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Ameya A Mashruwala, Adriana Van De Guchte, Jeffrey M Boyd
Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation...
February 21, 2017: ELife
Shih-Yao Lin, Asif Hameed, Kai-Yeh Chiu, You-Cheng Liu, Yi-Han Hsu, Wei-An Lai, Chiu-Chung Young
A polyphasic approach was used to characterize a presumably novel bacterium, designated strain CC-KYC063T, isolated from a compost sample collected at a greenhouse facility within Taiwan. Strain CC-KYC063T was Gram-stain-negative and aerobic, able to grow at 15-37 °C (optimal 30 °C), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimal pH 7.0) and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CC-KYC063T showed highest similarity to Olivibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 060T (96.2 %) and Olivibacter terrae Jip13T (95.5 %)...
January 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yan Liu, Xiu-Min Ding, Zheng-Lian Xue, Liu-Xiu Hu, Ning-Juan Zhang, Zhou Wang, Jian-Wei Yang, Qian Cheng, Ming-Hong Chen, Zhuang-Zhuang Zhang, Zhi-Ming Zheng
Menaquinone (MK) was an attractive membrane-bound intracellular chemical. To enhance its production, we tried to find the relationship between its synthesis and the state of cell membrane in producing strain. Due to non-ionic surfactant-polyoxyethylene oleyl ether (POE) and plant oil-cedar wood oil (CWO) can typically increase extracellular secretion and intracellular synthesis of MK respectively, the effect of these two substances on cell morphology, physical properties of cell membrane was investigated. Finally, two engineering strains were constructed to verify whether the state of cell membrane can enhance MK synthesis...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Paridhi Sukheja, Pradeep Kumar, Nisha Mittal, Shao-Gang Li, Eric Singleton, Riccardo Russo, Alexander L Perryman, Riju Shrestha, Divya Awasthi, Seema Husain, Patricia Soteropoulos, Roman Brukh, Nancy Connell, Joel S Freundlich, David Alland
Active tuberculosis (TB) and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection both require lengthy treatments to achieve durable cures. This problem has partly been attributable to the existence of nonreplicating M. tuberculosis "persisters" that are difficult to kill using conventional anti-TB treatments. Compounds that target the respiratory pathway have the potential to kill both replicating and persistent M. tuberculosis and shorten TB treatment, as this pathway is essential in both metabolic states. We developed a novel respiratory pathway-specific whole-cell screen to identify new respiration inhibitors...
February 14, 2017: MBio
Fen Wan, Miaomiao Shi, Haichun Gao
In many bacteria, OxyR is the major regulator controlling cellular response to H2O2. A common phenotype resulting from OxyR loss is reduced growth rate, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We demonstrated in Shewanella oneidensis, an important research model for applied and environmental microbes, that the defect is primarily due to an electron shortage to major terminal oxidase cytochrome cbb3. The loss of OxyR leads to enhanced production of electron carriers that compete for electrons against cytochrome cbb3, cytochrome bd in particular...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lindsey O'Neal, Peter Schumann, Enevold Falsen, Paul A Lawson
The entomopathogen "Corynebacterium okanaganae" was described by Lüthy in 1974 but the name was never validly published. Phylogenetic analysis employing 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrate that "Corynebacterium okanaganae" is not a member of the genus Corynebacterium but related to members of the Microbacteriaceae being most closely related to, but distinct from, members of the genera Rathayibacter, Mycetocola and Curtobacterium. The bacterium is an aerobic, Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped actinobacterium with the cell-wall peptidoglycan based on 2,4, diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic diamino acid...
February 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jun-Lian Gao, Pengbo Sun, Xu-Ming Wang, Fan-Yang Lv, Jian-Guang Sun
A novel Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped strain designated 1204(T) was isolated from surface-sterilised stem tissue of maize planted in Fangshan District of Beijing, People's Republic of China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on the new isolate. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, this isolate belongs to the genus Microbacterium. High levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were found between strain 1204(T) and Microbacterium enclense NIO-1002(T) (98...
