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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138677/oxidative-stress-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Vassilios Liakopoulos, Stefanos Roumeliotis, Xenia Gorny, Evangelia Dounousi, Peter R Mertens
Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at high risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. In addition to traditional risk factors, excessive oxidative stress (OS) and chronic inflammation emerge as novel and major contributors to accelerated atherosclerosis and elevated mortality. OS is defined as the imbalance between antioxidant defense mechanisms and oxidant products, the latter overwhelming the former. OS appears in early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), advances along with worsening of renal failure, and is further exacerbated by the HD process per se...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138633/influence-of-spk-with-enteric-drainage-on-the-pancreatic-exocrine-function-in-diabetic-patients-with-uremia
#2
Guanghui Pei, Wu Lv, Xiaohang Li, Guoqing Zhang, Jialin Zhang
Objective: This study aimed to determine the use of fecal elastase in evaluating the effect of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation with enteric drainage on the pancreatic exocrine function of diabetic patients with uremia. Methods: A total of 19 patients with simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) with enteric drainage, 31 diabetic patients with uremia (chronic renal failure (CRF)), 22 diabetic patients with uremia who underwent renal transplantation (RT), and 20 normal individuals (CON) were included in the study...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094331/pterostilbene-protects-against-uraemia-serum-induced-endothelial-cell-damage-via-activation-of-keap1-nrf2-ho-1-signaling
#3
Zhi-Wei Chen, Hai-Feng Miu, Hui-Ping Wang, Zhi-Niu Wu, Wen-Juan Wang, Yu-Jing Ling, Xiao-Hui Xu, Hai-Jian Sun, Xia Jiang
Chronic kidney disease causes uremia-related endothelial cell dysfunction associated with high risk for cardiovascular diseases. The vascular endothelium is permanently exposed to uraemic toxins including indoxyl sulfate, which provokes endothelial damage in subjects with end-stage renal disease. Pterostilbene (PT) is identified to be homologous derivative of resveratrol and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. However, the effects of PT on uraemic serum-induced endothelial cell damage have not been elucidated...
November 1, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071558/the-relation-between-brain-mri-findings-and-blood-manganese-levels-in-renal-transplantation-hemodialysis-and-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#4
Esra Akcan, Sultan Özkurt, Garip Sahin, Ahmet Ugur Yalcin, Baki Adapinar
PURPOSE: Various factors can affect blood and tissue levels of trace elements in patients with end-stage renal disease. There are a few studies showing hyperintensity of basal ganglia associated with manganese deposition in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study aimed to investigate the intensity changes as markers of manganese deposition in the basal ganglia and to demonstrate their association with blood manganese levels using ICP/MS technique in HD, peritoneal dialysis (PD), and renal transplant patients...
October 25, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065404/urgent-start-peritoneal-dialysis-the-first-year-of-brazilian-experience
#5
Dayana Bitencourt Dias, Marcela Lara Mendes, Vanessa Burgugi Banin, Pasqual Barretti, Daniela Ponce
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate mechanical and infectious complications associated with urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) and patients and technique survival in the first 180 days. METHODS: It was a prospective study that evaluated chronic patients who started unplanned PD using high-volume PD (HVPD) right after (<72 h) PD catheter placement. After hospital discharge, patients were treated with intermittent PD on alternate days in a dialysis unit until family training was provided...
October 25, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063159/fibroblast-growth-factor-fgf-23-regulates-the-plasma-levels-of-parathyroid-hormone-in-vivo-through-the-fgf-receptor-in-normocalcemia-but-not-in-hypocalcemia
#6
Maria L Mace, Eva Gravesen, Anders Nordholm, Klaus Olgaard, Ewa Lewin
The calcium and phosphate homeostasis is regulated by a complex interplay between parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and calcitriol. Experimental studies have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of FG23 on PTH production and secretion; the physiological role of this regulation is however not well understood. Surprisingly, in uremia, concomitantly elevated FGF23 and PTH levels are observed. The parathyroid gland rapidly loses its responsiveness to extracellular calcium in vitro and a functional parathyroid cell line has currently not been established...
October 23, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056167/skin-blood-flow-and-vascular-endothelium-function-in-uremia
#7
Miroslaw J Smogorzewski
Prevalence of dermatological disorder in patients with end-stage kidney disease is estimated as 50% to 100% in various studies. Some of the skin lesions are specific for the diseases causing chronic kidney disease (CKD), some are associated with CKD, and still others are the dermatological manifestation of uremia. Microangiopathy was also found in both arterioles and venule in the skin biopsy of "normal looking" skin in patients with end-stage kidney disease. In a cross-sectional study in patients on dialysis, we measured skin blood flow (SBF) using laser Doppler device in a standardized way at various areas of lower extremities at 2 different local skin temperatures: 35°C and 44°C...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056165/the-leaky-gut-and-altered-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease results in disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as profound changes in the gut microbial flora. These events are largely mediated by (1) heavy influx of circulating urea to the gut lumen and (2) dietary restrictions of foods containing high fiber (such as fruits and vegetable) and symbiotic organisms (such as yogurt and cheese) imposed to mitigate hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia. Collectively, these factors promote systemic inflammation and cardiovascular morbidity by mediating microbial dysbiosis, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and translocation of endotoxin, bacterial fragments, and uremic toxins across the "leaky gut" into the bloodstream...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056164/adam17-a-new-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#9
Alessandra F Perna, Alessandra Pizza, Annarita Di Nunzio, Rocco Bellantone, Marco Raffaelli, Tommaso Cicchella, Giovanni Conzo, Luigi Santini, Miriam Zacchia, Francesco Trepiccione, Diego Ingrosso
The triad composed by α-Klotho, fibroblast growth factor-23, and its receptor are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is a metalloproteinase causing the proteolytic shedding of α-Klotho from the cell membrane, and its role in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder is not yet known. We studied the circulating levels of the above-mentioned mediators in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to uremia, compared to control subjects, as well as in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056163/a-history-of-uremia-research
#10
Garabed Eknoyan
The history of uremia research begins with the discovery of urea and the subsequent association of elevated blood urea levels with the kidney disease described by Richard Bright, a well told story that needs no recounting. What this article highlights is how clinical and laboratory studies of urea launched the analysis of body fluids, first of urine and then of blood, that would beget organic chemistry, paved the way for the study of renal function and the use of urea clearance to determine "renal efficiency," provided for the initial classification of kidney disease, and clarified the concepts of diffusion and osmosis that would lead to the development of dialysis...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056162/proceedings-of-the-ninth-international-congress-of-uremia-research-and-toxicity
#11
EDITORIAL
Shaul G Massry, Alejandro Trevino Becerra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055426/the-function-of-the-parathyroid-oxyphil-cells-in-uremia-still-a%C3%A2-mystery
#12
Carlo Basile, Carlo Lomonte
Parathyroid glands of young adults consist primarily of chief cells. However, with age or after excessive functional stress, another cell type increases progressively-the oxyphil cell. There is evidence for a chief-to-oxyphil cell transdifferentiation in chronic kidney disease. The latter may represent a defense mechanism, transforming the actively secreting chief cells to a less actively secreting cell type. However, even if this strategy is able to delay the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism, it cannot prevent it...
