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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784236/a-review-associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-physical-activity-medication-use-eating-behaviors-and-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Danielle Quesada, Nasar U Ahmed, Kristopher P Fennie, Erica L Gollub, Boubakari Ibrahimou
In the past few years we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between obesity and ADHD. Both conditions are major public health issues, affecting children, adolescents and adults alike. OBJECTIVE: This review seeks to (1) examine prior research on the association between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents; (2) discuss mechanisms and consequent behavioral attributes to gain understanding of the path association between ADHD and obesity, (3) review studies examining the role of physical activity, medication, eating behavior and gender on the relationship between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781395/judicialization-2-0-understanding-right-to-health-litigation-in-real-time
#2
João Biehl, Mariana P Socal, Varun Gauri, Debora Diniz, Marcelo Medeiros, Gabriela Rondon, Joseph J Amon
Over the past two decades, debate over the whys, the hows, and the effects of the ever-expanding phenomenon of right-to-health litigation ('judicialization') throughout Latin America have been marked by polarised arguments and limited information. In contrast to claims of judicialization as a positive or negative trend, less attention has been paid to ways to better understand the phenomenon in real time. In this article, we propose a new approach-Judicialization 2.0-that recognises judicialization as an integral part of democratic life...
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779801/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Renata Ramalho, Ana Colaço Pereira, Filipa Vicente, Paula Pereira
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered the most common behavioural disorder in school-age children. ADHD is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterised by a variety of symptoms, including concentration problems, excessive motor activity and impulsivity which interferes with execution of simple school tasks. Diagnosis has been essentially subjective, since no specific laboratory tests are available. However, ADHD remains overdiagnosed, probably due to social pressures for children to be successful in school from an early age, which leads parents to seek medical support...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779748/seeking-salience-in-engaging-art-a-short-story-about-attention-artistic-value-and-neuroscience
#4
William P Seeley
It has recently been suggested that research in neuroscience of art has failed to bring art into focus in the laboratory. Two general arguments are brought to bear in the regard. The common perceptual mechanisms argument observes that neuroscientists working within this field develop models to explain art relative to the ways that artworks are fine-tuned to the operations of perceptual systems. However, these perceptual explanations apply equally to how viewers come to recognize and understand art and nonart objects and events...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779408/the-relationship-between-employment-and-health-and-health-care-among-working-age-adults-with-and-without-disabilities-in-the-united-states
#5
Amanda Reichard, Michelle Stransky, Debra Brucker, Andrew Houtenville
PURPOSE: To better understand the relationship between employment and health and health care for people with disabilities in the United States (US). METHODS: We pooled US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2004-2010) data to examine health status, and access to health care among working-age adults, comparing people with physical disabilities or multiple disabilities to people without disabilities, based on their employment status. Logistic regression and least squares regression were conducted, controlling for sociodemographics, health insurance (when not the outcome), multiple chronic conditions, and need for assistance...
May 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#6
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774787/variability-of-attention-bias-in-socially-anxious-adolescents-differences-in-fixation-duration-toward-adult-and-adolescent-face-stimuli
#7
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Rebecca Elias, Thomas H Ollendick, Susan W White
Prior research on attention bias in anxious youth, often utilising a visual dot probe task, has yielded inconsistent findings, which may be due to how bias is assessed and/or variability in the phenomenon. The present study utilises eye gaze tracking to assess attention bias in socially anxious adolescents, and explores several methodological and within-subject factors that may contribute to variability in attention bias. Attention bias to threat was measured in forty-two treatment-seeking adolescents (age 12-16 years) diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder...
