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5ht AND addiction

D Pringuey, F Cherikh, S Lunacek, B Giordana, E Fakra, R Belzeaux, M Adida, J-M Azorin
The comorbidity of affective disorders with alcohol use disorder remains insufficiently taken into account. In spite of the well-known frequency of the addict comorbidity in most psychiatric disorders, the level of association between affective disorders and alcohol is still underestimated and poorly understood. The label of "double diagnosis" relates to a simple addition of two independent pathologies. It is suggested to consider a "dual psychopathology" combining the effects of one disorder on the other. Interactions between the two disorders commit a complex state calling a new clinical reading, an adapted therapeutic strategy through a necessary integration of care...
December 2014: L'Encéphale
Vanessa Cousins, Jed E Rose, Edward D Levin
Tobacco smoking is characterized by repeated self-administration of nicotine by placing the cigarette in the mouth. The repeated hand-to-mouth self-administration is essentially a consummatory act. We recently developed a paradigm in which rats lick one of two spouts to trigger intravenous (IV) delivery of nicotine, which combines a consummatory act with rapid delivery of nicotine to model the act of tobacco smoking. We have found that rats will lick hundreds of times per nicotine infusion. In the current study, using the operant licking nicotine self-administration model with young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (0...
October 3, 2014: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Theodore A Slotkin, Jennifer Card, Frederic J Seidler
Nicotine exposure in adolescence produces lasting changes in subsequent behavioral responses to addictive agents. We gave nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and then examined the subsequent effects of nicotine given again in adulthood (PN90-107), focusing on cerebrocortical serotonin levels and utilization (turnover) as an index of presynaptic activity of circuits involved in emotional state. Our evaluations encompassed responses during the period of adult nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120, PN130), as well as long-term changes (PN180)...
March 2014: Brain Research Bulletin
Lisa M McFadden, Glen R Hanson, Annette E Fleckenstein
Preclinical models suggest that repeated high-dose methamphetamine (METH) exposures, administered in a "binge-like" pattern, acutely decrease norepinephrine (NE), and acutely and persistently decrease serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) content in the frontal cortex. However, the impact of METH self-administration on this region is unknown. Because of the importance of the monoaminergic neurons in the frontal cortex to a variety of cognitive and addictive processes, effects of METH self-administration on cortical NE and 5HT content were assessed...
December 2013: Synapse
Jean-François Allilaire
Borderline personality disorders are complex clinical states with highly polymorphic symptoms and signs, leading to delays in their diagnosis and treatment. All international classifications emphasize certain clinical criteria such as unstable identity and interpersonal relationships, feelings of emptiness or boredom, and pathological impulsiveness. The prevalence is about 2%, with a female-male sex ratio of 2 or 3 to 1. Both adolescents and adults may be affected There is a high risk of suicide, addictive behaviors, eating disorders, and criminality...
October 2012: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
David Wilson, Daniela Sabbatini da Silva Lobo, Hermano Tavares, Valentim Gentil, Homero Vallada
Pathological gambling (PG) has become a growing public health problem in many countries around the world. PG is an impulse control disorder and its behavior and psychopathology present similarities with substance abuse disorders. Evidence from twin studies supports a significant genetic predisposition to PG, but the precise genetic loci still remain unclear. The present study investigates the allele and genotype distribution of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter, serotonin receptor 1B and 2A genes in 140 sib-pairs discordant for the diagnosis of PG...
March 2013: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Samo Ribarič
Apomorphine (APO) is an aporphine derivative used in human and veterinary medicine. APO activates D₁, D(2S), D(2L), D₃, D₄, and D₅ receptors (and is thus classified as a non-selective dopamine agonist), serotonin receptors (5HT(1A), 5HT(2A), 5HT(2B), and 5HT(2C)), and α-adrenergic receptors (α(1B), α(1D), α(2A), α(2B), and α(2C)). In veterinary medicine, APO is used to induce vomiting in dogs, an important early treatment for some common orally ingested poisons (e.g., anti-freeze or insecticides)...
May 7, 2012: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tong H Lee, Steven T Szabo, J Corey Fowler, Paolo Mannelli, O Barry Mangum, Wayne F Beyer, Ashwin Patkar, William C Wetsel
Psychostimulant abuse continues to present legal, socioeconomic and medical challenges as a primary psychiatric disorder, and represents a significant comorbid factor in major psychiatric and medical illnesses. To date, monotherapeutic drug treatments have not proven effective in promoting long-term abstinence in psychostimulant abusers. In contrast to clinical trials utilizing monotherapies, combinations of dopamine (DA) agonists and selective 5-HT(3), 5HT(2A/2C), or NK(1) antagonists have shown robust efficacy in reversing behavioral and neurobiological alterations in animal models of psychostimulant abuse...
July 1, 2012: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Daniel P Cardinali, Venkataramanujan Srinivasan, Amnon Brzezinski, Gregory M Brown
Benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, their adverse effects, such as next-day hangover, dependence and impairment of memory, make them unsuitable for long-term treatment. Melatonin has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia mainly because it does not cause hangover or show any addictive potential. However, there is a lack of consistency on its therapeutic value (partly because of its short half-life and the small quantities of melatonin employed)...
May 2012: Journal of Pineal Research
Richard T O'Neil, Ronald B Emeson
Initially identified as an RNA modification in the anticodon loop of tRNAs from animal, plant and eubacterial origin, the deamination of adenosine-to-inosine by RNA editing has become increasingly recognized as an important RNA processing event to generate diversity in both the transcriptome and proteome and is essential for modulating the activity of numerous proteins critical for nervous system function. Here, we focus on the editing of transcripts encoding the 2C-subtype of serotonin receptor (5HT(2C)) to generate multiple receptor isoforms that differ in G-protein coupling efficacy and constitutive activity...
