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Ulf Büntgen, Juan D Galván, Atle Mysterud, Paul J Krusic, Lisa Hülsmann, Hannes Jenny, Josef Senn, Kurt Bollmann
1.Selective hunting can affect demographic characteristics and phenotypic traits of the targeted species. Hunting systems often involve harvesting quotas based on sex, age and/or size categories to avoid selective pressure. However, it is difficult to assess if such regulations deter hunters from targeting larger 'trophy' animals with longer horns that may have evolutionary consequences. 2.Here, we compile 44'088 annually resolved and absolutely dated measurements of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) horn growth increments from 8'355 males, harvested between 1978 and 2013, in the eastern Swiss Canton of Grisons...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Rita Hleihel, Behzad Khoshnood, Ingrid Dacklin, Hayssam Omran, Carine Mouawad, Zeina Dassouki, Marwan El-Sabban, Margret Shirinian, Caroline Grabbe, Ali Bazarbachi
BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity and subcellular localization of Tax is strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications, among which ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been identified as key regulators of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Tax, as well as its ability to activate NF-κB signaling...
April 17, 2018: Retrovirology
Eo Toriyama, Yoshitaka Imaizumi, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Jun Taguchi, Jun Nakashima, Hidehiro Itonaga, Shinya Sato, Koji Ando, Yasushi Sawayama, Tomoko Hata, Takuya Fukushima, Yasushi Miyazaki
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an intractable hematopoietic malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Although improved responses have been achieved through intensive chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients with aggressive ATL, most patients suffer from relapse or disease recurrence, and an effective salvage therapy, especially for candidates for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), is yet to be established. The efficacy of the EPOCH regimen has been reported for several lymphoid malignancies; however, its efficacy for ATL has not been sufficiently evaluated...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Philipp Lichte, Sebastian Kalverkamp, Jan Spillner, Frank Hildebrand, Philipp Kobbe
Patients with multiple injuries in particular frequently also suffer from chest trauma. During the initial phase the identification and treatment of life-threatening injuries is essential and tension pneumothorax is of particular importance during this phase. The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) algorithm should be followed for structured treatment. In most cases treatment by insertion of a chest tube is sufficient but for some injuries an emergency thoracotomy is unavoidable as a life-saving intervention...
April 12, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Sara Moodad, Abdou Akkouche, Rita Hleihel, Nadine Darwiche, Marwan El-Sabban, Ali Bazarbachi, Hiba El Hajj
Adult T cell Leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive lymphoproliferative malignancy secondary to infection by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and is associated with a dismal prognosis. ATL leukemogenesis remains enigmatic. In the era of precision medicine in oncology, mouse models offer one of the most efficient in vivo tools for the understanding of the disease biology and developing novel targeted therapies. This review provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of mouse models developed in the context of ATL and HTLV-I infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rick H G J van Lanen, M C Hoeberigs, N J C Bauer, R H L Haeren, G Hoogland, A Colon, C Piersma, J T A Dings, O E M G Schijns
BACKGROUND: Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) as a treatment for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) frequently causes visual field deficits (VFDs). Reported VFD encompasses homonymous contralateral upper quadrantanopia. Its reported incidence ranges from 15 to 90%. To date, a quantitative method to evaluate postoperative VFD in static perimetry is not available. A method to quantify postoperative VFD, which allows for comparison between groups of patients, was developed. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with drug-resistant TLE, who underwent ATL with pre- and postoperative perimetry, were included...
