang, Gaopan Dong, Yijun Liu, Xin Wang, Dushuang Zhou, Taizhen Cui, Yuxin Yang, Wenxi Zhang, Ying Zhao, Ruiling Zhang
Antipsychotic use is reported to be associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death and new users are especially susceptible to that risk. In this study, we focused on the ability of antipsychotics to prolong the QTc interval at the earliest stages of antipsychotic use. We employed a retrospective cohort study design in a naturalistic setting where having three ECG measurements over time (at baseline and after drug exposure) in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia (FES) inpatients. The results revealed, in this relatively homogeneous, drug naïve FES patient sample, that QTc intervals were statistically significantly prolongated after a relatively short term (2-4weeks) of antipsychotic treatments, compared with baseline...
October 7, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Sherry A Greenberg, Eileen Sullivan-Marx, Marilyn Lynn S Sommers, Jesse Chittams, Pamela Z Cacchione
Fear of falling (FOF) creates a psychological barrier to performing activities for many older adults. The negative impact of fear of falling increases risk of curtailment of activities, future falls, and injury. The specific aim for this study was to investigate the relationship between two fear of falling measures used in clinical research, the FOF Likert scale and Falls Self Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). The study included a convenience sample of 107 high-risk, community-dwelling, mostly Black (94%) members from one Program for All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly program...
October 5, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Ying Lan, Andrew S Elwood Madden, Elizabeth C Butler
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are common ground water contaminants susceptible to reductive dechlorination by FeS (mackinawite) in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to characterize the mineral-associated products that form when mackinawite reacts with TCE and PCE. The dissolved products of the reaction included Cl(-) and Fe(2+), and trace amounts of cis 1,2-dichloroethylene (for TCE) and TCE (for PCE). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis identified greigite as a mackinawite oxidation product formed after reaction between TCE or PCE and FeS over seven weeks...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
N Y Dzade, A Roldan, N H de Leeuw
The control of nanoparticle shape offers promise for improving catalytic activity and selectivity through optimization of the structure of the catalytically active site. Here, we have employed density functional theory calculations with a correction for the long-range interactions (DFT-D2) to investigate the effect of adsorption of the amino acid cysteine on the {001}, {011}, {100}, and {111} surfaces of mackinawite, which are commonly found in FeS nanoparticles. We have calculated the surface energies and adsorption energies for all the surfaces considered, and compared the surface energies of the pure and adsorbed systems...
October 6, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M Sanchez-Arenillas, E Mateo-Marti
We have demonstrated that the annealing process for cleaning pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter in promoting ordering on the surface and driving surface reactivity. Furthermore, we describe a spectroscopic surface characterization of the presence or absence of the surface ordering, as indicated by the Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) pattern, as a function of the surface annealing process. Complementary X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results provide evidence that longer annealing processes of over 3 hours repair the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, making FeS species partially disappear in favor of FeS2 species...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dong Cheng, Songhu Yuan, Peng Liao, Peng Zhang
Mackinawite (FeS) nanoparticles have been extensively tested for reducing contaminants under anoxic conditions, while the oxidizing impact induced by FeS under oxic conditions has been largely underestimated. In light of previous finding that hydroxyl radicals (•OH) can be produced from oxygenation of sediment Fe(II), herein we revealed that •OH can be produced efficiently from FeS oxygenation at circumneutral conditions, yielding 84.7 μmol •OH per g FeS. Much more •OH was produced from the oxygenation of FeS compared with siderite, pyrite and zerovalent iron nanoparticles under the same conditions...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Daniel Roberts-Clarke, Che Fornusek, Nidhi Saigal, Mark Halaki, Joshua Burns, Garth Nicholson, Maria Fiatarone Singh, Daniel Hackett
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a rare inherited peripheral neuropathy in which quality of life (QoL) is reduced compared to the general population. This paper investigates the relationship between QoL and physical performance in people with CMT with the aim of identifying avenues for future research into rehabilitation strategies. Cross-sectional data was obtained from 10 participants (5 men, 5 women, age 46 ± 13 y, height 1.7 ± 0.1 m, body mass 77 ± 17 kg) with CMT (CMT1A n = 5; CMT-X n = 3; unknown genetic origin n = 3)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Corinne E Wee, Tyler D Ames, Khoi M Le, Tiffany Wang, Laura S Phieffer, Carmen E Quatman
Fragility fractures, or fractures occurring from a low-trauma event, are extremely prevalent among the elderly population worldwide and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the relationship between FES-I Fear of Falling Survey results, self-reported activity restrictions via the SF-36 survey, and scores recorded by portable, inexpensive clinical assessment tools (CATs) during dynamic functional tasks. Low scores during these tasks may indicate functional deficits that put patients at risk for falls and subsequent fragility fractures...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Simona Ferrante, Noelia Chia Bejarano, Emilia Ambrosini, Antonio Nardone, Anna M Turcato, Marco Monticone, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Alessandra Pedrocchi
It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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