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Octopus vulgaris

Carla Bertapelle, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo
Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Alexander Bublitz, Severine R Weinhold, Sophia Strobel, Guido Dehnhardt, Frederike D Hanke
Octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) are generally considered to possess extraordinary cognitive abilities including the ability to successfully perform in a serial reversal learning task. During reversal learning, an animal is presented with a discrimination problem and after reaching a learning criterion, the signs of the stimuli are reversed: the former positive becomes the negative stimulus and vice versa. If an animal improves its performance over reversals, it is ascribed advanced cognitive abilities. Reversal learning has been tested in octopus in a number of studies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Vasileios Bakopoulos, Daniella White, Michail-Aggelos Valsamidis, Feli Vasilaki
Adult common octopus individuals were intramuscularly infected with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida in order to investigate if this species is sensitive to this common and important fish pathogen. The fate of the bacterial antigens and the tissue responses of Octopus vulgaris were studied employing immunohistochemical techniques. Strong reaction at the site of injection was evident from day 2 post-infection that continued until day 14. Great numbers of hemocytes that were attracted at the site of infection were involved in phagocytosis of bacteria...
March 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
J Raimundo, F Ruano, J Pereira, M Mil-Homens, P Brito, C Vale, M Caetano
Octopus vulgaris is a sedentary organism that inhabits coastal waters being exposed to anthropogenic compounds. Lead concentration in coastal environments reflects many processes and activities namely weathering, industrial and domestic discharges, and atmospheric deposition. Since lead isotopic composition is little affected by kinetic processes occurring between source and sink, its signature has been used to identify different Pb sources. After a short-term heavy rainfall, hundreds of octopus appeared dead in two Portuguese coastal areas...
January 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lotfi Rabaoui, Radhouan El Zrelli, Rafik Balti, Lamjed Mansour, Pierre Courjault-Radé, Nabil Daghbouj, Sabiha Tlig-Zouari
Samples of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis were collected from four areas in the Gulf of Gabes, south-eastern Tunisia, and their edible tissues (mantle and arms) were analyzed for cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc. While the concentrations of metals showed significant differences between the sampling sites, no differences were revealed between the tissues of the two species. The spatial distribution of metals analyzed showed similar pattern for both tissues of the two species, with the highest concentrations found in the central area of Gabes Gulf, and the lowest in the northern and/or southern areas...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anna Di Cosmo, Gianluca Polese
Under a continuous changing environment, animals are challenged with stresses and stimuli which demanding adaptation at behavioral and physiological levels. The adaptation strategies are finely regulated by animal nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Although it's been established by now the usage of integrative approach to the study the endocrine and nervous systems (neuroendocrine), yet our understanding of how they cooperate with the immune system remains far from complete. The possible role that immune system plays as a component of the network has only been recognized recently...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Marie-Therese Nödl, Alexandra Kerbl, Manfred G Walzl, Gerd B Müller, Heinz Gert de Couet
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods are a highly derived class of molluscs that adapted their body plan to a more active and predatory lifestyle. One intriguing adaptation is the modification of the ventral foot to form a bilaterally symmetric arm crown, which constitutes a true morphological novelty in evolution. In addition, this structure shows many diversifications within the class of cephalopods and therefore offers an interesting opportunity to study the molecular underpinnings of the emergence of phenotypic novelties and their diversification...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Wei-Hung Tan, Shu-Chun Cheng, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Guo Wu, Min-Han Lin, Chiao-Che Chen, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Chi-Yuan Chou
Crystallins are found widely in animal lenses and have important functions due to their refractive properties. In the coleoid cephalopods, a lens with a graded refractive index provides good vision and is required for survival. Cephalopod S-crystallin is thought to have evolved from glutathione S-transferase (GST) with various homologs differentially expressed in the lens. However, there is no direct structural information that helps to delineate the mechanisms by which S-crystallin could have evolved. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterization of novel S-crystallin-glutathione complex...
2016: Scientific Reports
Diana B Reis, Nieves G Acosta, Eduardo Almansa, Douglas R Tocher, José P Andrade, António V Sykes, Covadonga Rodríguez
The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE...
