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Psychological autopsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051972/characteristics-classification-and-prevention-of-child-maltreatment-fatalities
#1
James E McCarroll, Joscelyn E Fisher, Stephen J Cozza, Renè J Robichaux, Carol S Fullerton
BACKGROUND: Preventing child maltreatment fatalities is a critical goal of the U.S. society and the military services. Fatality review boards further this goal through the analysis of circumstances of child deaths, making recommendations for improvements in practices and policies, and promoting increased cooperation among the many systems that serve families. The purpose of this article is to review types of child maltreatment death, proposed classification models, risk and protective factors, and prevention strategies...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031593/risk-factors-for-farmers-suicides-in-central-rural-india-matched-case-control-psychological-autopsy-study
#2
Manik Changoji Bhise, Prakash Balkrushna Behere
BACKGROUND: Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A matched case-control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004479/female-suicides-psychosocial-and-psychiatric-characteristics-identified-by-a-psychological-autopsy-study-in-japan
#3
Manami Kodaka, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Takashi Yamauchi, Michiko Takai, Norihito Shirakawa, Tadashi Takeshima
AIM: Although the female suicide rate in Japan is one of the highest among OECD countries, little has been done to assess the psychosocial and psychiatric characteristics of Japanese female suicide completers. This study aimed to examine gender differences in psychosocial and psychiatric characteristics of suicide completers using a psychological autopsy study method, and identify female suicide factors and intervention points to prevent female suicides. METHODS: A semi-structured interview was conducted with close family members of adult suicide completers...
December 22, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836157/understanding-homicide-suicide
#4
REVIEW
James L Knoll
Homicide-suicide is the phenomenon in which an individual kills 1 or more people and commits suicide. Research on homicide-suicide has been hampered by a lack of an accepted classification scheme and reliance on media reports. Mass murder-suicide is gaining increasing attention particularly in the United States. This article reviews the research and literature on homicide-suicide, proposing a standard classification scheme. Preventive methods are discussed and sociocultural factors explored. For a more accurate and complete understanding of homicide-suicide, it is argued that future research should use the full psychological autopsy approach, to include collateral interviews...
December 2016: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813125/phosphatidylethanol-in-postmortem-brain-and-serum-ethanol-at-time-of-death
#5
Peter M Thompson, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Marisa Lopez-Cruzan, Luis A Alvarado, Alok K Dwivedi, Martin A Javors
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), and its concentration in whole blood samples is a direct biomarker of alcohol consumption. Because PEth is also present in the brain and incorporated in lipid membranes, it can be used to classify deceased individuals on alcohol consumption status at the time of death. The purpose of this study was to detect PEth homologs in postmortem brains of individuals known to have had alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to determine the relationship between serum alcohol at the time of death and PEth in the cerebellum (CE) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC)...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659515/factors-related-to-suicide-in-lgbt-populations
#6
Delaney Michael Skerrett, Kairi Kõlves, Diego De Leo
BACKGROUND: There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. AIM: The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. METHOD: The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA interviews were conducted with 27 next-of-kin of an LGBT person that had died by suicide...
September 2016: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611329/psychological-autopsy-of-seventy-high-school-suicides-combined-qualitative-quantitative-approach
#7
G Zalsman, Y Siman Tov, D Tzuriel, G Shoval, R Barzilay, N Tiech Fire, M Sherf, J John Mann
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is the leading cause of death among Israeli youths but data on causes are scarce. This study used psychological autopsies of 70 Israeli school students who committed suicide during 2004-2011, attempting to determine the causes. METHODS: Four narratives of the self were identified (qualitative analysis) and compared (quantitative analysis): (1) regressive: functioning and mood deteriorated continuously (45%); (2) tragic: doing well until rapid decline around suicidal crisis (20%); (3) unstable: peaks and crises throughout life (20%); and (4) stable: long lasting state of adverse living circumstances (15%)...
