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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#1
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140663/a-recipe-for-justice-support-for-a-federal-food-justice-interagency-working-group
#2
Melanie Pugh
Systemic social justice issues are characterized as having complex and far-reaching causes. Food justice is one such an issue. Food justice is defined as “justice for all [people] in the food system,” from agricultural production to consumer products. Policies seeking to remedy systemic social justice issues often need to include the attention of many levels of government and coordination across multiple agencies to move issues forward. That is why finding a model for interagency collaboration that has evidenced success, especially over the long-term, is inspiring and worth mirroring...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140658/killing-u-s-slowly-curing-the-epidemic-rise-of-cancer-drug-prices
#3
Emily K White
In August 2015, more than 110 U.S. oncologists published an article detailing the deleterious effects of rising cancer drugs prices and calling for numerous reforms to our prescription drug system. These prices are the result of decades of political maneuvering; they reflect the way our country has chosen to pay for healthcare, to foster and reward innovation, and to promote a national free market system. While these choices have resulted in immense profits for pharmaceutical companies—and subsidized the development of prescription drugs globally—they have also left many cancer patients unable to afford their medications...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140582/abortion-knowledge-and-experiences-among-u-s-servicewomen-a-qualitative-study
#4
Kate Grindlay, Jane W Seymour, Laura Fix, Sarah Reiger, Brianna Keefe-Oates, Daniel Grossman
CONTEXT: U.S. servicewomen have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than civilian women, yet the military does not provide or cover abortion, except in limited circumstances. Servicewomen's experiences with abortion care have received little research attention. METHODS: Twenty-one in-depth interviews with servicewomen who had had an abortion during active-duty service in the prior two years were conducted between January 2015 and July 2016. Women reported on their experiences accessing abortion, as well as their knowledge and opinions of the military's abortion policy...
November 15, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135150/-chronic-course-of-latent-urogenital-tuberculosis
#5
A V Lysov, V A Okhlopkov, A V Mordyk, L V Puzyreva, E M Shestak, I G Martynov
This is a case report of an elderly patient with urogenital tuberculosis and concurrent tuberculosis of peripheral inguinal lymph nodes. The disease manifested by a fistulous form of inguinal lymphadenitis for 10 years and spread to the kidneys and genitals, but the patient did not seek medical attention. Changes on the glans penis prompted him to consult dermatovenereologist. Due to ineffective treatment and uncovering the scar in the inguinal area the patient was send to an anti-tuberculosis institution, where he was diagnosed with tuberculosis involving the kidneys, prostate, epididymis, penis, inguinal lymph nodes...
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132084/integrated-and-ecosystemic-approaches-for-bridging-the-gap-between-environmental-management-and-port-management
#6
Javier García-Onetti, Marinez E G Scherer, Juan Manuel Barragán
The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130695/a-test-of-the-empirical-profile-and-coherence-of-the-dsm-5-psychopathy-specifier
#7
Joshua D Miller, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduced a psychopathy specifier (DSM-5 PS) as part of the Section III diagnostic model of antisocial personality disorder. Designed to capture the construct of fearless dominance/boldness, the DSM-5 PS is assessed on the basis of the presence of low scores on traits of withdrawal and anxiousness, and high scores on attention seeking. These constructs have garnered attention in the past decade but are the subject of substantial debate as to their role in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy, given their limited relations to the maladaptive outcomes typically associated with this personality disorder...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129108/promoting-mental-health-resource-use-on-campus-by-trying-something-new
#8
Sara Champlin, Gwendelyn Nisbett
PURPOSE: To design and test a persuasive health promotion campaign that aligns with the qualities of trying something new for the first time. Given that a majority of students have not previously sought/considered professional mental health assistance before, the hypothesis tested in this study asked whether a campaign that takes this into account is effective with this audience. DESIGN: Participants viewed an online informational message (n = 84), information message plus first-time experience banner (n = 99), or 1 of 4 full campaigns, each depicting a student story and photo about a first-time experience (moving from home [n = 48], skydiving [n = 52], acting in a play [n = 48], and exercising with personal trainer [n = 48])...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128710/prevalence-and-motives-for-drugged-driving-among-emerging-adults-presenting-to-an-emergency-department
#9
Erin E Bonar, Brooke J Arterberry, Alan K Davis, Rebecca M Cunningham, Frederic C Blow, R Lorraine Collins, Maureen A Walton
OBJECTIVES: Drugged driving [DD] is a public health concern, particularly among emerging adults who have the highest rates of drug use. Understanding involvement with DD could inform prevention efforts for this population. We evaluated the prevalence of, motives for, and correlates of past-year DD among emerging adults from an urban, under-resourced community. METHODS: Emerging adults (N=586) ages 18-25years (54% male, 56% African American, 34% European American) seeking care in an urban emergency department completed past-year surveys of demographics, frequency of DD within 4h of substance use, reasons for DD, and substance use...
