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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462693/two-novel-dual-glp-1-gip-receptor-agonists-are-neuroprotective-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Peng Feng, Xiangjian Zhang, Dongfang Li, Chenhui Ji, Ziyue Yuan, Ruifang Wang, Guofang Xue, Guanglai Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factors for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Insulin desensitization is observed in the brains of PD patients, which may be an underlying mechanism that promotes neurodegeneration. Incretin hormones are growth factors that can re-sensitize insulin signalling. We have previously shown that analogues of the incretins GLP-1 or GIP have neuroprotective effects in the MPTP mouse model of PD. Novel dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonists have been developed as treatments for T2DM...
February 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459819/ganglioside-metabolism-and-parkinson-s-disease
#2
John Forsayeth, Piotr Hadaczek
Here we advance the hypothesis that Parkinson's disease (PD) is fundamentally a failure of trophic support for specific classes of neurons, primarily catecholaminergic. Evidence from our laboratory provides a framework into which a broad array of findings from many quarters can be integrated into a general theory that offers testable hypotheses to new and established investigators. Mice deficient in the ability to synthesize series-a gangliosides, specifically GM1 ganglioside, develop parkinsonism. We found that this seems to be due to a failure in signaling efficiency by the important catecholaminergic growth factor, GDNF...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459093/sox11-gene-disruption-causes-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-cakut
#3
Yasmine Neirijnck, Antoine Reginensi, Kirsten Y Renkema, Filippo Massa, Vladimir M Kozlov, Haroun Dhib, Ernie Mhf Bongers, Wout F Feitz, Albertien M van Eerde, Veronique Lefebvre, Nine Vam Knoers, Mansoureh Tabatabaei, Herbert Schulz, Helen McNeill, Franz Schaefer, Michael Wegner, Elisabeth Sock, Andreas Schedl
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) belong to the most common birth defects in human, but the molecular basis for the majority of CAKUT patients remains unknown. Here we show that the transcription factor SOX11 is a crucial regulator of kidney development. SOX11 is expressed in both mesenchymal and epithelial components of the early kidney anlagen. Deletion of Sox11 in mice causes an extension of the domain expressing Gdnf within rostral regions of the nephrogenic cord and results in duplex kidney formation...
February 16, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456864/curative-gnrha-treatment-has-an-unexpected-repressive-effect-on-sertoli-cell-specific-genes
#4
Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadler, Faruk Hadziselimovic
Background: Follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone stimulate Sertoli cells to support germ cell function and differentiation. During mini-puberty, when gonadotropin (GnRH) stimulates increases in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels, gonocytes are transformed into Ad spermatogonia. In cryptorchidism, impaired gonadotropin secretion during mini-puberty results in insufficient LH and testosterone secretion, impaired gonocyte transition to Ad spermatogonia, and perturbed Sertoli cell proliferation...
2018: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444518/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-nicotine-sensitization-in-rats-neonatally-treated-with-quinpirole-analyses-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-implications-towards-schizophrenia
#5
Russell W Brown, Marjorie A Schlitt, Alex S Owens, Caitlynn C DePreter, Elizabeth D Cummins, Seth L Kirby, W Drew Gill, Katherine C Burgess
The current study analyzed the effects of environmental enrichment versus isolation housing on the behavioral sensitization to nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole (NQ; dopamine D2-like agonist) model of dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity, a rodent model of schizophrenia. NQ treatment in rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity throughout the animal's lifetime, consistent with schizophrenia. Animals were administered NQ (1 mg/kg) or saline (NS) from postnatal day (P)1 to P21, weaned, and immediately placed into enriched housing or isolated in wire cages throughout the experiment...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441947/effect-of-brefelamide-on-proliferation-of-1321n1-human-astrocytoma-cells-induced-by-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#6
S Honma, K Kouno, S Takasaka, S Mitazaki, S Abe, H Kikuchi, Y Oshima, M Yoshida
Malignant gliomas are highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiation and more effective options for treatment are urgently needed. We reported previously that the aromatic amide brefelamide, which is isolated from methanolic extracts of the cellular slime molds Dictyostelium giganteum and D. brefeldianum, hinders cellular proliferation in a glioma model utilizing 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we examined the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of 1321N1 cell proliferation by brefelamide. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was found to enhance the rate of proliferation of serum-free cultured 1321N1 cells, but did not affect proliferation in PC12 cells...
January 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440301/cyclical-expression-of-gdnf-is-required-for-spermatogonial-stem-cell-homeostasis
#7
Manju Sharma, Robert E Braun
In the murine testis self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) requires Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) secreted from neighboring somatic cells. However, it not clear how GDNF promotes self-renewal in vivo or what downstream signaling pathways are required for SSC maintenance. We found that GDNF is normally expressed cyclically during spermatogenesis. Stage-specific ectopic expression of GDNF caused the accumulation of a GFRA1+ LIN28- A single population, which has enhanced SSC activity compared to wild-type, suggesting that GDNF normally limits self-renewal to specific stages...
