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Benjamin Nicholson, Harinder Dhindsa, Louis Seay
BACKGROUND: Blunt injuries to the cervical trachea remain rare but present unique and challenging clinical scenarios for prehospital providers. These injuries depend on prehospital providers either definitively securing the injured airway or bridging the patient to a treatment facility that can mobilize the necessary resources. CASE SUMMARY: The case presented here involves a clothesline injury to a pediatric patient that resulted in complete tracheal transection and partial esophageal transection...
October 4, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
M B Avnstorp, P V F Jensen, T Dzongodza, N Matinhira, C Chidziva, J Melchiors, C Von Buchwald
BACKGROUND: In developing countries with limited access to ENT services, performing emergency cricothyroidotomy in patients with upper airway obstruction may be a life-saving last resort. An established Danish-Zimbabwean collaboration of otorhinolaryngologists enrolled Zimbabwean doctors into a video-guided simulation training programme on emergency cricothyroidotomy. This paper presents the positive effect of this training, illustrated by two case reports. CASE REPORTS: A 56-year-old female presented with upper airway obstruction due to a rapidly progressing infectious swelling of the head and neck progressing to cardiac arrest...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Tetsuya Yumoto, Tatsushi Matsumura, Kohei Tsukahara, Keiji Sato, Toyomu Ugawa, Yoshihito Ujike
INTRODUCTION: Cricothyroidotomy is an emergency procedure that can be used to secure the airway in situations in which intubation and ventilation are not possible. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a case of 79-year-old male presenting with facial trauma combined with massive upper airway bleeding and swelling in which cricothyroidotomy was required to open the airway in an elderly male patient taking antiplatelet agents who suffered a simple ground-level fall. DISCUSSION: Although emergency airway management is often required in patients with Le Fort fractures, mandibular condyle fractures exhibit a significant relationship with ground-level falls, which are not usually associated with emergency airway management...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Adi Osman, Kok Meng Sum
Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
L Chrisman, W King, K Wimble, S Cartwright, K B Mohammed, B Patel
BACKGROUND: 'Can't Intubate, Can't Oxygenate' is a rare but life threatening event. Anaesthetists must be trained and have appropriate equipment available for this. The ideal equipment is a topic of ongoing debate. To date cricothyroidotomy training for anaesthetists has concentrated on cannula techniques. However cases reported to the NAP4 audit illustrated that they were associated with a high failure rate. A recent editorial by Kristensen and colleagues suggested all anaesthetists must master a surgical technique...
August 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Jacob Melchiors, Tobias Todsen, Philip Nilsson, Andreas Pagh Kohl, Morten Bøttger, Birgitte Charabi, Lars Konge, Christian von Buchwald
The emergency cricothyroidotomy (EC) is a critical procedure. The high cost of failures increases the demand for evidence-based training methods. The aim of this study was to present and evaluate self-directed video-guided simulation training. Novice doctors were given an individual 1-h simulation training session. One month later, an EC on a cadaver was performed. All EC's were video recorded. An assessment tool was used to rate performance. Performance was compared with a pass/fail level for the EC. We found a high reliability, based on Pearson's r (0...
July 5, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Stuart Duncan Marshall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Sabri T Shuker
This article aims to bring attention to the morbidity and fatality of hemorrhage, how expanding hematoma and air compromise neck/face N/F injuries and present challenges. Large neck vessel ballistic injuries may lead to hemorrhage and expanding hematoma, resulting in airway compromise, due to injuries to the internal and/or external carotid arteries, internal jugular veins "internal carotid artery, external carotid artery, internal jugular vein," and the external carotid artery deep branches. This also leads to injuries to the cervical fascial layers (barriers of deep spaces) that facilitate pooling blood and hematoma into compartmental and large potential space which effects the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and trachea...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
M Rehn, P K Hyldmo, V Magnusson, J Kurola, P Kongstad, L Rognås, L K Juvet, M Sandberg
BACKGROUND: The Scandinavian society of anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine task force on pre-hospital airway management was asked to formulate recommendations following standards for trustworthy clinical practice guidelines. METHODS: The literature was systematically reviewed and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system was applied to move from evidence to recommendations. RESULTS: We recommend that all emergency medical service (EMS) providers consider to: apply basic airway manoeuvres and airway adjuncts (good practice recommendation); turn unconscious non-trauma patients into the recovery position when advanced airway management is unavailable (good practice recommendation); turn unconscious trauma patients to the lateral trauma position while maintaining spinal alignment when advanced airway management is unavailable [strong recommendation, low quality of evidence (QoE)]...