October 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
P García-Fernández, S Castellanos-Martínez, J Iglesias, J J Otero, C Gestal
The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris is a new candidate species for aquaculture. However, rearing of octopus paralarvae is hampered by high mortality and poor growth rates that impede its entire culture. The study of genes involved in the octopus development and immune response capability could help to understand the key of paralarvae survival and thus, to complete the octopus life cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is the most frequently tool used to quantify the gene expression because of specificity and sensitivity...
July 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Zhen-Ming Lü, Wan Liu, Li-Qin Liu, Tian-Ming Wang, Hui-Lai Shi, Hong-Ling Ping, Chang-Feng Chi, Jing-Wen Yang, Chang-Wen Wu
Sex steroid hormones are widely detected in molluscs and play important roles in sex determination, gonadal tissue maturation, and gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways of sex steroids in cephalopod have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated from common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica. The sjER cDNA clone was found to contain 1,788 nucleotides including a 1,470 bp open reading frame encoding 489 amino acid (aa) residues...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Gianluca Polese, Carla Bertapelle, Anna Di Cosmo
The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ...
2016: Biology Open
Tanya J Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito, Paul L R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the integrity of arms, including predators and prey during capture. Impressively, octopoda are able to close open wounds in an aquatic environment and can fully regenerate arms. The regrowth phase of cephalopod arm regeneration has been grossly described; however, there is little information about the acute local response that occurs following an amputation injury comparable to that which frequently occurs in the wild...
2016: Zoological Letters
Jonas N Richter, Binyamin Hochner, Michael J Kuba
Octopuses have large brains and exhibit complex behaviors, but relatively little is known about their cognitive abilities. Here we present data from a five-level learning and problem-solving experiment. Seven octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) were first trained to open an L shaped container to retrieve food (level 0). After learning the initial task all animals followed the same experimental protocol, first they had to retrieve this L shaped container, presented at the same orientation, through a tight fitting hole in a clear Perspex partition (level 1)...
2016: PloS One
Gabriela Picó-Durán, Lorena Pulleiro-Potel, Elvira Abollo, Santiago Pascual, Pilar Muñoz
This study aims to investigate the occurrence of nematode larvae in commercial cephalopods in the Western Mediterranean Sea. A total of 202 animals comprising 123 broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii), 34 European squid (Loligo vulgaris) and 45 common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) were examined using enzymatic digestion. A total of 31 larvae were isolated (prevalence: 14.6%) and identified using molecular analyses which included PCR and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) region. Phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS sequences yielded supported relationships for Anisakis (P: 12...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Daniele De Luca, Gaetano Catanese, Gabriele Procaccini, Graziano Fiorito
The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean...
2016: PloS One
José Francisco Domínguez-Contreras, Adrian Munguia-Vega, Bertha Patricia Ceballos-Vázquez, Francisco Javier García-Rodriguez, Marcial Arellano-Martinez
The complete mitochondrial genome of Octopus bimaculatus is 16 085 bp in length and includes 13 protein-codes genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfers RNA genes, and a control region. The composition of genome is A (40.9%), T (34.7%), C (16.9%), and G (7.5%). The control region of O. bimaculatus contains a VNTR locus not present in the genomes from other octopus species. A phylogenetic analysis shows a closer relationship between the mitogenomes from O. bimaculatus and O. vulgaris.
November 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Hiroyuki Minakata, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
In protostome and deuterosome invertebrates, neurosecretory cells play major roles in the endocrine system. The optic glands of cephalopods are indicators of sexual maturation. In mature octopuses, optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotropic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the octopus, Octopus vulgaris, and was named oct-GnRH. The discovery of oct-GnRH has triggered structural determinations and predictions of other mollusc GnRH-like peptides in biochemical and in silico studies...
February 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Bingna Cai, Hua Chen, Han Sun, Huili Sun, Peng Wan, Deke Chen, Jianyu Pan
The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation...
November 2015: Journal of Medicinal Food
G Fichi, G Cardeti, S Perrucci, A Vanni, A Cersini, C Lenzi, T De Wolf, B Fronte, M Guarducci, F Susini
The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses...
July 23, 2015: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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