January 2012: Neurobiology of Disease
Justin Barber
Tramadol (Ultram, Ultracet) is a centrally acting synthetic opioid with analgesic efficacy comparable to codeine. Antinociception is attributed to low but effective affinity for the mu-opioid receptor (μ), as well as reuptake inhibition of the monoamines norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT). Dual action antidepressants mirtazapine (Remeron), duloxetine (Cymbalta), and most notably venlafaxine (Effexor), which tramadol is closely related to in structure, also inhibit NE and 5HT reuptake. These medications are proven effective antidepressants and this shared monoaminergic action resulted in the research of tramadol as a potential treatment for depression...
April 2011: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Edward D Levin, Susan Slade, Corinne Wells, Margaret Pruitt, Vanessa Cousins, Marty Cauley, Ann Petro, Dawn Hampton, Jed Rose
Nicotine has been definitively shown to be critically involved in the neural bases of tobacco addiction. However, nicotine releases a wide variety of neurotransmitters. Nicotine-induced dopamine release has been shown to play a key role in facilitating nicotine self-administration. Other transmitter systems may also play important roles in the pharmacological effects of nicotine and may provide important leads for combating nicotine self-administration. Clozapine, an antipsychotic drug, which blocks a variety of different transmitter receptors including serotonin 5HT(2) and histamine H(1) receptors, has been found to decrease smoking...
January 10, 2011: European Journal of Pharmacology
F Ivy Carroll, Bruce E Blough, Philip Abraham, Andrew C Mills, J Ashley Holleman, Scott A Wolckenhauer, Ann M Decker, Antonio Landavazo, K Timothy McElroy, Hernán A Navarro, Michael B Gatch, Michael J Forster
A series of bupropion (1a) analogues (1b-1ff) were synthesized, and their in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties evaluated with the goal of developing a 1a analogue that had better properties for treating addictions. Their in vitro pharmacological properties were examined by [(3)H]dopamine ([(3)H]DA), [(3)H]serotonin ([(3)H]5HT), and [(3)H]norepinephrine ([(3)H]NE) uptake inhibition studies, and by binding studies at the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters using [(125)I]RTI-55 in cloned transporters...
November 12, 2009: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Richard B Rothman, Bruce E Blough, Michael H Baumann
"Agonist therapy" for cocaine and methamphetamine addiction involves administration of stimulant-like medications (e.g., monoamine releasers) to reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. A significant problem with this strategy is that many candidate medications possess abuse liability because of activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons in the brain. One way to reduce DA-mediated abuse liability of candidate drugs is to add in serotonin (5-HT) releasing properties, since substantial evidence shows that 5-HT neurons provide an inhibitory influence over mesolimbic DA neurons...
December 2008: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
D I Lubman, M Yücel, A J Lawrence
Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence...
May 2008: British Journal of Pharmacology
R Samardzić, D Jovanović-Mićić, D B Beleslin
5HT-3 receptors, as well as their selective agonists and antagonists have been recently discovered. They are localized exclusively on the nervous elements of the peripheral and central nervous system, and are involved in the regulation of emesis, in pain, motility and secretion of the gut, and possibly in some functions of the central nervous system. At present, the 5HT-3 antagonists are used in the therapy of emesis induced by cytostatic drugs, radiation and in some intestinal disorders. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to evaluate the use of 5HT-3 antagonists in the therapy of pain (migraine), some cognitive, and affective disorders and addiction...
March 1994: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
J-P Boulenger, D Capdevielle
The rational use of pharmacological treatment in generalized anxiety disorders is still a matter of debate due to the uncertainties concerning the nature, diagnostic criteria and target-symptoms of this frequent and potentially invalidating disorder. If benzodiazepines may still be prescribed for a limited amount of time (i.e. 6 to 12 weeks) due to the fluctuating nature of generalized anxiety, the chronic evolution of this disorder in most patients often justifies the long-term prescription of serotoninergic (5-HT) or dual-action (5HT-NA) antidepressants and sometimes of 5HT-la partial agonists like buspirone...
January 2007: L'Encéphale
J F W Deakin
Impaired 5HT functioning has been implicated in two very different psychiatric syndromes: antisocial personality disorder and depression. In both, reduced csf concentration of 5HIAA and blunted circulating hormone responses to 5HT drug challenge have been described. The paradox can be resolved by the theory that the two main ascending 5HT pathways mediate adaptive responses to future and current adversity. Projections of the anterior group of raphe 5HT cells (dorsal raphe nucleus) oppose the action of dopamine and mediate avoidance of threats...
2003: Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum
F Rothhammer, P Rothhammer, E Llop
Given the spectacular advances of genetics during the last five years, it seems appropriate to revisit the important subject of genetics of alcoholism and substance abuse. In recent studies alcohol abuse was shown to have an hereditability of roughly 38%, whereas psychostimulant and opiate use exhibit hereditabilities of 11 to 45%. The hereditability of smoking was found to be around 50%. There is a strong comorbidity between alcoholism and smoking. More than 80% of alcoholics smoke cigarettes in the U.S.A...
November 2000: Revista Médica de Chile
K P Lesch, U Merschdorf
The expression of aggressiveness, which constitutes many facets of behavior, is influenced by a complex interaction of biologic, psychologic, and social variables. Even though individual differences in impulsivity and the behavioral consequences, such as aggression, addiction, and suicidality, are substantially heritable, they ultimately result from an interplay between genetic variations and environmental factors. While formation and integration of multiple neural networks is dependent on the actions of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin (5HT), converging lines of evidence indicate that genetically determined variability in serotonergic gene expression influences complex traits including that of inappropriately aggressive behavior...
2000: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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