February 7, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Kaushik Biswas, Jayanta D Choudhury, Riddhi Mahansaria, Malay Saha, Joydeep Mukherjee
A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete (strain MS 3/20(T)) was isolated from the sediment of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in India. On International Streptomyces Project (ISP) medium 2, the isolate produced yellowish brown to red aerial hyphae that carried spiny-surfaced spores in a retinaculum-apertum arrangement. Whole-cell hydrolysate of the strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and galactose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Diagnostic polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified phospholipid and unidentified amino lipid...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Sascha Hein, Oliver Klimmek, Markus Polly, Melanie Kern, Jörg Simon
The membranous quinone/quinol pool is essential to the majority of life forms and has been widely used as an important biomarker in microbial taxonomy. In the anaerobic world, the most important quinones are menaquinone (MK) and a methylated form of MK, designated methylmenaquinone (MMK), which is anticipated to serve specifically in low-potential electron transport chains involved in anaerobic respiration. However, it has remained unclear how MMK is generated. Here we show that a novel enzyme homologous to class C radical SAM methyltransferases (RSMTs) synthesizes MMK using MK as substrate...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Peer H A Timmers, Cornelia U Welte, Jasper J Koehorst, Caroline M Plugge, Mike S M Jetten, Alfons J M Stams
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is catalyzed by anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) via a reverse and modified methanogenesis pathway. Methanogens can also reverse the methanogenesis pathway to oxidize methane, but only during net methane production (i.e., "trace methane oxidation"). In turn, ANME can produce methane, but only during net methane oxidation (i.e., enzymatic back flux). Net AOM is exergonic when coupled to an external electron acceptor such as sulfate (ANME-1, ANME-2abc, and ANME-3), nitrate (ANME-2d), or metal (oxides)...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
Gaiyun Zhang, Lina Wang, Jinglong Li, Yuan Zhou
A novel Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile actinobacterium, designated GY0556T, was isolated from a deep-sea sediment collected from the western Pacific at a depth of 7118 m. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this strain belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, being most closely related to Pseudonocardia hydrocarbonoxydans IMSNU 22140T (97.6 %), Pseudonocardia sulfidoxydans DSM 44248T (97.6 %) and Pseudonocardia alaniniphila YIM 16303T (97.6 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Pseudonocardia was less than 97...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Hien T T Ngo, Huan Trinh, Jung-Eun Yang, Kyung-Hwa Won, Dong-Hun Chu, MooChang Kook, Tae-Hoo Yi
A Gram-stain-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG-DN6.14T, was isolated from a freshwater sample near Donghaksa temple in Daejeon, South Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-DN6.14T was found to be most closely related to Emticicia sediminis JBR12T (99.1 % sequence similarity), Emticicia oligotrophica DSM 17448T (97.6 %), Emticicia aquatica HMF2925T (96.5 %), and Emticicia ginsengisoli Gsoil 085T (94.4 %)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Byung Hee Chun, Yunhee Lee, Hyun Mi Jin, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-stain-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium, designated B6T, was isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in South Korea. Cells were oxidase- and catalase-positive and non-motile rods producing yellow carotenoid-type pigments. Growth of strain B6T was observed at 20-40 C (optimum, 37 C) and pH 6.6-8.2 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in R2A broth supplemented with 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Strain B6T contained iso-C15:0 as the major fatty acid. Menaquinone-6 was detected as the sole respiratory quinone...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Elena V Pikuta, Zhe Lyu, Melissa D Williams, Nisha B Patel, Yuchen Liu, Richard Brice Hoover, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Paul A Lawson, William B Whitman
