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Aortic valve disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319833/aortic-calcified-particles-modulate-valvular-endothelial-and-interstitial-cells
#1
Nicole C A van Engeland, Sergio Bertazzo, Padmini Sarathchandra, Ann McCormack, Carlijn V C Bouten, Magdi H Yacoub, Adrian H Chester, Najma Latif
BACKGROUND: Normal and calcified human valve cusps, coronary arteries, and aortae harbor spherical calcium phosphate microparticles of identical composition and crystallinity, and their role remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the direct effects of isolated calcified particles on human valvular cells. METHOD AND RESULTS: Calcified particles were isolated from healthy and diseased aortae, characterized, quantitated, and applied to valvular endothelial cells (VECs) and interstitial cells (VICs)...
March 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317490/speculative-considerations-about-some-cardiology-enigmas
#2
Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora, Andre Schmidt, Livia Arcêncio, José Antonio Marin-Neto
Write a review text or point-of-view that takes into account the interests, if not of all, but of most readers of a scientific journal is an arduous task. The editorial can be grounded in published articles, even in a single article of undeniable importance and, it can also represent a trend of specialty. Therefore, especially for the sake of the reader's motivation, the present text was freely designed to discuss some cardiology enigmas in the context of the heart valve and coronary artery disease (CAD). Concerning the CAD five well-known enigmas will be considered: 1) The absence of arteriosclerosis in intramyocardial coronary arteries; 2) The unique and always confirmed superior evolution of the left internal thoracic artery as a coronary graft; 3) The prophylactic left internal thoracic artery graft in mildly-stenosed coronary lesions, and; 4) The high incidence of perioperative atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with CAD, and; 5) The handling of disease-free saphenous vein graft at the time of reoperation...
March 17, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317480/novel-insights-into-complex-cardiovascular-pathologies-using-4d-flow-analysis-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Adam James Lewandowski, Betty Raman, Rajarshi Banerjee, Matteo Milanesi
BACKGROUND: It is essential that we are able to assess variations in blood flow in order to fully understand cardiovascular function in disease pathologies and for identification of individuals at long-term risk of cardiovascular disease development. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of blood flow by imaging modalities have been limited, and much of the accurate quantification has relied on invasive measures. METHODS: This review discusses how four-dimensional velocity cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D flow CMR) offers increasing potential for the non-invasive assessment of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels such as the aorta...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316038/the-impact-of-the-aortic-valve-impairment-on-the-distant-coronary-arteries-hemodynamics-a-fluid-structure-interaction-study
#4
Hossein Mohammadi, Raymond Cartier, Rosaire Mongrain
Atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of death in the developed world. Although its initiation and progression is a complex multifactorial process, it is well known that blood flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) is an important factor involved in early atherosclerotic plaque initiation. In recent clinical studies, it was established that the regional pathologies of the aortic valve can be involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, the impact of hemodynamic effects is not yet fully elucidated for disease initiation and progression...
March 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315200/radiation-induced-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Deepa Raghunathan, Misha Iftikhar Khilji, Saamir A Hassan, Syed Wamique Yusuf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thoracic radiation therapy is an effective treatment for several malignancies, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. Over the years, however, the incidence of cardiovascular events has increased in these patients, notably in younger survivors who do not have traditional risk factors. This review summarizes the pathology, incidence, clinical presentation, and management of cardiac events after radiation therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Mediastinal radiation therapy accelerates the atherosclerosis process, resulting in early onset coronary artery disease...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314924/leptin-induces-osteoblast-differentiation-of-human-valvular-interstitial-cells-via-the-akt-and-erk-pathways
#6
Mickael Rosa, Camille Paris, Yoann Sottejeau, Delphine Corseaux, Emmanuel Robin, Madjid Tagzirt, Francis Juthier, Ramadan Jashari, Antoine Rauch, André Vincentelli, Bart Staels, Eric Van Belle, Sophie Susen, Annabelle Dupont
AIMS: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) affects 2-6% of the population over 65 years, and age, gender, smoking, overweight, dyslipidemia, diabetes contribute to the development of this disease. CAVD results, in part, from the osteoblast differentiation of human valvular interstitial cells (VICs). This study aims to elucidate the effects of leptin on osteoblast phenotype of VICs and the signalling pathways involved. METHODS: Patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for CAVD (n = 43) were included in this study...
