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Octopus vulgaris

Anna Di Cosmo, Gianluca Polese
Under a continuous changing environment, animals are challenged with stresses and stimuli which demanding adaptation at behavioral and physiological levels. The adaptation strategies are finely regulated by animal nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Although it's been established by now the usage of integrative approach to the study the endocrine and nervous systems (neuroendocrine), yet our understanding of how they cooperate with the immune system remains far from complete. The possible role that immune system plays as a component of the network has only been recognized recently...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Marie-Therese Nödl, Alexandra Kerbl, Manfred G Walzl, Gerd B Müller, Heinz Gert de Couet
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods are a highly derived class of molluscs that adapted their body plan to a more active and predatory lifestyle. One intriguing adaptation is the modification of the ventral foot to form a bilaterally symmetric arm crown, which constitutes a true morphological novelty in evolution. In addition, this structure shows many diversifications within the class of cephalopods and therefore offers an interesting opportunity to study the molecular underpinnings of the emergence of phenotypic novelties and their diversification...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Wei-Hung Tan, Shu-Chun Cheng, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Guo Wu, Min-Han Lin, Chiao-Che Chen, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Chi-Yuan Chou
Crystallins are found widely in animal lenses and have important functions due to their refractive properties. In the coleoid cephalopods, a lens with a graded refractive index provides good vision and is required for survival. Cephalopod S-crystallin is thought to have evolved from glutathione S-transferase (GST) with various homologs differentially expressed in the lens. However, there is no direct structural information that helps to delineate the mechanisms by which S-crystallin could have evolved. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterization of novel S-crystallin-glutathione complex...
2016: Scientific Reports
Diana B Reis, Nieves G Acosta, Eduardo Almansa, Douglas R Tocher, José P Andrade, António V Sykes, Covadonga Rodríguez
The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE...
October 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
P García-Fernández, S Castellanos-Martínez, J Iglesias, J J Otero, C Gestal
The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris is a new candidate species for aquaculture. However, rearing of octopus paralarvae is hampered by high mortality and poor growth rates that impede its entire culture. The study of genes involved in the octopus development and immune response capability could help to understand the key of paralarvae survival and thus, to complete the octopus life cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is the most frequently tool used to quantify the gene expression because of specificity and sensitivity...
July 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Zhen-Ming Lü, Wan Liu, Li-Qin Liu, Tian-Ming Wang, Hui-Lai Shi, Hong-Ling Ping, Chang-Feng Chi, Jing-Wen Yang, Chang-Wen Wu
Sex steroid hormones are widely detected in molluscs and play important roles in sex determination, gonadal tissue maturation, and gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways of sex steroids in cephalopod have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated from common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica. The sjER cDNA clone was found to contain 1,788 nucleotides including a 1,470 bp open reading frame encoding 489 amino acid (aa) residues...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Gianluca Polese, Carla Bertapelle, Anna Di Cosmo
The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ...
2016: Biology Open
Tanya J Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito, Paul L R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the integrity of arms, including predators and prey during capture. Impressively, octopoda are able to close open wounds in an aquatic environment and can fully regenerate arms. The regrowth phase of cephalopod arm regeneration has been grossly described; however, there is little information about the acute local response that occurs following an amputation injury comparable to that which frequently occurs in the wild...
2016: Zoological Letters
Jonas N Richter, Binyamin Hochner, Michael J Kuba
Octopuses have large brains and exhibit complex behaviors, but relatively little is known about their cognitive abilities. Here we present data from a five-level learning and problem-solving experiment. Seven octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) were first trained to open an L shaped container to retrieve food (level 0). After learning the initial task all animals followed the same experimental protocol, first they had to retrieve this L shaped container, presented at the same orientation, through a tight fitting hole in a clear Perspex partition (level 1)...
