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Paediatric ALL

G Fenu, L Lorefice, L Loi, V Sechi, F Contu, G Coghe, J Frau, G Spinicci, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is associated with reduced brain and deep grey matter volume in comparison with that in healthy controls and individuals with adult onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of POMS on adult brain volume with adjustment for other parameters, such as disease duration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 20 POMS and 40 AOMS patients and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Roaa S Jamjoom, Yoon S Park
OBJECTIVES: To study burnout among pediatric residents at King  Abdulazaiz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey that was administered to all pediatric residents enrolled in the Saudi Paediatric Board program (PGY1-PGY4) in a large tertiary academic hospital in the Western region of Saudi Arabia (King Abdulaziz University Hospital). The survey were sent via E-mail to 50 registered general pediatric residents.  Results: Seventy percent of the pediatric residents completed the survey...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
L Prana, S Baijoob, B Rampersad
Introduction Intussuception remains one of the most common surgical abdominal emergencies in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was first to re-evaluate our non-operative reduction rate of intussusception using multiple interval barium enemas and second to investigate or discuss an audit cycle, providing evidence and validating the modification of clinical practice. Materials and methods This five-year retrospective study performed at one of two institutions at which a paediatric surgical service is offered...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
H S Thakkar, I Yardley, D Kufeji
Introduction In 2015, the Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS) commissioned the East Midlands Clinical Network to develop a set of guidelines for the management of paediatric torsion. Two quality measures identified were the provision of surgery locally where possible and 100% of explorations within three hours. We sought to assess the adherence to these quality measures within our referral network. Materials and methods Retrospective data were collected for all paediatric scrotal explorations performed within our centre between January 2014 and July 2016...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Debra A Field, Roslyn W Livingstone
AIM: To identify and critically appraise standardized measures of power mobility skill used with children (18y or younger) with mobility limitations and explore the measures' application for 'exploratory', 'operational', and 'functional' learners. METHOD: Five electronic databases were searched along with hand-searching for peer-reviewed articles published in English to July 2017 (updated 31st August 2017). Key terms included power(ed) mobility, power(ed) wheelchair, and database-specific terms...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Arshad Khan, Rahmat Ali Khan, Mushtaq Ahmed, Muhammad Sadiq Khan
This was a cross-sectional descriptive study for determining the effect of vaccination in children suffering from measles in district Bannu and FR regions. It was conducted at the Paediatric Unit of Women and Children Teaching Hospital, Bannu Medical College Bannu, from July 2015 to June 2016.A total of 7,200 children were examined both from indoor and OPD. Among these, 3,210 (44.58%), were males and 3990 (55.42) were females. Children upto 15 years, suffering from measles were included both from indoor and outdoor departments...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Mona Noureldein, Roxana Mardare, Jack Pickard, Hoi Lun Shing, Michael Eisenhut
BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that paediatric meningitis without elevated CSF white cell count (pleocytosis) accounts for 0.5-12% of all cases of bacterial meningitis. CSF protein and glucose measurements are therefore essential in management but may be neglected in clinical practice. In order to improve recognition of bacterial meningitis in neonates and to enable adequate management and audit, we investigated whether a systemic inflammatory response in the absence of meningitis is associated with elevated CSF protein and reduced CSF glucose levels...
March 14, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Geetha Anand, Grace Vasallo, Maria Spanou, Saumya Thomas, Michael Pike, Didu Sanduni Kariyawasam, Sanjay Mehta, Allyson Parry, Juliette Durie-Gair, James Nicholson, Karine Lascelles, Vanessa Everett, Frances Mary Gibbon, Nicola Jarvis, John Elston, Dafydd Gareth Evans, Dorothy Halliday
OBJECTIVE: Onset of symptoms in severe sporadic neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is typically within childhood; however, there is poor awareness of presenting features in young children, potentially resulting in delayed diagnosis and poorer outcome. We have reviewed presentation of sporadic paediatric NF2 to raise awareness of early features, highlighting those requiring further investigation. DESIGN: Patients diagnosed with NF2 at age ≤16 and seen between 2012 and 2015 were notified via the British Paediatric Neurology Surveillance Unit or identified through the English NF2 service...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
A Esteves, J Nordgren, C Tavares, F Fortes, R Dimbu, N Saraiva, C Istrate
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of NoV strains identified in children under 5 years of age with AGE in four provinces of Angola. Faecal samples from 343 children were screened for NoV by an in house real-time PCR assay and genotyping was performed by partial capsid gene sequencing. NoV was detected in 17.4% (58/334) of the samples, with high detection rates in children <6 months old (19%) and in children aged 12-24 months (23%)...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Joe D Piper, Salim Mwarumba, Moses Ngari, Benedict Mvera, Susan Morpeth, James A Berkley
For children with acute malnutrition, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lifesaving treatments. In 2012, detailed testing detected Enterobacteriaceae including Cronobacter species at low levels in RUTF from all UNICEF-approved producers. Cronobacter in milk feeds has previously been associated with severe neonatal infections. Thus, given the susceptibility of severely malnourished children to invasive bacterial infections, concerns arose about the potential for Cronobacter infections from RUTF. This led to widespread production and supply problems in emergency feeding programmes...
