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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915986/molecular-analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-metallo-beta-lactamase-a-first-report-of-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital
#1
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mansoure Hosseini, Amir Esmaeil Alyari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aerouginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causes clinical infections among ill patients. Metallo- Beta- lactamases (MBLs) are important mechanisms of carbapenem (drug of choice) resistance among Pseudomonas aerouginosa isolates. The aim of this study was to determine B- lactamases genes (bla-genes) in P. aerouginosa isolates and to detect percentage of MBLs among P. aerouginosa isolates in different wards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical isolates of P...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895446/a-case-of-fatal-sepsis-due-to-multidrug-resistant-corynebacterium-striatum
#2
M Chatzopoulou, T Koufakis, I Voulgaridi, I Gabranis, M Tsiakalou
BACKGROUND: Although non-diphtheria corynebacteria have traditionally been regarded as avirulent members of human bacterial flora, their pathogenic potential is increasingly recognized in our time. Reasons for this include the prolonged survival of severely ill and immunocompromised patients, the development of more invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the sub-optimal use of antibiotics that disrupts normal microbial balance and favors superinfections. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum in a 76-year-old host...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824870/clinical-course-radiological-manifestations-and-outcome-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-hiv-patients-and-renal-transplant-recipients
#3
Lukas Ebner, Laura N Walti, Andri Rauch, Hansjakob Furrer, Alexia Cusini, Andreas M J Meyer, Stefan Weiler, Uyen Huynh-Do, Johannes Heverhagen, Spyridon Arampatzis, Andreas Christe
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. In literature, presentation and outcome of PCP differs between patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and renal transplant recipients (RTRs). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with PCP based on the HIV and renal transplant registries at our institution. Radiological and clinical data from all confirmed PCP cases between 2005 and 2012 were compared...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814896/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-systemic-autoimmune-rheumatic-disease-a-case-control-study
#4
Susan Tadros, Andrew J Teichtahl, Sabina Ciciriello, Ian P Wicks
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that affects the immunocompromised. Patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease are increasingly recognised as an at-risk clinical population with a high mortality. This case-control study examined differences in the characteristics and peripheral blood parameters between patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease who developed PJP and gender, age and disease-matched controls...
September 28, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790435/mycological-profile-of-sputum-of-hiv-positive-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-and-its-correlation-with-cd4-t-lymphocyte-count
#5
Jyotsna Chandwani, Nitya Vyas, Saroj Hooja, Babita Sharma, Rakesh Maheshwari
INTRODUCTION: Fungal respiratory infections are important cause of mortality and morbidity among HIV positive individuals. They account for up to 70% of illness in Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome cases (AIDS). The range of illness varies from asymptomatic mucosal candidiasis to overwhelming disseminated infections. In these patients dissemination of fungus leads to very serious outcomes hence, it is important to have the knowledge of prevailing profile of fungus causing infections, so that it can be treated at the onset...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783381/increased-mortality-in-hematological-malignancy-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-from-undetermined-etiology-a-groupe-de-recherche-en-r%C3%A3-animation-respiratoire-en-onco-h%C3%A3-matologique-grrr-oh-study
#6
Adrien Contejean, Virginie Lemiale, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Djamel Mokart, Frédéric Pène, Achille Kouatchet, Julien Mayaux, François Vincent, Martine Nyunga, Fabrice Bruneel, Antoine Rabbat, Pierre Perez, Anne-Pascale Meert, Dominique Benoit, Rebecca Hamidfar, Michael Darmon, Mercé Jourdain, Anne Renault, Benoît Schlemmer, Elie Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the most frequent complication in patients with hematological malignancies and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF etiologies are numerous, and despite extensive diagnostic workflow, some patients remain with undetermined ARF etiology. METHODS: This is a post-hoc study of a prospective multicenter cohort performed on 1011 critically ill hematological patients. Relationship between ARF etiology and hospital mortality was assessed using a multivariable regression model adjusting for confounders...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782228/-treating-hiv-disease-back-to-the-patient
#7
Enrico Girardi, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Laura Camoni, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Guaraldi, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori, Stefano Bonora, Cristina Mussini, Antonella Cingolani, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Silvia Adami, Luca Degli Esposti, Margherita Andretta
HIV disease has dramatically changed in the last two decades from a progressive, lethal disease to a chronic manageable condition. These changes are due to the availability of potent antiretroviral combination therapy, which also have the potential to contribute significantly to the control of the epidemic. Among persons living with HIV, incidence of immunosuppression-related opportunistic illnesses has clearly decreased, while an increase was observed in the prevalence of age-related noncommunicable comorbidities, including cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, bone and hepatic disease, due to chronic inflammatory state and to an overall aging of the population of persons with HIV...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737420/palliative-care-for-patients-with-hiv-aids-admitted-to-intensive-care-units