February 13, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436662/comparison-of-the-properties-of-neural-stem-cells-of-the-hippocampus-in-the-tree-shrew-and-rat-in%C3%A2-vitro
#8
Yuan-Dong Hu, Qiong Zhao, Xue-Rong Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Zi-Bin Zhang, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by the ability of self‑renewal and capacity to proliferate and produce new nervous tissue. NSCs are capable of differentiating to three lineages of neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Furthermore, hippocampal NSCs transplantation can improve the neurological deficits associated with expression of cytokines. Therefore, to compare the properties of NSCs of tree shrews and rats in vitro, NSCs from tree shrews (tsNSCs) and rats f(rNSCs) were isolated...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435804/human-neural-stem-cells-with-gdnf-site-specific-integration-at-aavs1-by-using-aav-vectors-retained-their-stemness
#9
Jinju Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Yun Zhang, Zuo Luan, Yinxiang Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Chun Zhang
The neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and to migrate to pathologically altered regions of the central nervous system. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could protect dopamine neurons and rescue motor neurons in vivo, which has been proposed as a promising candidate for the treatments of degenerative neurological diseases. In order to combine the advantages of neurotrophic factors and stem cells in clinical therapy, we established the modified hNSCs that has site-specific integration of GDNF gene by using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors...
February 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433511/histamine-upregulates-the-expression-of-histamine-receptors-and-increases-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-astrocytes
#10
Jiawen Xu, Xiang Zhang, Qingqing Qian, Yiwei Wang, Hongquan Dong, Nana Li, Yanning Qian, Wenjie Jin
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes have attracted increasing attention over recent decades for their role in neuroinflammation. Histamine, a major aminergic brain neurotransmitter, has an important influence on the main activities of astrocytes, such as ion homeostasis, energy metabolism, and neurotransmitter clearance. However, little is known about the impact of histamine on astrocyte immunomodulatory function. METHODS: The expression of all known histamine receptor subtypes was examined in primary astrocytes...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430457/evaluating-the-behavior-of-cultured-sertoli-cells-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-spermatogonial-stem-cell
#11
Masoome Jabarpour, Parviz Tajik
Background: The complex process of spermatogenesis is regulated by various factors. Several studies have been conducted to proliferate cells involved in the spermatogenesis process, in culture by used growth factors, different hormones and feeder cells. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Sertoli cells on gene expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) after removal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from the culture medium...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425760/agathisflavone-a-flavonoid-derived-from-poincianella-pyramidalis-tul-enhances-neuronal-population-and-protects-against-glutamate-excitotoxicity
#12
Cleide Dos Santos Souza, Maria Socorro Grangeiro, Erica Patricia Lima Pereira, Cleonice Creusa Dos Santos, Alessandra Bispo da Silva, Geraldo Pedral Sampaio, Daiana Dias Ribeiro Figueiredo, Jorge Mauricio David, Juceni Pereira David, Victor Diogenes Amaral da Silva, Arthur Morgan Butt, Silvia Lima Costa
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds that are known to be neuroprotective against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, one of the major causes of neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unresolved, but recent evidence indicates flavonoids may modulate estrogen signaling, which can delay the onset and ameliorate the severity of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the roles played by glial cells in the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the flavonoid agathisflavone (FAB) in primary neuron-glial co-cultures from postnatal rat cerebral cortex...
February 6, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423959/low-resilience-to-stress-is-associated-with-candidate-gene-expression-alterations-in-the-dopaminergic-signalling-pathway
#13
Esfandiar Azadmarzabadi, Arvin Haghighatfard, Alireza Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: In stressful situations, a person's ability to appropriately complete tasks with minimal anxiety is known as stress resilience. Genetic variants in neuropeptide Y, Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), and serotonin transporter have been previously reported to be associated with low resilience, but the relationship between low resilience and the dopaminergic signalling pathway is not well understood. Here, we aimed to describe the association between comprehensive psychological characteristics and messenger RNA levels of dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine receptor D5 (DRD5), COMT, Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH), Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), monoamine oxidase A (MAOM), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (5-HTT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) genes based on peripheral blood samples from 400 subjects who react differently to major life event stressors...
