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Hui Sun, Yuanxiu Hong, Yuejing Xi, Yijie Zou, Jingyi Gao, Jianzhong Du
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been attracting much attention due to their excellent antimicrobial efficiency and low rate in driving antimicrobial resistance (AMR) which has been increasing globally to alarming levels. Conjugation of AMPs into functional polymers not only preserves excellent antimicrobial activities but reduces the toxicity and offers more functionalities, which brings new insight towards developing multifunctional biomedical materials such as hydrogels, polymer vesicles, polymer micelles, etc...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz, Anderson Sena Barnabé, Luc Quoniam, André Moraes Dos Santos, Duarcides Ferreira Mariosa
The number of dengue cases in Brazil has increased considerably in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to ascertain if the historical evolution of the creation of dengue research groups in the country has been compatible with the increased incidence of the disease. This article seeks to evaluate the historical evolution of dengue research groups in Brazil and compare these data with epidemiological data related to the incidence of the disease. The ScriptGP computational tool was used to extract information from the Diretório de Grupos de Pesquisa do CNPq database about the development of research groups in dengue, a neglected disease (ND) that is a priority in Brazil, making it available in charts and pivot tables format...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Richard Rammo, Karam Asmaro, Lonni Schultz, Lisa Scarpace, Salim Siddiqui, Tobias Walbert, Steven Kalkanis, Ian Lee
Cerebral radiation necrosis (CRN) is a known complication of radiation therapy. Treatment options are limited and include steroids, bevacizumab, and surgery. This study seeks to determine the safety of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for CRN and identify the pattern of post-ablation volume change over time. Patients undergoing LITT for tumor treatment at Henry Ford Hospital between November 2013 and January 2016 with biopsy-confirmed CRN were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed with attention to ablation volume, survival, demographic data, steroid dose, and complications...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Hillary L Smith, Kirsten H Dillon, Jesse R Cougle
Interpretation Bias Modification (IBM) is gaining attention in the literature as an intervention that alters cognitive biases and reduces associated symptoms. Forty, primarily college-aged, non-treatment-seeking adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to receive either IBM targeting hostile interpretation bias (IBM-H) or a healthy video control (HVC) condition. Compared to those in HVC, participants in IBM-H reported more benign interpretations and fewer hostile interpretations at posttreatment...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
John R Fedota, Xiaoyu Ding, Allison L Matous, Betty Jo Salmeron, Michael R McKenna, Hong Gu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Insular subdivisions show distinct patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with specific brain regions, each with different functional significance. Seeds in these subdivisions are employed to characterize the effects of acute nicotine abstinence on rsFC between insula subdivisions and brain networks implicated in addiction and attentional control. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent data were collected from treatment-seeking smokers (N= 20) following smoking satiety and again following 48 hours of nicotine abstinence...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Garikoitz Legarda, David Ruano-Rosa, Paloma Pizarro-Tobías, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, José L Niqui, Juan C Triviño, Amalia Roca, Jesús Mercado-Blanco
The use of biological control agents (BCA), alone or in combination with other management measures, has gained attention over the past decades, driven by the need to seek for sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to confront plant pathogens. The rhizosphere of olive ( Olea europaea L.) plants is a source of bacteria with potential as biocontrol tools against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. A collection of bacterial isolates from healthy nursery-produced olive (cultivar Picual, susceptible to VWO) plants was generated based on morphological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, chemical sensitivities, and on their in vitro antagonistic activity against several olive pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yogev Kivity, Jonathan D Huppert
BACKGROUND: Models of social anxiety emphasize the role of emotion dysregulation, but the nature of these impairments needs clarification. METHODS: We utilized a mixed-method approach to examine impairments in cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in social anxiety disorder. Forty nine treatment-seeking individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and 35 healthy controls completed self-reports and a lab-based task of suppression and reappraisal...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Laura D Sobredo
Violence against women has gained public awareness in Argentina over the last few years. As any other social phenomena, gender violence is present in the work of psychiatrists, especially in the way they approach to clinical practice. International human rights' law enshrines the right of every women to live free from violence and to be treated with dignity and respect. This legal framework might nourish the practice of psychiatrists as a proposal for seeking cultural and social common grounds. The paper tries to get readers attention on the potentiality of this legal framework which ultimately, might in?uence not only everyday life but clinical practice as well...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Christian Beck, Henning Knoop, Ralf Steuer
Cyanobacteria are a monophyletic phylogenetic group of global importance and have received considerable attention as potential host organisms for the renewable synthesis of chemical bulk products from atmospheric CO2. The cyanobacterial phylum exhibits enormous metabolic diversity with respect to morphology, lifestyle and habitat. As yet, however, research has mostly focused on few model strains and cyanobacterial diversity is insufficiently understood. In this respect, the increasing availability of fully sequenced bacterial genomes opens new and unprecedented opportunities to investigate the genetic inventory of organisms in the context of their pan-genome...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Chee-Chee H Stucky, Kate D Cromwell, Rachel K Voss, Yi-Ju Chiang, Karin Woodman, Jeffrey E Lee, Janice N Cormier
Background: Many surgeons experience work-related pain and musculoskeletal symptoms; however, comprehensive reporting of surgeon ailments is lacking in the literature. We sought to evaluate surgeons' work-related symptoms, possible causes of these symptoms, and to report outcomes associated with those symptoms. Materials and methods: Five major medical indices were queried for articles published between 1980 and 2014. Included articles evaluated musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic outcomes in surgeons...