A novel psychrotolerant bacterium strain ISLP-3T was isolated from a sample of naturally formed ice sculpture on the shore of Lake Podprudnoye in Antarctica. Cells were motile, stained Gram positive, non-spore-forming, straight or slightly curved rods with the shape of a baseball bat. The new isolate was facultatively anaerobic and catalase positive. Growth occurred at 3-35 ºC with an optimum at 24 °C, 0-2 % w/v NaCl with an optimum at 0.3 % and pH 6.2 - 9.5 with an optimum 7.5. Strain ISLP-3T grew on several carbon sources, with the best growth on D-cellobiose...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Geert Huys, Prashant Purohit, Chuan Hao Tan, Cindy Snauwaert, Paul De Vos, Huda Al Saffar, Ina'am Al Obaid, M John Albert, Hans-Jurgen Busse, Torsten Seemann
We have determined the taxonomic position of two isolates of the genus Sphingobacterium. The first isolate, R-53603T, was obtained from purulent discharge from the toe of a cellulitis patient in Kuwait. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 99.87% identity of R-53603T with environmental isolate P031 (= R-53745) originating from activated sludge in Singapore. Both isolates were phylogenetically positioned on the same sub-branch. Highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Sphingobacterium mizutaii LMG 8340T (98...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Annika Röttig, Ewelina Atasayar, Jan Philipp Meier-Kolthoff, Cathrin Spröer, Peter Schumann, Jennifer Schauer, Alexander Steinbüchel
A novel strain, G25T, was isolated from desert soil collected near Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. It can accumulate nearly 65% fatty acids of its cell dry weight, grows on a broad range of carbon sources, and tolerates temperatures of up to 50°C. According to its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain G25T is most closely related to Streptomyces massasporeus DSM 40035T, Streptomyces hawaiiensis DSM 40042T, Streptomyces indiaensis DSM 43803T, Streptomyces luteogriseus DSM 40483T, and Streptomyces purpurascens DSM 40310T. Conventional DNA:DNA hybridization (DDH) values ranged from 18...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Priya Singh, Rashmi Kumari, Namita Nayyar, Rup Lal
Strain NP1T, a Gram-stain negative, orange-coloured, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soil sediment collected from Ummari village, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NP1T clustered with members belonging to the genus Pontibacter of the order Cytophagales, family Cytophagaceae and phylum Bacteriodetes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of the genus Pontibacter ranged from 98.57 to 93.95% depicting Pontibacter odishensis JC-130T (98...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jong Woo Hyeon, Hyo Jung Lee, Sang Eun Jeong, Ga Youn Cho, Che Ok Jeon
A gram-staining-negative and strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated 6-4T, was isolated from forest soil in Jeju island, South Korea. Cells showing oxidase-positive and catalase-negative reactions were thin and long non-motile rods. Growth of strain 6-4T was observed at 20-35 C (optimum, 30 C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Strain 6-4T contained iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major fatty acids and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the sole isoprenoid quinone. Phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid and five unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified aminophospholipid and one unidentified lipid were also detected as the minor polar lipids...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Vasil A Gaisin, Alexander M Kalashnikov, Denis S Grouzdev, Marina V Sukhacheva, Boris B Kuznetsov, Vladimir M Gorlenko
A novel, thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium, strain isl-2T, was isolated from the Strokkur Geyser, Iceland. Strain isl-2T formed unbranched multicellular filaments with gliding motility. The cells formed no spores and stained Gram-negative. The existence of pili was described in Chloroflexus spp. for the first time. Optimal growth occurred in a pH range of 7.5-7.7 and at a temperature of 55°C. Strain isl-2T grew photoheterotrophically under anaerobic conditions in the light and chemoheterotrophically under aerobic conditions in the dark...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Fadime Ozdemir-Kocak, Hayrettin Saygin, Salih Saricaoglu, Demet Cetin, Kiymet Guven, Cathrin Spröer, Peter Schumann, Hans-Peter Klenk, Nevzat Sahin, Kamil Isik
A novel actinobacterial strain, designated FMN22(T), was isolated from soil and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Strain FMN22(T) showed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Kribbella karoonensis Q41(T) (99.3%), Kribbella shirazensis UTMC 693(T) (99.0%), Kribbella aluminosa HKI 0478(T) (98.9%) and Kribbella hippodromi S1.4(T) (98.6%). Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA and concatenated gene (gyrB, rpoB, relA, recA and atpD) sequences showed that strain FMN22(T) is closely related to the type strains of K...
January 24, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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