April 5, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Aleksandra Bala, Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Piejka, Aldona Głębicka, Ewa Szewczyk, Katarzyna Bosak, Marta Szantroch, Sylwia Hyniewska, Andrzej Rysz, Andrzej Marchel
Dysfunction in the understanding of social signals has been reported in persons with epilepsy, which may partially explain lower levels of life satisfaction in this patient population. Extensive assessment is necessary, particularly when the mesial temporal lobe, responsible for emotion processing, is affected. The authors examined multiple levels of social perception in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), including judgments of point-light motion displays of human communicative interactions (Communicative Interactions Database-5 Alternative Forced Choice format) and theory-of-mind processes evaluated using geometric shapes (Frith-Happé animations [FHA])...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Linn Haugland, Kasper Dahl Kristensen, Stein Atle Lie, Vaska Vandevska-Radunovic
Objective: Biologic factors and adjunctive therapies are known to affect the degree of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR). However, a systematic overall assessment of their impact on OIIRR has not previously been reported. We, therefore, aimed to systematically assess effects on OIIRR of biologic factors and adjunctive therapies in human and animal subjects. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy was performed for all major electronic databases...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Mi Suk Choi, Sung-Min Moon, Seul Ah Lee, Bo-Ram Park, Jae-Sung Kim, Do Kyung Kim, Yong Hwan Kim, Chun Sung Kim
Adenosine has been identified to occur abundantly intra-and extracellularly, and to exert diverse biological functions, including the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Adenosine has been reported to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines; however, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of adenosine on head and neck cancer cells has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine exerts any anticancer effect via induction of apoptosis in human pharyngeal squamous carcinoma FaDu cells...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Alaa Refaat, Mohamed Owis, Sherif Abdelhamed, Ikuo Saiki, Hiroaki Sakurai
HuT-102 cells are considered one of the most representable human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cell lines for studying adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL). In our previous studies, genome-wide screening was performed using the GeneChip system with Human Genome Array U133 Plus 2.0 for transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-, interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)- and IRF4-regulated genes to demonstrate the effects of interferon-inducible genes in HuT-102 cells. Our previous findings demonstrated that TAK1 induced interferon inducible genes via an IRF3-dependent pathway and that IRF4 has a counteracting effect...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Azusa Tanaka, Masao Matsuoka
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus to be discovered as a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and chronic inflammatory diseases. Two viral factors, Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), are thought to be involved in the leukemogenesis of ATL. Tax expression is frequently lost due to DNA methylation in the promoter region, genetic changes to the tax gene, and deletion of the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) in approximately half of all ATL cases. On the other hand, HBZ is expressed in all ATL cases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ophélie Couriot, A J Mark Hewison, Sonia Saïd, Francesca Cagnacci, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, John D C Linnell, Atle Mysterud, Wibke Peters, Ferdinando Urbano, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, Sandro Nicoloso, Anne Berger, Pavel Sustr, Max Kroeschel, Leif Soennichsen, Robin Sandfort, Benedikt Gehr, Nicolas Morellet
Much research on large herbivore movement has focused on the annual scale to distinguish between resident and migratory tactics, commonly assuming that individuals are sedentary at the within-season scale. However, apparently sedentary animals may occupy a number of sub-seasonal functional home ranges (sfHR), particularly when the environment is spatially heterogeneous and/or temporally unpredictable. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) experiences sharply contrasting environmental conditions due to its widespread distribution, but appears markedly sedentary over much of its range...
April 2, 2018: Oecologia
Rocco Chiou, Gina F Humphreys, JeYoung Jung, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Built upon a wealth of neuroimaging, neurostimulation, and neuropsychology data, a recent proposal set forth a framework termed controlled semantic cognition (CSC) to account for how the brain underpins the ability to flexibly use semantic knowledge (Lambon Ralph et al., 2017; Nature Reviews Neuroscience). In CSC, the 'semantic control' system, underpinned predominantly by the prefrontal cortex, dynamically monitors and modulates the 'semantic representation' system that consists of a 'hub' (anterior temporal lobe, ATL) and multiple 'spokes' (modality-specific areas)...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Hideki Nakamura, Hiroo Hasegawa, Daisuke Sasaki, Ayuko Takatani, Toshimasa Shimizu, Shota Kurushima, Yoshiro Horai, Yoshikazu Nakashima, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Junya Fukuoka, Atsushi Kawakami
OBJECTIVES: To detect HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ), tax and relevant molecules in labial salivary glands (LSGs) from patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: The expressions of HBZ and tax in T cell lines and LSGs were analysed by in situ hybridization (ISH) or real time PCR. The expressions of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and p65 in immunohistochemistry were quantified. RESULTS: After specificity of ISH probes was determined in 5 T cell lines, in LSGs from an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patient and 3 HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)-SS patients, both HBZ and tax signals were detected in infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNCs) and ducts, and HBZ and tax were dominantly expressed in MNCs of ATL and HAM-SS, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Nicholas M Barbaro, Mark Quigg, Mariann M Ward, Edward F Chang, Donna K Broshek, John T Langfitt, Guofen Yan, Kenneth D Laxer, Andrew J Cole, Penny K Sneed, Christopher P Hess, Wei Yu, Manjari Tripathi, Christianne N Heck, John W Miller, Paul A Garcia, Andrew McEvoy, Nathan B Fountain, Vincenta Salanova, Robert C Knowlton, Anto Bagić, Thomas Henry, Siddharth Kapoor, Guy McKhann, Adriana E Palade, Markus Reuber, Evelyn Tecoma
OBJECTIVE: To compare stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) versus anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for patients with pharmacoresistant unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). METHODS: This randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial recruited adults eligible for open surgery among 14 centers in the USA, UK, and India. Treatment was either SRS at 24 Gy to the 50% isodose targeting mesial structures, or standardized ATL. Outcomes were seizure remission (absence of disabling seizures between 25 and 36 months), verbal memory (VM), and quality of life (QOL) at 36-month follow-up...