March 18, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314700/structural-heart-disease-intervention-the-canadian-landscape
#7
Anita W Asgar, Eric Horlick, Kevin McKenzie, Neil Brass, Warren J Cantor, Albert Chan, Anthony Della Siega, Jean Francois Gobeil, Saleem Kassam, Michael P Love, Samer Mansour, Giuseppe Martucci, Najaf Nadeem, Madhu K Natarajan, Vernon Paddock, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Mouhieddin Traboulsi, James L Velianou, Robert C Welsh, David Wood, John G Webb
Cardiovascular disease encompasses coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease, and the prevalence of both increases with age. Over the past decade, the landscape of interventional cardiology has evolved to encompass a new set of percutaneous procedures outside the coronary tree, including transcatheter aortic valve implantation, transcatheter mitral valve repair, and left atrial appendage occlusion. These interventions have sparked a new discipline within interventional cardiology referred to as structural heart disease (SHD) intervention...
December 13, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314622/diastolic-function-and-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#8
John E A Blair, Prashant Atri, Julie L Friedman, James D Thomas, Kent Brummel, Ranya N Sweis, Issam Mikati, S Chris Malaisrie, Charles J Davidson, James D Flaherty
BACKGROUND: Little is known about baseline diastolic dysfunction and changes in diastolic dysfunction grade after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) and its impact on overall outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe baseline diastolic dysfunction and changes in diastolic dysfunction grade that occur with TAVR and their relationship to mortality and rehospitalization. METHODS: This was a single-center study evaluating all TAVRs from January 2012 to June 2014...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302592/spectral-detector-ct-for-cardiovascular-applications
#9
Prabhakar Rajiah, Suhny Abbara, Sandra Simon Halliburton
Spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) is a novel technology that uses two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low and high energy data. Spectral data is used to generate conventional polyenergetic images as well as dedicated spectral images including virtual monoenergetic and material composition (iodine-only, virtual unenhanced, effective atomic number) images. This paper provides an overview of SDCT technology and a description of some spectral image types. The potential utility of SDCT for cardiovascular imaging and the impact of this new technology on radiation and contrast dose are discussed through presentation of initial patient studies performed on a SDCT scanner...
March 17, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302346/postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-and-blood-product-transfusion-after-synthetic-colloid-use-during-cardiac-surgery
#10
Rajika Tobey, Hao Cheng, Mei Gao, Zhongmin Li, J Nilas Young, W Douglas Boyd, Fuhai Ji, Hong Liu
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of 2 types of hydroxyethyl starches (HES) on renal integrity and blood transfusion in cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: Retrospective investigation. SETTING: Patients from a single tertiary medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria included coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve surgery that included cardiopulmonary bypass with aortic cross-clamping. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative HES and blood product administration...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302288/valvular-heart-disease-patients-on-edoxaban-or-warfarin-in-the-engage%C3%A2-af-timi-48-trial
#11
Raffaele De Caterina, Giulia Renda, Anthony P Carnicelli, Francesco Nordio, Marco Trevisan, Michele F Mercuri, Christian T Ruff, Elliott M Antman, Eugene Braunwald, Robert P Giugliano
BACKGROUND: The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) instead of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coexisting valvular heart disease (VHD) is of substantial interest. OBJECTIVES: This study explored outcomes in patients with AF with and without VHD in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 48) trial, comparing edoxaban with warfarin...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299882/systolic-ejection-click-versus-split-first-heart-sound-are-our-ears-deceiving-us
#12
Natalie M Hoeting, Courtney E McCracken, Michael McConnell, Denver Sallee, Glen J Iannucci, Matthew E Oster
OBJECTIVE: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is associated with potential lifetime complications, but auscultation of a BAV click is commonly missed or mistaken for a benign split first heart sound. Our objective was to determine whether pediatric cardiologists could reliably distinguish between BAV clicks and benign split first heart sounds. DESIGN: Quality evaluation project using de-identified recordings from an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Twenty-one cardiologists listened to five de-identified recordings of pediatric heart sounds (three with BAV clicks, two with mitral components of benign split first heart sounds) and indicated whether they believed each recording was a BAV or split first heart sound...
March 16, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299607/comprehensive-4-stage-categorization-of-bicuspid-aortic-valve-leaflet-morphology-by-cardiac-mri-in-386-patients
#13
I G Murphy, J Collins, A Powell, M Markl, P McCarthy, S C Malaisrie, J C Carr, A J Barker
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is heterogeneous and related to valve dysfunction and aortopathy. Appropriate follow up and surveillance of patients with BAV may depend on correct phenotypic categorization. There are multiple classification schemes, however a need exists to comprehensively capture commissure fusion, leaflet asymmetry, and valve orifice orientation. Our aim was to develop a BAV classification scheme for use at MRI to ascertain the frequency of different phenotypes and the consistency of BAV classification...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296135/assessment-of-trans-aortic-pressure-gradient-using-a-coronary-pressure-wire-in-patients-with-mechanical-aortic-and-mitral-valve-prostheses
#14
Nisharahmed Kherada, Juan Carlos Brenes, Annapoorna S Kini, George D Dangas
Accurate evaluation of trans-aortic valvular pressure gradients is challenging in cases where dual mechanical aortic and mitral valve prostheses are present. Non-invasive Doppler echocardiographic imaging has its limitations due to multiple geometric assumptions. Invasive measurement of trans-valvular gradients with cardiac catheterization can provide further information in patients with two mechanical valves, where simultaneous pressure measurements in the left ventricle and ascending aorta must be obtained...
