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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917715/antiplatelet-agents-and-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#1
Jens Lutz, Kerstin Jurk
Progressive impairment of renal function can lead to uremia, which is associated with thus increasing the risk of bleeding as well as thrombosis. Furthermore, many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an indication for an anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy due to atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, thromboembolic disease, or peripheral artery disease. The treatment usually includes vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) and/or platelet aggregation inhibitors. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin activity represent an alternative for heparins and VKAs...
December 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897392/toll-like-receptor-4-signalling-mediates-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Daniela Verzola, Alice Bonanni, Antonella Sofia, Fabrizio Montecucco, Elena D'Amato, Valeria Cademartori, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Francesca Viazzi, Chiara Venturelli, Giuliano Brunori, Giacomo Garibotto
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in skeletal muscle is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cachexia but why uremia up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate locally the innate immune responses, but it is unknown whether in chronic kidney disease (CKD) TLR4 muscle signalling is altered. The aim of the study is to investigate whether in CKD muscle, TLRs had abnormal function and may be involved in transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891268/a-case-report-describing-a-rare-presentation-of-simultaneous-occurrence-of-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Nathalie Foray, Tamer Hudali, Muralidhar Papireddy, John Gao
Background. Renal-limited myeloperoxidase vasculitis with simultaneous rheumatoid arthritis is reported as a rare occurrence. Review of literature suggests that most patients had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis for several years prior to presenting with renal failure from myeloperoxidase vasculitis. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old Caucasian male presented to the hospital experiencing malaise, fevers, decreased oral intake, nausea, and vomiting for one week duration. His past medical history consisted of newly diagnosed but untreated rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889756/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-reveals-the-effect-of-lactobacillus-treatment-on-the-faecal-metabolite-profile-of-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#4
Bin Wu, Hongli Jiang, Quan He, Meng Wang, Jinhong Xue, Hua Liu, Kehui Shi, Meng Wei, Shanshan Liang, Liwen Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic kidney disease is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and by an increase in the number of gut pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of the faecal metabolic profiles in rats with uremia, and to determine whether the altered metabolites in the rats with uremia can be restored by Lactobacillus. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, uremia and uremia + probiotic (UP) groups...
November 26, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854278/n-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide-2py-major-metabolite-of-nicotinamide-an-update-on-an-old-uremic-toxin
#5
REVIEW
Aurélie Lenglet, Sophie Liabeuf, Sandra Bodeau, Loïc Louvet, Aurélien Mary, Agnès Boullier, Anne Sophie Lemaire-Hurtel, Alexia Jonet, Pascal Sonnet, Said Kamel, Ziad A Massy
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY, a major metabolite of nicotinamide, NAM) was recently identified as a uremic toxin. Recent interventional trials using NAM to treat high levels of phosphorus in end-stage renal disease have highlighted new potential uremic toxicities of 2PY. In the context of uremia, the accumulation of 2PY could be harmful-perhaps by inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity. Here, we review recently published data on 2PY's metabolism and toxicological profile.
November 15, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#6
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843345/the-danish-nephrology-registry
#7
REVIEW
James Heaf
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Nephrology Registry's (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities' quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. STUDY POPULATION: The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825854/establishment-and-validation-of-an-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-igg-antibody-against-cytomegalovirus-based-on-pp150-antigen
#8
Huang Xi, Li Jinjie, Ge Shengxiang, Li Tingdong, Wang Han, Guo Xiaoyi, Fu Tong-Ming, Zhang Jun
The development of HCMV vaccines for the prevention of congenital HCMV has been identified as a top priority by the Institute of Medicine (USA), and virus infection is an important endpoint for the efficacy evaluation of the candidate vaccines. However, it is technically difficult to capture the HCMV viremia or uremia in infected individuals because the viremia or uremia can be detected only transiently during acute infection, and most people who are infected are asymptomatic. Thus, it is much desired to develop a serological assay for effectively distinguishing anti-HCMV antibodies as a result of natural infection from those elicited by subunit antigen vaccination...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822674/conversion-of-oral-alfacalcidol-to-oral-calcitriol-in-the-treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Sandrine Rauscher, Jean-Philippe Lafrance, Vincent Pichette, Robert Z Bell, Katherine Desforges, Laurence Lepage, Georges Ouellet, Denis Ouimet, Martine Leblanc, Caroline Lamarche, Sarah Bezzaoucha, Michel Vallee
PURPOSE: The optimal vitamin D3 therapy for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in chronic hemodialysis patients is still controversial. Recent studies suggest that uremia in end-stage renal disease is associated with enzymatic hepatic dysfunction altering 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3. The goal of our study was to compare the efficacy of calcitriol, the fully hydroxylated active form of vitamin D3, to alfacalcidol which needs 25-hydroxylation to be effective, for the treatment of SHPT in chronic hemodialysis patients...
November 8, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816765/micrornas-in-parathyroid-physiopathology
#10
V Vaira, C Verdelli, I Forno, S Corbetta
Parathyroid glands regulate calcium homeostasis through synthesis and secretion of parathormone (PTH). They sense the extracellular calcium concentration through the G-protein coupled calcium sensing receptor (CASR) and release PTH in order to preserve calcium concentration in the physiological range. Tumors of the parathyroid glands are common endocrine neoplasia associated with primary or secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidisms. Small non-coding RNAs are regulators of gene expression able to modulate hormone synthesis, hormone release and endocrine cell proliferation...
