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Opportunistic illness

Jan Miechowiecki, Waltraud Stainer, Gertraud Wallner, Herwig Tuppy, Walter Aichinger, Wolfgang Prammer, Andreas Kirchgatterer
INTRODUCTION:  Immunosuppressive therapy is today's standard treatment of patients with moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The risk for opportunistic infections is increased due to this therapy and is a concern in the management of patient with IBD undergoing such a treatment. CASE REPORT:  In this paper, we describe a case of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a 35-year-old male patient with Crohn's disease being in remission while receiving azathioprine therapy...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Clarence S Yah
Background: Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm3 , HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may significantly reduce HIV and related illnesses. The author assumes that all HIV infected partners should be eligible for HIV treatment and care, irrespective of CD4 count...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Shefali K Sharma, Prasanth Balasubramanian, Bishan Radotra, Manphool Singhal
Mucormycosis, a rare opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised hosts, is caused by fungi of Mucorales family. It may be confined to the organs, such as rhinocerebral and pulmonary mucormycosis, or may cause disseminated infection. A 14-year-old boy presented to our clinic with fever and left upper quadrant abdominal pain, and on evaluation was found to have pancytopaenia, and imaging revealed ill-defined splenic collection with thrombus in the splenic vein. He was started on empirical intravenous antibiotics, followed by antifungals empirically as he did not show any improvement clinically...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Hung-Yueh Yeh, John E Line, Arthur Hinton
Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is ubiquitous in the environment and is considered as the normal microflora in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often causing urinary tract infections. Moreover, Proteus has been frequently isolated from food animals, including poultry. Whether this bacterium contributes to the foodborne illness in humans is unclear. In this report, P. mirabilis isolates recovered from broilers during housing in the units were characterized, their antimicrobial activity was assayed, and broiler immune response to the soluble proteins was determined...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa...
February 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Rebekah M Martin, Michael A Bachman
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bloodstream infections...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Peter Hanlon, Suzanne Guerin, Gemma Kiernan
While bereavement camps serve as a support for children, this study examines a therapeutic recreation-based camp for families who have lost a child. The study triangulated documents, researcher reflection and staff interviews to highlight the themes of Searching & Finding, Getting to Know, Finding the Balance and Joining. Developing opportunistically through internal and external factors, the camp's evolution represents a closing of the loop, from supporting families of living children to also supporting the families of children who have died...
January 17, 2018: Death Studies
Mukesh Nasa, Zubin Sharma, Lipika Lipi, Randhir Sud
Mucormycosis is a rare, opportunistic fungal infection that occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts such as patients with diabetes mellitus, leukemia, lymphoma, renal disease, septicemia, burns, malnutrition, and following long-term treatment with steroids and antibiotics. Based on the clinical presentation and involvement, mucormycosis is classified as six major forms, namely, rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal (GI), disseminated and miscellaneous, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary being the common forms...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Maria Rita Polo Gascón, José Ernesto Vidal, Yolanda Marques Mazzaro, Jerusa Smid, Rosa Maria Nascimento Marcusso, Claudio Garcia Capitão, Elizeu Macedo Coutinho, Glaucia Rosana Guerra Benute, Mara Cristina Souza De Lucia, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain frequent even among individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). In addition, HAND may adversely affect the quality of life and adherence to cART. There is scarce epidemiological information about HAND in Latin America. This cross-sectional study recruited HIV-infected patients from a tertiary teaching institution in São Paulo, Brazil, between May 2013 and February 2015. The patients were adults with at least 4 years of education and patients with current neurological or psychiatric diseases were excluded...
January 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Jana Skřičková
In the broadest sense, the term immunocompromised individual means a person with any impairment of infection resistance, whether it is deficiency or impairment of innate resistance (by another name impairment of non-specific resistance), or impairment of acquired resistance (impairment of specific immunity). Pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is characterized by a different microbiological spectrum. Apart from common pathogens there are also opportunistic agents involved in this group of patients. Management of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is often decisive for their future fate...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Visal Moolasart, Suthat Chottanapund, Jarurnsook Ausavapipit, Sirirat Likanonsakul, Sumonmal Uttayamakul, Don Changsom, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Pilaipan Puthavathana
The RNA viral load of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is initially used to determine the status of the HIV infection. The goal of therapy following treatment failure is to achieve and maintain virologic suppression. A detectable viral load may relate to the progression of HIV infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014 at the Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand. The aim was to determine the prevalence of detectable HIV viral load (dVL) and analyze the factors associated with post-dVL conditions that occur independently of a switch to a new antiretroviral agent...