November 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127388/brief-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-the-awake-state-enhances-memory-stability-and-benefits-the-weakest-memories
#10
Arielle Tambini, Alice Berners-Lee, Lila Davachi
Reactivation of representations corresponding to recent experience is thought to be a critical mechanism supporting long-term memory stabilization. Targeted memory reactivation, or the re-exposure of recently learned cues, seeks to induce reactivation and has been shown to benefit later memory when it takes place during sleep. However, despite recent evidence for endogenous reactivation during post-encoding awake periods, less work has addressed whether awake targeted memory reactivation modulates memory. Here, we found that brief (50 ms) visual stimulus re-exposure during a repetitive foil task enhanced the stability of cued versus uncued associations in memory...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125386/investigating-uncertainty-in-genetic-counseling-encounters-managing-information-about-genetic-cancer-risk
#11
Emily A Rauscher
The Theory of Motivated Information Management (TMIM) was used to investigate how individuals at increased risk of developing hereditary cancer seek information from genetic counselors. Results show the TMIM model fit the data well in predicting participants' intentions to seek information from genetic counselors. Participants felt an uncertainty discrepancy that elicited feelings of anxiety, which in turn negatively predicted both outcome expectancies and efficacy assessments. Efficacy assessments, but not anxiety, significantly predicted participants' intentions to seek information from a genetic counselor in the future...
November 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121595/from-the-psychosis-prodrome-to-the-first-episode-of-psychosis-no-evidence-of-a-cognitive-decline
#12
Ricardo E Carrión, Deborah J Walder, Andrea M Auther, Danielle McLaughlin, Heather O Zyla, Steven Adelsheim, Roderick Calkins, Cameron S Carter, Bentson McFarland, Ryan Melton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Tamara G Sale, Stephan F Taylor, William R McFarlane, Barbara A Cornblatt
Cognitive deficits have an important role in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there is a continuing debate as to whether cognitive impairments in the psychosis prodrome are stable predictors of eventual psychosis or undergo a decline due to the onset of psychosis. In the present study, to determine how cognition changes as illness emerges, we examined baseline neurocognitive performance in a large sample of helping-seeking youth ranging in clinical state from low-risk for psychosis through individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for illness to early first-episode patients (EFEP)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121051/process-evaluation-of-knowledge-transfer-across-industries-leveraging-coca-cola-s-supply-chain-expertise-for-medicine-availability-in-tanzania
#13
Erika Linnander, Christina T Yuan, Shirin Ahmed, Emily Cherlin, Kristina Talbert-Slagle, Leslie A Curry
Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120196/psychopathy-and-heroism-in-first-responders-traits-cut-from-the-same-cloth
#14
Christina L Patton, Sarah Francis Smith, Scott O Lilienfeld
Some scholars have posited that certain traits associated with psychopathy-namely, fearlessness, boldness, and willingness to take risks-are associated with greater engagement in heroic and altruistic acts; nevertheless, this conjecture has received little empirical attention. We examined the relations among psychopathic traits, heroism, altruism, workplace deviance, and leadership in first-responder (n = 138) and civilian (n = 104) samples recruited by means of an online platform. Across samples, fearless dominance, boldness, sensation seeking, and several other psychopathy-related variables were positively and significantly associated with everyday heroism and altruism...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119591/widening-participation-in-medicine-new-insights-from-school-students-aspirations
#15
Jennifer Gore, Sally Patfield, Kathryn Holmes, Maxwell Smith
OBJECTIVES: Students from lower socio-economic status backgrounds continue to be under-represented in medical education. Although various initiatives have been implemented by universities to widen participation, their effectiveness and their timing remain contentious. Prior studies have primarily focused on students already on a medical pathway, with little analytical attention given to the aspirations of primary and secondary school-aged students. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of students who express early interest in medicine and ascertain the degree to which diversification of the future medical student cohort is indicated...