February 8, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420729/combination-treatment-with-exogenous-gdnf-and-fetal-spinal-cord-cells-results-in-better-motoneuron-survival-and-functional-recovery-after-avulsion-injury-with-delayed-root-reimplantation
#14
Carolin Ruven, Smaranda-Ruxandra Badea, Wai-Man Wong, Wutian Wu
When spinal roots are torn off from the spinal cord, both the peripheral and central nervous system get damaged. As the motoneurons lose their axons, they start to die rapidly, whereas target muscles atrophy due to the denervation. In this kind of complicated injury, different processes need to be targeted in the search for the best treatment strategy. In this study, we tested glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) treatment and fetal lumbar cell transplantation for their effectiveness to prevent motoneuron death and muscle atrophy after the spinal root avulsion and delayed reimplantation...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408603/prostaglandin-e2-pge2-is-a-testicular-peritubular-cell-derived-factor-involved-in-human-testicular-homeostasis
#15
Verónica Rey-Ares, Soledad Paola Rossi, Kim-Gwendolyn Dietrich, Frank-Michael Köhn, J Ulrich Schwarzer, Harald Welter, Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Artur Mayerhofer
In man, blockage of prostaglandin (PG)-production e.g. by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) may have negative testicular side effects, implying beneficial actions of PGs in the testis. We examined human testicular samples and isolated human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs) to explore sites of PG-synthesis and targets. HTPCs express cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and secrete PGE2. Receptors (EP1, 2, 4) were specifically identified in peritubular cells. In HTPCs PGE2 significantly increased mRNA levels of the contractility protein calponin, but did not induce contractions...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407749/differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-deciduous-and-permanent-teeth-into-spiral-ganglion-neuron-like-cells
#16
Thanasup Gonmanee, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Kutkao Vongsavan, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
OBJECTIVE: Stem cells from pulp tissue are a promising cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative patients based on their origin in the neural crest. The aim of this study was to differentiate and evaluate the ability of human dental pulp stem cells from permanent teeth (DPSC) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. DESIGN: After isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell properties, DPSC and SHED were treated with the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405371/disclosing-the-physiology-of-dental-pulp-for-vital-pulp-therapy
#17
REVIEW
W L O da Rosa, E Piva, A F Silva
The discovery that dentine is a reservoir of bioactive molecules that can be recruited on demand has attracted efforts to develop new protocols and materials for vital pulp therapy (VPT). The non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) present in the dentine extracellular matrix (ECM) include growth factors (TGF-β1, BMP-7, FGF-2, IGF-1 and -2, NGF, and GDNF), extracellular matrix molecules (DSP, DPP, BSP, DMP-1, and DSPP), and both anti- and pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10). Molecules such as DSP and DPP are mainly expressed by odontoblasts, and they are cleaved products from dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)...
February 6, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393223/mild-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-genetically-determined-low-nephron-number-is-associated-with-chloride-but-not-sodium-retention
#18
Kerstin Benz, Julia Schlote, Christoph Daniel, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Agnes Schröder, Nada Cordasic, Bernd Klanke, Karl Hilgers, Jens Titze, Kerstin Amann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: One potential pathomechanism how low nephron number leads to hypertension in later life is altered salt handling. We therefore evaluated changes in electrolyte and water content in wildtype (wt) and GDNF+/- mice with a 30% reduction of nephron number. METHODS: 32 GDNF+/- and 36 wt mice were fed with low salt (LSD, 0.03%, normal drinking water) or high salt (HSD, 4%, 0.9% drinking water) diet for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry in a subgroup...
January 23, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392399/bayesian-inference-of-agent-based-models-a-tool-for-studying-kidney-branching-morphogenesis
#19
Ben Lambert, Adam L MacLean, Alexander G Fletcher, Alexander N Combes, Melissa H Little, Helen M Byrne
The adult mammalian kidney has a complex, highly-branched collecting duct epithelium that arises as a ureteric bud sidebranch from an epithelial tube known as the nephric duct. Subsequent branching of the ureteric bud to form the collecting duct tree is regulated by subcellular interactions between the epithelium and a population of mesenchymal cells that surround the tips of outgrowing branches. The mesenchymal cells produce glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), that binds with RET receptors on the surface of the epithelial cells to stimulate several subcellular pathways in the epithelium...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385786/expression-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-and-the-gdnf-family-receptor-alpha-subunit-1-in-the-paravaginal-ganglia-of-nulliparous-and-primiparous-rabbits
#20
Verónica García-Villamar, Laura G Hernández-Aragón, Jesús R Chávez-Ríos, Arturo Ortega, Margarita Martínez-Gómez, Francisco Castelán
PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor, GDNF family receptor alpha subunit 1 (GFRα-1) in the pelvic (middle third) vagina and, particularly, in the paravaginal ganglia of nulliparous and primiparous rabbits. METHODS: Chinchilla-breed female rabbits were used. Primiparas were killed on postpartum day 3 and nulliparas upon reaching a similar age. The vaginal tracts were processed for histological analyses or frozen for Western blot assays...
January 2018: International Neurourology Journal
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