January 1, 2018: Children
Hayley Barnes, Anne E Holland, Glen P Westall, Nicole Sl Goh, Ian N Glaspole
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have associated connective tissue disease (CTD). The connective tissue disorders most commonly associated with ILD include scleroderma/systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Although many people with CTD-ILD do not develop progressive lung disease, a significant proportion do progress, leading to reduced physical function, decreased quality of life, and death...
January 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Telegrafo, A A Stabile Ianora, G Angelelli, M Moschetta
Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of multiple gas-filled cysts within the submucosa or subserosa of the intestinal wall. We report a case of PCI in a 54-yearold man 4 weeks after liver transplantation due to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated liver cirrhosis presenting with illness, diarrhea and abdominal pain. CT scans revealed normal shape of the abdominal parenchymal organs and no intra-hepatic complication due to liver transplantation. Main abdominal venous and arterial vessels resulted patent...
September 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Jing Liu, Elie Mouhayar, Jeffrey J Tarrand, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Cryptococcus neoformans is a saprophytic fungal pathogen that can cause serious illness in immune-compromised hosts and it presents with a wide variety of clinical symptoms. We present a fatal case of fulminant C. neoformans infection presenting as pericardial tamponade in a 71-year-old male with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy with the JAK-STAT inhibitor ruxolitinib. We also review the published cases of fungal pericarditis/tamponade. In addition to illustrating an atypical presentation of C...
December 27, 2017: Mycoses
Russell A Scott, Roger Thilmony, Leslie A Harden, Yaguang Zhou, Maria T Brandl
Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Laura Dellazizzo, Jules R Dugré, Marieke Berwald, Marie-Christine Stafford, Gilles Côté, Stéphane Potvin, Alexandre Dumais
High rates of violence are found amid offenders with severe mental illnesses (SMI), substance use disorders (SUDs) and Cluster B personality disorders. Elevated rates of comorbidity lead to inconsistencies when it comes to this relationship. Furthermore, overlapping Cluster B personality traits have been associated with violence. Using multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, this study was designed to differentiate profiles of 728 male inmates from penitentiary and psychiatric settings marked by personality traits, SMI and SUDs following different violent patterns...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Ian M Mackay, Katherine E Arden
The human coronaviruses (CoV) include HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1, some of which have been known for decades. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV briefly emerged into the human population but was controlled. In 2012, another novel severely human pathogenic CoV-the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV-was identified in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 80% of over 2000 human cases have been recorded over five years. Targeted research remains key to developing control strategies for MERS-CoV, a cause of mild illness in its camel reservoir...
December 2, 2017: Viruses
J Kehrmann, B Veckollari, D Schmidt, O Schildgen, V Schildgen, N Wagner, M Zeschnigk, L Klein-Hitpass, O Witzke, J Buer, J Steinmann
BACKROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we analysed the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract from critically ill intensive care unit patients with and without pneumocystosis. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar fluids from 65 intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients (34 PCP+ and 31 PCP- patients) were collected...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Mira Okshevsky, Matilde Greve Louw, Elena Otero Lamela, Martin Nilsson, Tim Tolker-Nielsen, Rikke Louise Meyer
Bacillus cereus is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens causing foodborne illness, as well as a common source of contamination in the dairy industry. B. cereus can form robust biofilms on food processing surfaces, resulting in food contamination due to shedding of cells and spores. Despite the medical and industrial relevance of this species, the genetic basis of biofilm formation in B. cereus is not well studied. In order to identify genes required for biofilm formation in this bacterium, we created a library of 5000 +  transposon mutants of the biofilm-forming strain B...
November 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Kathryn Ashton, Mark A Bellis, Alisha R Davies, Karen Hughes, Adam Winstock
OBJECTIVES: To examine the emotions associated with drinking different types of alcohol, explore whether these emotions differ by sociodemographics and alcohol dependency and whether the emotions associated with different drink types influence people's choice of drinks in different settings. DESIGN: International cross-sectional opportunistic survey (Global Drug Survey) using an online anonymous questionnaire in 11 languages promoted through newspapers, magazines and social media from November 2015 to January 2016...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
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