2016: PloS One
Gabriela Picó-Durán, Lorena Pulleiro-Potel, Elvira Abollo, Santiago Pascual, Pilar Muñoz
This study aims to investigate the occurrence of nematode larvae in commercial cephalopods in the Western Mediterranean Sea. A total of 202 animals comprising 123 broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii), 34 European squid (Loligo vulgaris) and 45 common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) were examined using enzymatic digestion. A total of 31 larvae were isolated (prevalence: 14.6%) and identified using molecular analyses which included PCR and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) region. Phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS sequences yielded supported relationships for Anisakis (P: 12...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Daniele De Luca, Gaetano Catanese, Gabriele Procaccini, Graziano Fiorito
The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean...
2016: PloS One
José Francisco Domínguez-Contreras, Adrian Munguia-Vega, Bertha Patricia Ceballos-Vázquez, Francisco Javier García-Rodriguez, Marcial Arellano-Martinez
The complete mitochondrial genome of Octopus bimaculatus is 16 085 bp in length and includes 13 protein-codes genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfers RNA genes, and a control region. The composition of genome is A (40.9%), T (34.7%), C (16.9%), and G (7.5%). The control region of O. bimaculatus contains a VNTR locus not present in the genomes from other octopus species. A phylogenetic analysis shows a closer relationship between the mitogenomes from O. bimaculatus and O. vulgaris.
November 5, 2015: Mitochondrial DNA
Hiroyuki Minakata, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
In protostome and deuterosome invertebrates, neurosecretory cells play major roles in the endocrine system. The optic glands of cephalopods are indicators of sexual maturation. In mature octopuses, optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotropic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the octopus, Octopus vulgaris, and was named oct-GnRH. The discovery of oct-GnRH has triggered structural determinations and predictions of other mollusc GnRH-like peptides in biochemical and in silico studies...
February 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Bingna Cai, Hua Chen, Han Sun, Huili Sun, Peng Wan, Deke Chen, Jianyu Pan
The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation...
November 2015: Journal of Medicinal Food
G Fichi, G Cardeti, S Perrucci, A Vanni, A Cersini, C Lenzi, T De Wolf, B Fronte, M Guarducci, F Susini
The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses...
July 23, 2015: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ilaria Zarrella, Giovanna Ponte, Elena Baldascino, Graziano Fiorito
Here we concisely summarize major aspects of the learning capabilities of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, a solitary living marine invertebrate. We aim to provide a backdrop against which neurobiology of these animals can be further interpreted and thus soliciting further interest for one of the most advanced members of invertebrate animals.
December 2015: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Genara Reyes, Mauro Nirchio, Rafael Bello, Javier Borderías
Texture is the most valuable feature in cephalopods. Factors that mainly affect the texture of octopus are: freezing, scalding and cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of freezing, scalding and length of cooking time on the texture and electrophoretic pattern of proteins of octopus arms. Octopuses were trapped near Margarita Island and carried with ice to the laboratory where they were packed and subjected to: a) freezing at -27 degrees C or at -20 degrees C b) scalding c) cooking for 25 min, 35 min or 45 min...
September 2014: Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
Luiz L Mafra, Daiana Lopes, Vanessa C Bonilauri, Hajime Uchida, Toshiyuki Suzuki
This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L-1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L-1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples...
June 2015: Marine Drugs
Marie-Therese Nödl, Sara M Fossati, Pedro Domingues, Francisco J Sánchez, Letizia Zullo
BACKGROUND: Most of our current findings on appendage formation and patterning stem from studies on chordate and ecdysozoan model organisms. However, in order to fully understand the evolution of animal appendages, it is essential to include information on appendage development from lophotrochozoan representatives. Here, we examined the basic dynamics of the Octopus vulgaris arm's formation and differentiation - as a highly evolved member of the lophotrochozoan super phylum - with a special focus on the formation of the arm's musculature...
2015: EvoDevo
C Gestal, S Castellanos-Martínez
Cephalopods have the most advanced circulatory and nervous system among the mollusks. Recently, they have been included in the European directive which state that suffering and pain should be minimized in cephalopods used in experimentation. The knowledge about cephalopod welfare is still limited and several gaps are yet to be filled, especially in reference to pathogens, pathologies and immune response of these mollusks. In light of the requirements of the normative, in addition to the ecologic and economic importance of cephalopods, in this review we update the work published to date concerning cephalopod immune system...
September 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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