March 30, 2018: Epilepsia
Hideki Hasegawa, Kaori Sano, Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a refractory T-cell malignancy caused by infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Although the pathogenesis of ATL remains unclear, HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays an important role in pathogenesis (Matsuoka, 2003; Jeang et al., 2004). Chemotherapy resistance of ATL leads the poor prognosis of this disease. In order to understand the pathogenesis and establish an animal model useful for therapy attempts, we have generated HTLV-1 Tax transgenic mice using the Lck proximal promoter to restrict the Tax expression in T-cells...
February 13, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Laura Blum, Mark E Hake, Ryan Charles, Todd Conlan, David Rojas, Murphy Trey Martin, Cyril Mauffrey
Vertical shear pelvic ring fractures are rare and account for less than 1% of all fractures. Unlike severely displaced antero-posterior compression and lateral compression pelvic fractures, patients' mortality is lower. Nevertheless, patients must be managed acutely using well-defined ATLS protocols and institution-specific protocols for haemodynamically unstable pelvic ring fractures. The definitive treatment of vertical shear pelvic fractures is however more controversial with a paucity of literature to recommend the ideal reduction and fixation strategy...
March 26, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Patricia Jeannin, Thibault Chaze, Quentin Giai Gianetto, Mariette Matondo, Olivier Gout, Antoine Gessain, Philippe V Afonso
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can participate in intercellular communication and pathogenesis. EVs contain many cargos, including proteins, and the composition of EVs differs between cell-types and activation levels. Thus, plasma EVs can be used as a biomarker of systemic response to infection and/or disease progression. In this study, we aimed at describing alterations in the protein content of plasma EVs upon infection with the human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease (ATL) and a series of inflammatory diseases, including a neurodegenerative inflammatory disease (HAM/TSP)...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabrielle A Jacquet, Bachar Hamade, Karim A Diab, Rasha Sawaya, Gilbert Abou Dagher, Eveline Hitti, Jamil D Bayram
BACKGROUND: As the field of Emergency Medicine grows worldwide, the importance of an Emergency Department Crash Cart (EDCC) has long been recognized. Yet, there is paucity of relevant peer-reviewed literature specifically discussing EDCCs or proposing detailed features for an EDCC suitable for both adult and pediatric patients. METHODS: The authors performed a systematic review of EDCC-specific literature indexed in Pubmed and Embase on December 20, 2016. In addition, the authors reviewed the 2015 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care, the 2015 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for resuscitation, and the 2013 American College of Surgeons (ACS) Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) 9th edition...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
Cheng Zhong, Yajuan Ren, Yetong Qi, Xiaoling Yu, Xintong Wu, Zhendong Tian
Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that plays a crucial role during the regulation of plant immune signalling. The plant ATL family consists of a large number of putative RING type ubiquitin ligases. We show that potato ATL family gene StRFP1 and its orthologue NbATL60 from N. benthamiana both respond to Phytophthora infestans culture filtrate (CF) and flg22 induction. StRFP1 positively regulates immunity against P. infestans in potato. Ectopic transient expression of StRFP1 or expression of NbATL60 in N...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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