March 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Michael A Skinnider, David D W Twa, Jordan W Squair, Norman D Rosenblum, Christine D Lukac
CONTEXT: MD/PhD programmes provide structured paths for physician-scientist training. However, considerable proportions of graduates of these programmes do not pursue careers in research consistent with their training. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify factors associated with sustained involvement in research after completion of all postgraduate training. METHODS: Anonymised data from a national survey of Canadian MD/PhD programme graduates who had completed all physician-scientist training (n = 70) were analysed...
March 13, 2018: Medical Education
R Schneider, A Machens, C Sekulla, K Lorenz, F Weber, H Dralle
BACKGROUND: There are few data on intermittent and continuous intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) during thyroidectomy in children. METHODS: All children aged 18 years or younger who had standard thyroid operations using intermittent or continuous IONM between January 1998 and December 2016 were included in the study. The impact of age and type of IONM on basal amplitude, latency and complications after thyroidectomy were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 504 children were included in the study...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
A Amer, A Kakooza-Mwesige, G Jarl, J K Tumwine, H Forssberg, A-C Eliasson, L Hermansson
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) has been recommended as a gold standard in paediatric rehabilitation. A Ugandan version of PEDI (PEDI-UG) has been developed by culturally adapting and translating the original PEDI. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the PEDI-UG in Ugandan children by testing the instrument's rating scale functioning, internal structure, and test-retest reliability. METHODS: Two hundred forty-nine Ugandan children (125 girls) aged 6 months to 7...
March 13, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Rohan Ameratunga
Three recent publications from Professor Gideon Lack have fundamentally changed our understanding of how to prevent food allergy. His team has shown that early introduction of allergenic foods may prevent food allergy in most but not all high-risk children. Various allergy and paediatric societies around the world are changing their recommendations based on these three studies. It appears there is a window of opportunity to safely introduce allergenic foods to high-risk children. This has resource implications, as some of these children will need testing and food challenges...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Idowu O Senbanjo, Mohammed A Salisu, Kazeem A Oshikoya, Uchechukwu O Adediji, Ayodeji O Akinola
AIM: We studied sleep patterns, sleep problems and associated socio-demographic factors among children aged 1-12 years in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: This prospective hospital-based study involved 432 children (55% males) who came for routine paediatric care at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. Information on socio-demographics, sleeping patterns and specific sleep disorders were obtained. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 5...
March 12, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Shoaib Hassan, Anjana Haridas, Venki Sundaram
BACKGROUND: Strabismus, or squint, can be defined as a deviation from perfect ocular alignment and can be classified in many ways according to its aetiology and presentation. Treatment can be broadly divided into medical and surgical options, with a variety of surgical techniques being available, including the use of adjustable or non-adjustable sutures for the extraocular muscles. There exists an uncertainty as to which of these techniques produces a better surgical outcome, and an opinion that the adjustable suture technique may be of greater benefit in certain situations...
March 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Khadija Sellami, Meriem Amouri, Sana Kmiha, Emna Bahloul, Hajer Aloulou, Lamia Sfaihi, R Guirat, Madiha Mseddi, T Kamoun, Mongia Hachicha, Hamida Turki
Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a widely used vaccine. Management of local BCG complications differs between clinicians, and the optimal approach remains unclear. Aims: We aim to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the BCG vaccine side effects in Sfax. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all the cases of BCG vaccine adverse reactions recorded in the Dermatology and Paediatrics Departments of Hedi Chaker University Hospital of Sfax over a period of 10 years (2005-2015)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
M Hermanussen, B Bogin, C Scheffler
AIM: To scrutinize to what extent modern ideas about nutrition effects on growth are supported by historic observations in European populations. METHOD: We reviewed 19th and early 20th century paediatric journals in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, the third largest European library with an almost complete collection of the German medical literature. During a three-day visit, we inspected 15 bookshelf meters of literature not available in electronic format. RESULTS: Late 19th and early 20th century breastfed European infants and children, independent of social strata, grew far below World Health Organisation (WHO) standards and 15-30% of adequately-fed children would be classified as stunted by the WHO standards...
March 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Zainab Altai, Marco Viceconti, Amaka C Offiah, Xinshan Li
Fractures of bone account 25% of all paediatric injuries (Cooper et al. in J Bone Miner Res 19:1976-1981, 2004. ). These can be broadly categorised into accidental or inflicted injuries. The current clinical approach to distinguish between these two is based on the clinician's judgment, which can be subjective. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on paediatric bone to provide evidence-based information on bone strength, mainly due to the difficulties of obtaining paediatric bone samples...
March 10, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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