November 9, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118899/alterations-in-tendon-microenvironment-in-response-to-mechanical-load-potential-molecular-targets-for-treatment-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Mohamed B Fouda, Finosh G Thankam, Matthew F Dilisio, Devendra K Agrawal
Rotator cuff (RC) tendons could beinflicted in many ways with an eventual outcome of pain, weakness and disability, which represent a large burden on health care cost. However, optimal healing, either conservatively or with surgical intervention, remains an issue that needs further investigation. Disorders of the RC tendons may result from external factors like trauma, or internal factors through physiologic and metabolic derangement. Most RC tendon disorders may be asymptomatic and may result from an over-activity of the inflicted shoulder and its tendons...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116675/the-course-of-neuropsychological-functioning-in-young-people-with-attenuated-vs-discrete-mental-disorders
#17
Ashleigh M Tickell, Rico S C Lee, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
AIM: Clinical staging of mental disorders is designed to facilitate the selection of stage-appropriate interventions, early in the course of illness. Neuropsychological performance, particularly at early stages of mental disorder, is a strong predictor of medium-term functional outcomes. Despite this, the longitudinal examination of neuropsychological profiles in early stages of illness is poorly researched. Thus, we examined baseline and longitudinal neuropsychological profiles of young patients with attenuated syndromes vs those with discrete disorders...
November 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109357/occupational-exposure-to-electromagnetic-fields-from-medical-sources
#18
Rianne Stam, Sachiko Yamaguchi-Sekino
High exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) can occur near certain medical devices in the hospital environment. A systematic assessment of medical occupational EMF exposure could help to clarify where more attention to occupational safety may be needed. This paper seeks to identify sources of high exposure for hospital workers and compare the published exposure data to occupational limits in the European Union. A systematic search for peer-reviewed publications was conducted via PubMed and Scopus databases...
November 3, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108734/altered-anterior-cingulate-cortex-to-hippocampus-effective-connectivity-in-response-to-drug-cues-in-men-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#19
Liangsuo Ma, Joel L Steinberg, Kathryn A Cunningham, James M Bjork, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz, Thomas Burroughs, Ponnada A Narayana, Thomas R Kosten, Antoine Bechara, F Gerard Moeller
Drug-related attentional bias may have significant implications for the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CocUD). However, the neurobiology of attentional bias is not completely understood. This study employed dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to conduct an analysis of effective (directional) connectivity involved in drug-related attentional bias in treatment-seeking CocUD subjects. The DCM analysis was conducted based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from fifteen CocUD subjects while performing a cocaine-word Stroop task, during which blocks of Cocaine Words (CW) and Neutral Words (NW) alternated...
October 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106274/antagonism-trait-facets-and-comprehensive-psychosocial-disability-comparing-information-across-self-informant-and-interviewer-reports
#20
Eunyoe Ro, Hallie Nuzum, Lee Anna Clark
It is widely known that personality traits collectively discussed as the Dark Triad are antagonistic and associated with poor interpersonal relationships, but few studies have examined how specific facets of antagonism are associated with psychosocial adjustment or how antagonism relates to psychosocial adjustment other than interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine how 6 antagonism facets-manipulativeness, grandiosity, attention-seeking, hostility, callousness, and deceitfulness-relate to comprehensive psychosocial functional domains (i...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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