#8
Paola Nóbrega Souza, Erique José Peixoto de Miranda, Ronaldo Cruz, Daniel Neves Forte
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of patients with HIV/AIDS and to compare the therapeutic interventions and end-of-life care before and after evaluation by the palliative care team. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the intensive care unit of the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas who were evaluated by a palliative care team between January 2006 and December 2012. RESULTS: Of the 109 patients evaluated, 89% acquired opportunistic infections, 70% had CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mm3, and only 19% adhered to treatment...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651962/listeria-rhombencephalitis-complicating-anti-tnf-treatment-during-an-acute-flare-of-crohn-s-colitis
#9
L Stratton, G R Caddy
Patients with Crohn's disease often require the use of immunosuppressant drugs to control disease activity. Such medication includes steroids, azathioprine, and biologic therapy. These suppress the immune response, and the patient is more susceptible to infection. We present a case of a 69-year-old gentleman with a history of Crohn's colitis who had ongoing symptoms of diarrhoea in spite of standard treatment. Biologic therapy was considered to be the next step, and screening for infection was undertaken prior to use...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643907/hiv-associated-neurologic-disorders-and-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-in-hiv
#10
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619552/hospitalizations-due-to-selected-infections-caused-by-opportunistic-premise-plumbing-pathogens-oppp-and-reported-drug-resistance-in-the-united-states-older-adult-population-in-1991-2006
#11
Elena N Naumova, Alexander Liss, Jyotsna S Jagai, Irmgard Behlau, Jeffrey K Griffiths
The Flint Water Crisis-due to changes of water source and treatment procedures-has revealed many unsolved social, environmental, and public health problems for US drinking water, including opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPP). The true health impact of OPPP, especially in vulnerable populations such as the elderly, is largely unknown. We explored 10(8) claims in the largest US national uniformly collected data repository to determine rates and costs of OPPP-related hospitalizations. In 1991-2006, 617,291 cases of three selected OPPP infections resulted in the elderly alone of $0...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605665/hiv-1-gp120-glycoprotein-interacting-with-dendritic-cell-specific-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-3-grabbing-non-integrin-dc-sign-down-regulates-tight-junction-proteins-to-disrupt-the-blood-retinal-barrier-and-increase-its-permeability
#12
Yi-Wen Qian, Chuan Li, Ai-Ping Jiang, Shengfang Ge, Ping Gu, Xianqun Fan, Tai-Sheng Li, Xia Jin, Jian-Hua Wang, Zhi-Liang Wang
Approximately 70% of HIV-1 infected patients acquire ocular opportunistic infections and manifest eye disorders during the course of their illness. The mechanisms by which pathogens invade the ocular site, however, are unclear. Under normal circumstances, vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which possess a well developed tight junction complex, form the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) to prevent pathogen invasion. We hypothesize that disruption of the BRB allows pathogen entry into ocular sites...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566775/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-secondary-syphilis
#13
Simona Frunza-Stefan, Gyanendra Acharya, Viktoryia Kazlouskaya, Paunel Vukasinov, Yushan Chiou, Zeyar Thet
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a condition associated with paradoxical worsening and/or new onset of an opportunistic infection in HIV patients following the initiation of anti-retroviral therapy or switching to more potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Although IRIS associated with many opportunistic infections (OIs) has been well reported, syphilis has very rarely been mentioned in this regard. A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with AIDS six weeks ago, presented with the disseminated non-pruritic painless skin rash...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560150/hiv-infected-children-have-lower-frequencies-of-cd8-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cells-that-correlate-with-innate-th17-and-th22-cell-subsets
#14
Alka Khaitan, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Cihan Tastan, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Mengling Liu, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are innate T cells restricted by major histocompatibility related molecule 1 (MR1) presenting riboflavin metabolite ligands derived from microbes. Specificity to riboflavin metabolites confers MAIT cells a broad array of host-protective activity against gram-negative and -positive bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungal pathogens. MAIT cells are present at low levels in the peripheral blood of neonates and gradually expand to relatively abundant levels during childhood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478143/drinking-water-quality-in-indigenous-communities-in-canada-and-health-outcomes-a-scoping-review
#15
REVIEW
Lori E A Bradford, Udoka Okpalauwaekwe, Cheryl L Waldner, Lalita A Bharadwaj
BACKGROUND: Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. DESIGN: A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476379/the-correlation-of-acanthamoeba-from-the-ventilation-system-with-other-environmental-parameters-in-commercial-buildings-as-possible-indicator-for-indoor-air-quality
#16
Soo Shen Ooi, Joon Wah Mak, Donald K F Chen, Stephen Ambu
BACKGROUND: The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. METHODS: Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health...