March 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296034/emergency-valve-in-valve-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-a-patient-with-degenerated-bioprosthetic-aortic-stenosis-and-cardiogenic-shock-on-veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#15
Matthew R Summers, Stephanie Mick, Samir R Kapadia, Amar Krishnaswamy
The use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) as an acute treatment in severe decompensated bioprosthetic aortic valve disease is not well documented. We describe herein a unique case in which valve-in-valve (ViV) TAVR was successfully used as both an emergency salvage therapy and a bridge to definitive fourth reoperative aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a young patient with cardiogenic shock secondary to bioprosthetic aortic valve stenosis who was dependent on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO)...
March 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295963/a-multicenter-study-of-the-impella-device-for-mechanical-support-of-the-systemic-circulation-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-patients
#16
V Vivian Dimas, Brian H Morray, Dennis W Kim, Christopher Sd Almond, Shabana Shahanavaz, Sebastian C Tume, Lynn F Peng, Doff B McElhinney, Henri Justino
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to review the use of Impella devices (Abiomed Inc, Danvers, MA) for temporary circulatory support in pediatric and adolescent patients (age ≤ 21 yrs). BACKGROUND: Options for minimally invasive circulatory support in children are limited, and published data are confined to case reports and small case series. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter review of Impella implants in pediatric and adolescent patients from 2009-15, using standardized data collection and INTERMACS definitions...
March 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292746/robust-generation-of-quiescent-porcine-valvular-interstitial-cell-cultures
#17
Ana M Porras, Nicole C A van Engeland, Evelyn Marchbanks, Ann McCormack, Carlijn V C Bouten, Magdi H Yacoub, Najma Latif, Kristyn S Masters
BACKGROUND: Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in the healthy aortic valve leaflet exhibit a quiescent phenotype, with <5% of VICs exhibiting an activated phenotype. Yet, in vitro culture of VICs on tissue culture polystyrene surfaces in standard growth medium results in rapid transformation to an activated phenotype in >90% of cells. The inability to preserve a healthy VIC phenotype during in vitro studies has hampered the elucidation of mechanisms involved in calcific aortic valve disease...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292662/cytomegalovirus-duodenitis-associated-with-life-threatening-duodenal-hemorrhage-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#18
Lucy Shen, David Youssef, Suzan Abu-Abed, Sangita K Malhotra, Kenneth Atkinson, Elena Vikis, George Melich, Shawn MacKenzie
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients. However, there have been emerging cases of severe CMV infections found in immunocompetent patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) CMV disease is the most common manifestation affecting immunocompetent patients, with duodenal involvement being exceedingly rare. Presented is a case of an immunocompetent patient with life-threatening bleeding caused by CMV duodenitis, requiring surgical intervention. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 60-year-old male with history of disseminated Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia and aortic valve infective endocarditis, presented with life-threatening upper GI hemorrhage...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291723/cardiac-surgery-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#19
Javier Tejeda-Maldonado, Lauro Quintanilla-González, Jaime Galindo-Uribe, Andrea Hinojosa-Azaola
OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical characteristics and outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 30 SLE patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a single center. Demographics, comorbidities, clinical and serologic characteristics, cardiovascular risk scores and treatment were recorded. Type of surgery, postoperative complications, mortality and histology were analyzed. RESULTS: Disease duration at surgery was 2 years...
March 11, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291607/indexed-left-atrial-size-predicts-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-patients-undergoing-aortic-valve-surgery
#20
Victor X Mosquera, Alberto Bouzas-Mosquera, Miguel González-Barbeito, Victor Bautista-Hernandez, Javier Muñiz, Nemesio Alvarez-García, José J Cuenca-Castillo
OBJECTIVES: The enlargement of the left atrium has been identified as a marker of chronically increased left ventricular filling pressure and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. This study aims to evaluate the association of indexed left atrial diameter with stroke, cardiovascular mortality, the combined event, and all-cause mortality in patients who underwent aortic valve surgery. METHODS: Indexed left atrial diameter was measured in 2011 adult patients (mean age, 70...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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