November 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046343/complement-activation-in-peritoneal-dialysis-induced-arteriolopathy
#13
Maria Bartosova, Betti Schaefer, Justo Lorenzo Bermejo, Silvia Tarantino, Felix Lasitschka, Stephan Macher-Goeppinger, Peter Sinn, Bradley A Warady, Ariane Zaloszyc, Katja Parapatics, Peter Májek, Keiryn L Bennett, Jun Oh, Christoph Aufricht, Franz Schaefer, Klaus Kratochwill, Claus Peter Schmitt
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of increased mortality in patients with CKD and is further aggravated by peritoneal dialysis (PD). Children are devoid of preexisting CVD and provide unique insight into specific uremia- and PD-induced pathomechanisms of CVD. We obtained peritoneal specimens from children with stage 5 CKD at time of PD catheter insertion (CKD5 group), children with established PD (PD group), and age-matched nonuremic controls (n=6/group). We microdissected omental arterioles from tissue layers not directly exposed to PD fluid and used adjacent sections of four arterioles per patient for transcriptomic and proteomic analyses...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040261/effects-of-growth-hormone-treatment-on-growth-plate-bone-and-mineral-metabolism-of-young-rats-with-uremia-induced-by-adenine
#14
Débora Claramunt, Helena Gil-Peña, Rocío Fuente, Enrique García-López, Olaya Hernández Frías, Flor A Ordoñez, Julián Rodríguez-Suárez, Fernando Santos
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/pr.2017.95.
November 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038882/etelcalcetide-a-novel-calcimimetic-prevents-vascular-calcification-in-a-rat-model-of-renal-insufficiency-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#15
Longchuan Yu, James E Tomlinson, Shawn T Alexander, Kelly Hensley, Chun-Ya Han, Denise Dwyer, Marina Stolina, Charles Dean, William G Goodman, William G Richards, Xiaodong Li
Etelcalcetide, a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, prevents vascular calcification in a rat model of renal insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vascular calcification occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a consequence of impaired mineral homeostasis and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Etelcalcetide substantially lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels in SHPT patients on hemodialysis. This study compared the effects of etelcalcetide and paricalcitol on vascular calcification in rats with adenine-induced CKD and SHPT...
December 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032954/coronary-flow-reserve-is-predictive-of-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-death-regardless-of-chronic-kidney-disease-stage
#16
David M Charytan, Hicham Skali, Nishant R Shah, Vikas Veeranna, Michael K Cheezum, Viviany R Taqueti, Takashi Kato, Courtney R Bibbo, Jon Hainer, Sharmila Dorbala, Ron Blankstein, Marcelo F Di Carli
Microvascular rarefaction is found in experimental uremia, but data from patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. We therefore quantified absolute myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve (the ratio of peak to resting flow) from myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography scans at a single institution. Individuals were classified into standard CKD categories based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Associations of coronary flow reserve with CKD stage and cardiovascular mortality were analyzed in models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors...
October 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991773/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-a-novel-biomarker-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#17
REVIEW
Aikaterini Papagianni
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-23 increase is considered one of the earliest biochemical abnormalities in chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Furthermore, accumulating data have provided evidence of a link between increased FGF-23 levels and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients as well as in several other populations including cardiology patients and general population. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of FGF-23 on the cardiovascular system are not yet completely defined and are the focus of intense research...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989292/diffusion-in-tube-dialyzer
#18
Yohannes Nigatie
Nowadays, kidney failure is a problem of many peoples in the world. We know that the main function of kidney is maintaining the chemical quality of blood particularly removing urea through urine. But when they malfunction, the pathologic state known as uremia results in a condition in which the urea is retained in the body. Failure of the kidney results in building up of harmful wastes and excess fluids in the body. Kidney diseases (failures) can be due to infections, high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes, and/or extensive use of medication...
2017: Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987189/diseases-of-the-peripheral-nerves
#19
Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis
This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972106/serpiginous-cranial-arterial-calcification-in-uremia
#20
Michel C Shamy, Vignan Yogendrakumar, Daniela Iancu, Pierre R Bourque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Neurology
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