October 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593853/a-case-of-timothy-syndrome-with-adrenal-medullary-dystrophy
#8
Miho Kawaida, Tokiya Abe, Toshio Nakanishi, Yoko Miyahara, Hiroyuki Yamagishi, Michiie Sakamoto, Taketo Yamada
Timothy syndrome (TS) is a congenital long QT syndrome that is associated with syndactyly and mutations in CACNA1C, encoding an L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel, Cav1.2. Recently, TS has been associated with autism and other psychological disorders. This case indicated bradycardia by prenatal screening and was diagnosed as TS by the occurrence of syndactyly and QT prolongation at birth. Despite therapy with anti-arrhythmia reagents and a pacemaker, the patient died 2 months after birth and was autopsied...
October 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571741/pathways-to-suicide-in-lesbian-and-gay-populations-in-australia-a-life-chart-analysis
#9
Delaney M Skerrett, Kairi Kõlves, Diego De Leo
Given the continued paucity of research into suicide in lesbian and gay (LG) people, there is a need to investigate the characteristics of those LG suicides that are able to be identified. The aim of this article was to analyze pathways to suicide in lesbian and gay individuals by way of life charts. Data were gathered through of 24 psychological autopsy interviews with next-of-kin of an LG person who had died by suicide. The female (n = 5) and male (n = 19) cases in this study clustered into younger and older suicides...
August 29, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537376/completed-suicide-depression-and-reln-polymorphisms
#10
Marina Bučić, Peter Pregelj, Tomaž Zupanc, Alja Videtič Paska
OBJECTIVE: Suicidal behavior is a complex phenomenon, an outcome of both environmental and genetic factors. In the present study, we looked for a potential association between suicide and the reelin gene as reelin has been associated previously with several psychiatric disorders, including depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the reelin gene, rs2965087, rs7341475, and rs362691, in a population of 483 suicide victims and 332 healthy controls, all Caucasians...
October 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423339/male-suspected-suicide-decedents-in-utah-a-comparison-of-veterans-and-nonveterans
#11
Erin McGlade, Amanda Bakian, Hilary Coon, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, W Brandon Callor, Josh Byrd, Douglas Gray
UNLABELLED: There has been significant debate regarding suicide risk in Veterans compared to nonveterans. However, few studies have examined similarities and differences between Veteran and nonveteran suicide decedents using a combination of next of kin psychological autopsy and data from a state Office of the Medical Examiner (OME). For the current study, next of kin of a one-year cohort of male suspected suicide decedents in Utah completed psychological autopsy interviews with trained research staff...
August 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411668/an-autopsy-case-of-a-centenarian-with-the-pathology-of-senile-dementia-of-the-neurofibrillary-tangle-type
#12
Yasushi Iwasaki, Akira Deguchi, Keiko Mori, Masumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Mari Yoshida
A Japanese woman showed slowly progressive memory disturbance since the age of 85 years. Later, disorientation gradually appeared. Head computed tomography revealed severe hippocampal atrophy, particularly in the posterior portion, and lateral ventricular dilatation, particularly in the inferior horn at the age of 99 years. The amygdala was relatively preserved from atrophy, and atrophy of the frontal lobe was relatively mild for her age. Apolipoprotein E gene analysis showed the ε3 homozygous phenotype. The woman died at the age of 101 years, and her clinical diagnosis was mild Alzheimer's disease...
July 13, 2016: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402414/dysregulation-of-striatal-dopamine-receptor-binding-in-suicide
#13
Megan L Fitzgerald, Suham A Kassir, Mark D Underwood, Mihran J Bakalian, J John Mann, Victoria Arango
Inconsistent evidence implicates disruptions of striatal dopaminergic indices in suicide and major depression. To determine whether there are alterations in the striatal dopamine system in suicide, we conducted a quantitative autoradiographic survey of dopamine transporter (DAT; [(3)H]mazindol), D1 receptor ([(3)H]SCH23390), and D2 receptor ([(3)H]sulpiride) binding in the dorsal striatum postmortem from matched suicides and controls. Axis I and axis II psychiatric diagnosis, recent treatment history, and early life adversity (ELA) were determined by psychological autopsy...