August 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Chih-Hung Wang, Wen-Jone Chen, Wei-Tien Chang, Min-Shan Tsai, Ping-Hsun Yu, Yen-Wen Wu, Chien-Hua Huang
AIM: Resuscitation guidelines indicate the ideal timing of tracheal intubation during in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) has not been adequately studied. METHODS: A retrospective observational study in a single medical centre was conducted that evaluated patients with IHCA between 2006 and 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between independent variables and outcomes. Time to intubation was defined as elapsed time from the first chest compression to the time of completion of endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, or cricothyroidotomy...
August 2016: Resuscitation
Tricia Cheah, Jennifer F Ha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Ian Mc Ferguson, Mohammed Z Shareef, Brian Burns, Cliff Reid
Competent performance of cricothyroidotomy, lateral canthotomy and resuscitative thoracostomy is an expected standard for Australasian emergency physicians, but infrequent exposure to these procedures could impair physician confidence, reducing the likelihood of their execution in a critical timeframe. Training to perform these procedures is a recognised challenge for non-surgeons, and cadaver-based training is one method of addressing this need. We describe a 1 day cadaver-based workshop for emergency medicine doctors and briefly report on its impact on physician confidence...
May 13, 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Ulrich Kisser, Christian Braun, Astrid Huber, Klaus Stelter
OBJECTIVE: In motion pictures and anecdotal reports, ballpoint pens have been used for life-saving cricothyroidotomies. The objective of this study was to examine the widespread belief that ballpoint pens can perforate the skin and cricothyroid ligament and could be used as substitute tracheostomy sets in an emergency setting. METHODS: Three different ballpoint pens were examined regarding their inner diameter, their demountability to form a cannula and their airflow properties...
August 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Christoph Martin, Tobias Nefzger, Gösta Lotz
Airway management in the prehospital setting is a particular challenge. Even with numerous alternative devices, endotracheal intubation still represents the gold standard. Limited knowledge and experience of the user in addition to a critical patient's condition, special environmental conditions and limited material resources at the out of hospital emergency, are major causes of an increased incidence of difficult airways in the preclinical setting. For the management of the difficult airway emergency physicians can use alternatives to tracheal intubation such as extraglottic airway devices, videolaryngoscopy and cricothyroidotomy...
April 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Mallar Bhattacharya, Richard H Kallet, Lorraine B Ware, Michael A Matthay
Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE...
October 2016: Chest
Doga Demirel, Alexander Yu, Tansel Halic, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Adam Ryason, David Spindler, Kathryn L Butler, Caroline Cao, Emil Petrusa, Marcos Molina, Dan Jones, Suvranu De, Marc Demoya, Stephanie Jones
This paper presents a simulation of Virtual Airway Skill Trainer (VAST) tasks. The simulated tasks are a part of two main airway management techniques; Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) and Cricothyroidotomy (CCT). ETI is a simple nonsurgical airway management technique, while CCT is the extreme surgical alternative to secure the airway of a patient. We developed identification of Mallampati class, finding the optimal angle for positioning pharyngeal/mouth axes tasks for ETI and identification of anatomical landmarks and incision tasks for CCT...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Jacob Melchiors, Tobias Todsen, Lars Konge, Birgitte Charabi, Christian von Buchwald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Head & Neck
Shanta Hungund, Divya Aravind Hirolli, Safiya Imtiaz Shaikh
Management of homicidal cut-throat injuries requires a multi-disciplinary approach. The role of an anesthesiologist in instituting an airway using an endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy before wound exploration and repair of transected tissues, is challenging, as, such injuries are most of the time associated with distortion of the normal anatomy of the airway. We hereby report a case of 60-year-old lady diagnosed as homicidal cut-throat injury with vocal cords exposed externally and injury of thyroid cartilage and pharyngeal muscles...
January 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Graeme A Browne
Quick response tracheostomy (QRT) is a novel open surgical technique to emergently establish an airway. The method is simple; the skills necessary to perform this procedure are rapidly acquired; and it is expedient, minimally traumatic, and remarkably devoid of complications often encountered with percutaneous dilatational tracheotomies, including those complications seen with cricothyroidotomies. Unlike all other tracheotomies in which considerable blunt dissection is required, QRT avoids tissue crushing because sharp dissection alone is used to acquire surgical access to the trachea...
May 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Sunao Tanaka, Shigeru Kikuchi, Atsushi Ohata, Takeshi Tsutsumi, Masafumi Ohki
We carried out a retrospective review of 285 cases of acute epiglottitis (180 males, 105 females, mean age 49.6 years) that required inpatients hospital care between 1998 and 2014. All the patients complained of sore throat, and 62 patients complained of respiratory discomfort; 17 patients had severe dyspnea, and 27 patients required airway management (tracheotomy in 25, cricothyroidotomy in 2 patients). All the patients survived. As acute epiglottitis can cause rapidly progressive airway obstruction and death, emergent airway management should be undertaken in patients with dyspnea...
November 2015: Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
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