November 2, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804262/effects-of-end-stage-renal-disease-and-dialysis-modalities-on-blood-ammonia-level
#11
Nosratola D Vaziri, Mahyar Khazaeli, Ane C F Nunes, Kevin T Harley, Hyder Said, Omeed Alipour, Wei Ling Lau, Madeleine V Pahl
Introduction Uremia results in a characteristic breath odor (uremic fetor) which is largely due to its high ammonia content. Earlier studies have shown a strong correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea levels and a 10-fold reduction in breath ammonia after hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Potential sources of breath ammonia include: (i) local ammonia production from hydrolysis of urea in the oropharyngeal and respiratory tracts by bacterial flora, and (ii) release of circulating blood ammonia by the lungs...
November 1, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797407/platelet-aggregometry-cannot-identify-uremic-platelet-dysfunction-in-heart-failure-patients-prior-to-cardiac-surgery
#12
Josh Showalter, Nghia D Nguyen, Samer Baba, Chi Hyun Lee, Jing Ning, Kimberly Klein, M Amer Wahed, Ashok Tholpady
BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure often have concomitant renal disease which can result in uremic platelet dysfunction. Determining whether uremia has affected platelets by platelet aggregometry can be challenging in these patients since they are often on antiplatelet medications. This study was undertaken to determine if platelet aggregation studies could identify heart failure patients at risk for uremic bleeding prior to cardiac surgery. METHODS: Platelet aggregation studies from three groups were studied and compared: 17 heart failure patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, 17 heart failure patients without renal abnormalities and 17 healthy volunteers...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796862/evaluation-and-treatment-of-hypertension-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-on-hemodialysis
#13
REVIEW
Peter Noel Van Buren
Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular comorbidities in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Its complex pathophysiology is related to extracellular volume overload, increased vascular resistance stemming from factors related to uremia or abnormal signaling from the failing kidneys, as well as the unique blood pressure changes that take place during and between hemodialysis treatments. Despite the changing nature of blood pressure over time in hemodialysis patients, hypertension diagnosed in or out of the hemodialysis unit is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
December 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795626/anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-crescentic-glomerulonephritis-a-report-from-india-and-review-of-literature
#14
A Gupta, V Agrawal, A Kaul, R Verma, R Pandey
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is an autoimmune disease that most commonly presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with or without pulmonary involvement. It is characterized by the presence of antibodies directed to antigenic targets within glomerular and alveolar basement membranes. This study was performed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and outcome in anti-GBM crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) at a tertiary care center in North India over a period of 9 years (January 2004 to December 2012)...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783636/online-haemodiafiltration-improves-inflammatory-state-in-dialysis-patients-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Ines Rama, Ines Llaudó, Pere Fontova, Gema Cerezo, Carlos Soto, Casimiro Javierre, Miguel Hueso, Nuria Montero, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan Torras, Josep M Grinyó, Josep M Cruzado, Nuria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780235/comparison-of-hla-a-b-and-drb1-loci-polymorphism-between-kidney-transplants-of-uremia-patients-and-healthy-individuals-in-central-china
#16
Wenjun Shang, Yuefeng Shen, Shilin Gao, Guiwen Feng, Yonghua Feng, Zhigang Wang, Xiaobai Zhang
Chronic kidney disease is becoming a global public health problem, which will usually cause uremia at the end stage of chronic kidney failure. So far, kidney transplant is the most effective and proper therapy for uremia, however, the short supply of matched donor kidney has been a persistent bottleneck for transplantation. HLA matching of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci is very important for the allocation of kidney transplants. In this study, we investigated genotypes of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci based on 1,464 uremia patients and 10,000 unrelated healthy individuals in Henan province of China, and compared the frequency distribution of these HLA alleles and corresponding haplotypes between patient and healthy groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752032/starvation-ketoacidosis-as-a-cause-of-unexplained-metabolic-acidosis-in-the-perioperative-period
#17
Monique Mostert, Anthony Bonavia
BACKGROUND Besides providing anesthesia for surgery, the anesthesiologist's role is to optimize the patient for surgery and for post-surgical recovery. This involves timely identification and treatment of medical comorbidities and abnormal laboratory values that could complicate the patient's perioperative course. There are several potential causes of anion and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis in surgical patients, most of which could profoundly affect a patient's surgical outcome. Thus, the presence of an acute acid-base disturbance requires a thorough workup, the results of which will influence the patient's anesthetic management...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747129/delayed-diagnosis-of-iatrogenic-bladder-perforation-in-a-neonate
#18
Antoinette S Birs, Jose A Perez, Mark A Rich, Hubert S Swana
Iatrogenic bladder injuries have been reported in the neonate during umbilical artery/vein catheterization, voiding cystourethrogram, urinary catheterizations, and overwhelming hypoxic conditions. Patients with iatrogenic bladder perforations can present with acute abdomen indicating urinary peritonitis, septic-uremic shock, or subtle symptoms like abdominal distension, pain, hematuria, uremia, electrolyte imbalances, and/or difficulty urinating. The following neonatal case report of perforated bladder includes a review of the signs, symptoms, diagnostic tools, and management of bladder injury in neonates...
2016: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728481/ptosis-and-uremia-as-a-rare-feature-of-uremia
#19
Geetanjali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722783/is-there-such-a-thing-as-biocompatible-peritoneal-dialysis-fluid
#20
REVIEW
Claus Peter Schmitt, Christoph Aufricht
Introduction of the so-called biocompatible peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids was based on a large body of experimental evidence and various clinical trials suggesting important clinical benefits. Of these, until now, only preservation of residual renal function-likely due to lower glucose degradation product load and, in case of icodextrin, improved fluid and blood pressure control-have consistently been proven, whereas the impact on important clinical endpoints such as infectious complications, preservation of PD membrane transport function, and patient outcome, are still debated...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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