August 10, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270076/multi-informant-perspective-on-psychological-distress-among-ghanaian-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-within-the-context-of-hiv-aids
#14
P N Doku, H Minnis
BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge about the psychosocial distress of children affected by human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Ghana, to aid the planning of services. This study investigated mental health problems among children affected by HIV/AIDS, compared with control groups of children orphaned by other causes, and non-orphans. METHOD: The study employed a cross-sectional survey that interviewed 291 children and their caregivers...
August 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255076/depressive-symptoms-on-the-geriatric-depression-scale-and-suicide-deaths-in-older-middle-aged-men-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Sang-Wook Yi
OBJECTIVES: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. METHODS: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58...
May 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034441/are-elite-cricketers-more-prone-to-suicide-a-psychological-autopsy-study-of-test-cricketer-suicides
#16
Ajit Shah, Shrenik Sava-Shah, Chanaka Wijeratne, Brian Draper
OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesised that the very nature of the game predisposes elite cricketers to higher rates of suicide. AIM: We aim to estimate the suicide rate of male Test cricketers and to determine the reasons for suicide. METHODS: The suicide rate in male Test cricketers was determined. A psychological autopsy was conducted using published biographical data. RESULTS: Twenty suicides amongst 2794 male Test cricketers from 1877 to 2014 yielded a suicide rate of 715...
June 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971126/suicide-in-males-and-females-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-comorbid-depression
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Michael Hawkins, Ayal Schaffer, Catherine Reis, Mark Sinyor, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) has been associated with an increased risk of suicide, further increased among individuals with a comorbid psychiatric illness. A paucity of studies have examined details of suicide among individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and comorbid depression. We aimed to compare demographic, clinical and suicide-specific characteristics between suicide victims with CVD with depression (CVD+D) and without comorbid depression (CVD-D). METHODS: Coroner data on suicide decedents with CVD (n=413) occurring in Toronto, Canada from 1998 to 2012 were collected...
June 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954509/cigarette-smoking-and-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-mrna-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-in-suicides
#18
Helene Bach, Victoria Arango, Suham A Kassir, Andrew J Dwork, J John Mann, Mark D Underwood
Cigarette smoking is associated with suicide and mood disorders and stimulates serotonin release. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) synthesizes serotonin and is over-expressed in suicides. We determined whether smoking is associated with TPH2 mRNA in suicides and controls. TPH2 mRNA was measured postmortem in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of controls (N = 26, 17 nonsmokers and nine smokers) and suicides (N = 23, 5 nonsmokers and 18 smokers). Psychiatric history was obtained by psychological autopsy. TPH2 mRNA was greater in suicide nonsmokers than suicide smokers, control smokers and control nonsmokers (p = 0...
July 2, 2016: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866590/-a-culture-brain-link-negative-age-stereotypes-predict-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-correction-to-levy-et-al-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A Culture-Brain Link: Negative Age Stereotypes Predict Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers" by Becca R. Levy, Luigi Ferrucci, Alan B. Zonderman, Martin D. Slade, Juan Troncoso and Susan M. Resnick (Psychology and Aging, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 7, 2015, np). In the article, the correct analyses were reported for bootstrapping; however, the sizes of the bootstrapping samples for Studies 1 and 2 were reversed. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-54839-001...
February 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802810/the-postmortem-proxy-based-interview-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Shelly S Bakst, Tali Braun, Tamy Shohat
The present study aims to provide an overview of the procedural and methodological challenges that need to be addressed when determining the content and application of postmortem proxy-based interviews and recommendations for meeting these challenges in future death investigations are outlined. Preliminary interview considerations are discussed and a step-by-step procedural algorithm for applying proxy-based interview protocol is supplied. A vulnerability-stress model is used for organizing the conceptualization of risk and protective factors into domains of theoretically similar factors...
April 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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