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hospital pneumonia

T Akhvlediani, N Akhvlediani, T Kuchuloria
Health care associated infections are the most frequent adverse event accompanying healthcare delivery worldwide. Of these, respiratory tract infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), have been recognized as the most common infections in acute hospitals. Sparse anecdotal and epidemiologic data from intensive care units (ICU) and infectious diseases physicians, as well as several publications in this field, suggest that the etiology of VAP in Georgia is most likely Klebsiella pneumoniae. This review article discusses the challenges of infection control in the Georgian health care system, with a focus on VAP...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Dr Gian Domenico Giusti, Dr Cecilia Rogari, Dr Alessio Gili, Dr Fulvio Nisi
BACKGROUND: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) for mechanical ventilation has a central role in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). ETI is one of the main risk factors for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) as its presence reduces the natural defences of the upper airway and allows the micro-suction of secretions in the airways. In order to minimise such complications, it is fundamental to maintain a suitable pressure inside the tube cuff. AIM AND SCOPE: The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of palpation method, performed with the operators fingers, for detecting the tube cuff pressure...
October 18, 2016: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Katsutoshi Yamasaki, Masaru Komatsu, Tamotsu Ono, Hisaaki Nishio, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Kaneyuki Kida, Kaori Satoh, Hirofumi Toda, Isao Nishi, Masahiro Akagi, Tetsu Mizutani, Isako Nakai, Tomomi Kofuku, Tamaki Orita, Takuya Zikimoto, Tatsuya Nakamura, Yasunao Wada
Six Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to various cephalosporins and cephamycins were identified in a Japanese general hospital, a tertiary care hospital, between November 2009 and April 2010. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried blaGES-4 and blaSHV-1, while 2 K. pneumoniae isolates also harbored blaCTX-M-15. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns revealed that these 6 K. pneumoniae isolates were almost identical, suggesting their clonal relatedness. Plasmid profiles and conjugation assays revealed that these blaGES-4 genes were located on similar conjugative plasmids...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
S Pscherer, A Nüssler, C Bahrs, M Reumann, C Ihle, U Stöckle, S Ehnert, T Freude, B G Ochs, I Flesch, P Ziegler
Background: The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is also reflected in the patient population of a trauma and orthopaedic centre. Diabetics also exhibit more comorbidities than non-diabetics. In addition to surgical problems in these patients, hospitalisation is often accompanied by complications, which can prolong treatment and increase costs. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse hospitalisation of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, as well as differences in treatment costs, depending on associated age and comorbidities...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
David C Classen, William Munier, Nancy Verzier, Noel Eldridge, David Hunt, Mark Metersky, Chesley Richards, Yun Wang, P Jeffrey Brady, Amy Helwig, James Battles
The explicit declaration in the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine report "To Err Is Human" that, in the United States, 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a consequence of "medical errors" gave widespread validation to the magnitude of the patient safety problem and catalyzed a number of U.S. federal government programs to measure and improve the safety of the national healthcare system. After more than 10 years, one of those federal programs, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS), has reached a level of maturity and stability that has made it useful for the consistent measurement of the safety of inpatient care...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Miey Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Han-Sung Kim, Ji Young Park, Wonkeun Song, Hyoun Chan Cho, Jae-Seok Kim
Of 608 Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical strains isolated at a hospital in South Korea during 2009-2014, sixteen (2.6%) were identified as levofloxacin resistant. The predominant serotype was 11A (9 isolates). Two novel sequence types of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae with serotype 11A were identified, indicating continuous diversification of resistant strains.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth A Neuner, Andrea M Pallotta, Simon W Lam, David Stowe, Steven M Gordon, Gary W Procop, Sandra S Richter
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Siddharth Jain, Animesh Ray, Manish Soneja, S Leve Joseph Devarajan, Shyam Madabhushi, Anitha Swamy, T Naveen, S K Sharma
A known case of primary Sjogren's syndrome with chronic kidney disease presented with respiratory symptoms and subsequent altered sensorium. Chest imaging suggested cavitating lung lesions in both the lungs. Serum c-ANCA was positive without any upper respiratory tract involvement or active urinary sediments. Treatment with appropriate anti-microbials produced no improvement in the respiratory or neurological parameters. MRI brain revealed tell-tale signs of CNS vascultis. A diagnosis of GPA was made as per European Medical Agency algorithm and the patient was started on immune-suppressants to which there was dramatic response...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Hidenori Katsumi, Masaki Tominaga, Morihiro Tajiri, Shigeki Shimizu, Yuki Sakazaki, Takashi Kinoshita, Masaki Okamoto, Tomotaka Kawayama, Tomoaki Hoshino
A 66-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for investigation of interstitial lung disease. She had spent most of her time in a shrine, and had always been exposed to vaporized paraffin from burning candles. Chest High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)showed ground-glass attenuation with thickening of septal lines, wh create the so-called "crazy-paving appearance". Although bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) and transbronchial biopsy were performed to aid in diagnosis, the findings did not reveal any conclusive information...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
I Fusier, O Parent de Curzon, S Touratier, L Escaut, M Lafaurie, S Fournier, M Sinègre, P Lechat, D Vittecoq
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to document amoxicillin-clavulanic acid prescription to improve the proper use of antibiotics in hospital settings. We used three criteria: quality of medical charts, adequacy of indications, and adequacy of treatment duration. METHOD: This study was designed as a one-day point prevalence survey carried out by antibiotic lead specialists. RESULTS: We included 387 prescriptions from 32 hospitals. Immunodeficiency was recorded as a risk factor in 30% of patients...
October 17, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Li Liu, Wanjun Chen, Xiaoye Lu, Keji Zhang, Changqing Zhu
BACKGROUND: Pyogenic liver abscesses have become common in emergency departments (EDs) in recent years in Shanghai, China due to a variety of risk factors contributory to the disease. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience in managing pyogenic liver abscesses to aid in the current management of this complex condition. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted to collect and analyze information from adult patients diagnosed with liver hepatic abscesses who were admitted to Ren Ji Hospital during the period from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Po-Liang Lu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Jun-En Lin, Jun-Wei Huang, Tsung-Ying Yang, Lin Lin, Sung-Pin Tseng
Although fosfomycin is a treatment option for infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, fosfomycin resistance has been documented. To our knowledge, fosfomycin resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae have not been systematically investigated. A total of 108 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates collected from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, from August 2012 to May 2013 were analysed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 64 pulsotypes and six non-typeable isolates, indicating high genetic diversity...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Ara Ko, Lia Aquino, Nicolas Melo, Rodrigo F Alban
BACKGROUND: The relationship between failure-to-rescue (FTR) after colectomy is not well understood, particularly in teaching institutions. We sought to examine this relationship using a large national database. METHODS: Patients undergoing colectomy from 2010 to 2012 were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. FTR events were defined as deaths following deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, sepsis, gastrointestinal bleed, acute myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, pneumonia, respiratory failure, shock...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
S L Huang, B Zhang, L S Chen, L Liang, X N Luo, Z M Lu, S Y Zhang
Objective: To report rare cases of congenital neck cutaneous sinus with an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint and to investigate their origins and managements. Methods: A total of ten patients with congenital neck cutaneous sinus having an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint treated in the Guangdong General Hospital from January 2010 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There four boys and six girls, aging from 11 months to 96 months with an average of 33.4 months, and they had a common feature showing a congenital cutaneous sinus with an orifice near sternoclavicular joint...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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