July 29, 2016: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470026/low-dose-versus-standard-dose-ritonavir-boosted-atazanavir-in-virologically-suppressed-thai-adults-with-hiv-lasa-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#17
Torsak Bunupuradah, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd, Malee Techapornroong, Niramon Leerattanapetch, Pacharee Kantipong, Chureeratana Bowonwatanuwong, Sukit Banchongkit, Virat Klinbuayaem, Sripetcharat Mekviwattanawong, Sireethorn Nimitvilai, Supunnee Jirajariyavej, Wisit Prasithsirikul, Warangkana Munsakul, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Suchada Chaivooth, Praphan Phanuphak, David A Cooper, Tanakorn Apornpong, Stephen J Kerr, Sean Emery, Kiat Ruxrungtham
BACKGROUND: Thai patients with HIV have higher exposure to HIV protease inhibitors than do white people and dose reduction might be possible. We compared the efficacy of low-dose with standard-dose ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in virologically suppressed Thai patients with HIV. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older who were receiving ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV plasma viral loads of less than 50 copies per mL, an alanine aminotransferase concentration of less than 200 IU/L, and a creatinine clearance of at least 60 mL/min from 14 hospitals in Thailand...
August 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453379/development-and-evaluation-of-a-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-talaromyces-marneffei-mp1-gene-in-human-plasma
#18
Ha Thuc Ai Hien, Tran Tan Thanh, Nguyen Thi Mai Thu, Ashley Nguyen, Nguyen Tat Thanh, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, Cameron Simmons, Cecilia Shikuma, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy Thwaites, Thuy Le
Penicilliosis caused by Talaromyces marneffei is a common AIDS-defining illness in South and Southeast Asia. Diagnosis is based on culture which can take up to 14 days for identification, leading to treatment delay and increased mortality. We developed a TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the MP1 gene encoding an abundant cell wall protein specific to T. marneffei. The assay's performance was evaluated in MP1-containing plasmids, clinical isolates, and plasma from HIV-infected patients with and without penicilliosis...
July 25, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432853/infectious-complications-with-the-use-of-biologic-response-modifiers-in-infants-and-children
#19
H Dele Davies
Biologic response modifiers (BRMs) are substances that interact with and modify the host immune system. BRMs that dampen the immune system are used to treat conditions such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease and often in combination with other immunosuppressive agents, such as methotrexate and corticosteroids. Cytokines that are targeted include tumor necrosis factor α; interleukins (ILs) 6, 12, and 23; and the receptors for IL-1α (IL-1A) and IL-1β (IL-1B) as well as other molecules...
August 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421050/test-and-treat-the-early-experiences-in-a-clinic-serving-women-at-high-risk-of-hiv-infection-in-kampala
#20
Martin Mbonye, Janet Seeley, Ruth Nalugya, Thadeus Kiwanuka, Daniel Bagiire, Michelle Mugyenyi, Gertrude Namale, Yunia Mayanja, Anatoli Kamali
At the end of 2013, the Government of Uganda issued guidance recommending provision of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) to HIV-positive people in key populations, including female sex workers, regardless of CD4 cell count. We describe the implementation of this new guidance in a clinic serving women at high risk of HIV infection in Kampala. Between July and December 2015, we conducted repeat in-depth interviews with 15 women attending the clinic after the change in guidelines, to explore their perceptions regarding prompt ART initiation...
2016: AIDS Care
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