March 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Wan-Ju Cheng, Chun-Hsin Chen, Chih-Ken Chen, Ming-Chyi Huang, Robert H Pietrzak, John H Krystal, Ke Xu
BACKGROUND: Ketamine has been used to probe the biology of psychosis and cognitive dysfunction in humans. High levels of ketamine abuse are associated with persisting psychosis (KPP) in a minority of users. However, relatively little is known about cognitive function among KPP patients and whether the cognitive impairments associated with KPP resemble those of schizophrenia (SZ). METHODS: We recruited 149 treatment-seeking patients, including nonpsychotic ketamine users (KNP, n=51), KPP (n=23), and SZ (n=75) patients...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Bethany Ober Mannon
The field of narrative medicine holds that personal narratives about illness have the potential to give illness meaning and to create order out of disparate facets of experience, thereby aiding a patient's treatment and resisting universalizing medical discourse. Two narratives of bipolar disorder, Kay Redfield Jamison's prose memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995) and Ellen Forney's graphic memoir Marbles (2012) challenge these ideas. These writers demonstrate that one result of bipolar disorder is a rupture to their sense of identity, making straightforward and verbal forms of narrative impossible...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Jasper V Smit, Bart J Pielkenrood, Remo A G J Arts, Miranda L Janssen, Yasin Temel, Robert J Stokroos
Purpose: The field of neuromodulation is currently seeking to treat a wide range of disorders with various types of invasive devices. In recent years, several preclinical trials and case reports in humans have been published on their potential for chronic tinnitus. However, studies to obtain insight into patients' willingness to undergo these treatments are scarce. The aim of this survey study was to find out whether tinnitus patients are willing to undergo invasive neuromodulation when taking its risks, costs, and potential benefits into account...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Paolo Capogrosso, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Luca Boeri, Walter Cazzaniga, Francesco Chierigo, Filippo Pederzoli, Nicola Frego, Costantino Abbate, Federico Dehò, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
BACKGROUND: The awareness regarding erectile dysfunction (ED) may have increased over the past decade due to the widespread availability of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and the growing knowledge of a link between ED and men's overall health. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the increased awareness of ED has led to observable changes in patient characteristics among first-time assessments for ED. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data was collected from 1586 men seeking their first medical attention for ED at a single academic center during 2005-2017...
March 2, 2018: European Urology Focus
M M Dynes, E Twentyman, L Kelly, G Maro, A A Msuya, S Dominico, P Chaote, R Rusibamayila, F Serbanescu
BACKGROUND: Lack of respectful maternity care (RMC) is increasingly recognized as a human rights issue and a key deterrent to women seeking facility-based deliveries. Ensuring facility-based RMC is essential for improving maternal and neonatal health, especially in sub-Saharan African countries where mortality and non-skilled delivery care remain high. Few studies have attempted to quantitatively identify patient and delivery factors associated with RMC, and none has modeled the influence of provider characteristics on RMC...
March 5, 2018: Reproductive Health
Alistair Fraser, John M Hagedorn
Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization...
February 2018: Theoretical Criminology
Cortney A Franklin, Alondra D Garza
The aftermath of sexual assault warrants further attention surrounding the responses provided by those to whom survivors disclose, especially when perpetrator type or victim race may affect whether the bystander response is supportive or attributes culpability to the victim. Disclosure responses have significant consequences for survivors' posttrauma mental health and formal help-seeking behavior. The current study used a sample of 348 self-report, paper-and-pencil surveys administered during the fall 2015 semester to a purposive sample of undergraduate students with a mean age of 20...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Haley Stevens, Emily Wells, Rachel Ross, Amanda Stricklen, Amir A Ghaferi
BACKGROUND: Reducing avoidable emergency department (ED) visits is an increasingly important target of quality improvement and cost containment efforts in bariatric surgery. Administrative and clinical registry data provide an incomplete picture of the factors contributing to postoperative ED utilization. Patient-centered interviews can help identify intervention opportunities. OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand the circumstances surrounding patient self-referral to the ED after elective, primary bariatric surgery...
January 31, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Joseph Rogers
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation is now considered to be of pathophysiologic significance in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Nonetheless, there is no consensus as to what inflammatory mechanisms need to be combated (or facilitated), how therapies for them should be applied, or when they might be efficacious. METHODS: This article seeks to put forward cornerstone facts about neuroinflammation, with suggestions for future directions. RESULTS: Multiple scientific points about neuroinflammation still remain unaddressed...
February 26, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Raja K Kutty, Jacob Paul Alapatt, Aparna Govindan
Yawning, a physiologic reflex exhibited by vertebrates, is seldom noticed as a symptom of a disease. Not too often is a patient aware of it as a symptom, unless it is of such a distressing nature to seek attention. In this situation, to distinguish between normal and abnormal behavior would pose a diagnostic dilemma for the attending physician. Intractable yawning has been a presenting symptom of many pathologic states such as stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. Literature is sparse regarding intractable yawning caused by tumors of the brain...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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