May 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772488/minnesota-impulse-disorders-interview-midi-validation-of-a-structured-diagnostic-clinical-interview-for-impulse-control-disorders-in-an-enriched-community-sample
#8
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: Disorders of impulsivity are common, functionally impairing, and highly relevant across different clinical and research settings. Few structured clinical interviews for the identification and diagnosis of impulse control disorders exist, and none have been validated in a community sample in terms of psychometric properties. METHODS: The Minnesota Impulse control disorders Interview (MIDI v2.0) was administered to an enriched sample of 293 non-treatment seeking adults aged 18-35 years, recruited using media advertisements in two large US cities...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771555/the-quality-of-assessments-for-childhood-psychopathology-within-a-regional-medical-center
#9
Adam F Sattler, Jarrod M Leffler, Nicole L Harrison, Ewa D Bieber, Joseph J Kosmach, Leslie A Sim, Stephen P H Whiteside
Accurate assessment is essential to implementing effective mental health treatment; however, little research has explored child clinicians' assessment practices in applied settings. The current study thus examines practitioners' use of evidence-based assessment (EBA) instruments (i.e., self-report measures and structured interviews), specificity of identified diagnoses (i.e., use of specific diagnostic labels vs. nonstandardized labels, not otherwise specified [NOS] diagnoses, and adjustment disorder diagnoses), and documentation of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771144/an-assessment-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-brief-sensation-seeking-scale-for-children
#10
Tycho J Dekkers, Naomi R J van Bergen, Brenda R J Jansen
Sensation seeking is a trait that predicts a wide range of real-life risk behavior, such as substance abuse and gambling problems. Sensation seeking is often assessed with the Sensation Seeking Scale. Several adaptations of this questionnaire have been made, for example, to abbreviate it and to make it suitable for children. However, studies on sensation seeking in children are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate sensation seeking in children (N = 158, M age = 11.4 years). The Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (BSSS-C) was translated into Dutch and psychometric properties were examined...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770911/influences-to-adhd-problem-recognition-mixed-method-investigation-and-recommendations-to-reduce-disparities-for-latino-youth
#11
Lauren M Haack, Jocelyn Meza, Yuanyuan Jiang, Eva Jimenez Araujo, Linda Pfiffner
ADHD problem recognition serves as the first step of help seeking for ethnic minority families, such as Latinos, who underutilize ADHD services. The current mixed-method study explores underlying factors influencing recognition of ADHD problems in a sample of 159 school-aged youth. Parent-teacher informant discrepancy results suggest that parent ethnicity, problem domain, and child age influence ADHD problem recognition. Emerging themes from semi-structured qualitative interviews/focus groups conducted with eighteen Spanish-speaking Latino parents receiving school-based services for attention and behavior concerns support a range of recognized ADHD problems, beliefs about causes, and reactions to ADHD identification...
May 16, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767281/hiv-risk-among-displaced-adolescent-girls-in-ethiopia-the-role-of-gender-attitudes-and-self-esteem
#12
Laura Gauer Bermudez, Gary Yu, Lily Lu, Kathryn Falb, Jennate Eoomkham, Gizman Abdella, Lindsay Stark
Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa have been deemed one of the most critical populations to address in the campaign for an HIV-free generation. Experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), harmful gender norms, diminished personal agency, and age-disparate sex have been identified as factors in the increasing rate of new infections among this population. Using baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in three refugee camps in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State in Ethiopia, our study quantitatively examined the associations between HIV risk factors, attitudes on gender inequality, IPV acceptability, and self-esteem for female adolescent refugees primarily from Sudan and South Sudan (n = 919)...
May 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765570/relationship-between-self-care-behaviors-and-health-literacy-among-elderly-women-in-iran-2015
#13
Mehrsadat Mahdizadeh, Mahnaz Solhi
Background and aim: Self-care is a basic concept in health promotion, regarding the importance of health literacy as a key factor in self-care. This study aimed to identify the relationship between self-care behaviors and health literacy among elderly women in Iran. Methods: This descriptive and analytic study was performed between October and December 2015. A total of 360 participants were selected from elderly women referred to health centers. Data was collected by test of functional health literacy in adults (S-TOFHLA) and a checklist for assessment of self-care behaviors, and health information seeking...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#14
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760606/influence-of-major-coping-strategies-on-treatment-non-adherence-and-severity-of-comorbid-conditions-in-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Hyun Chan Hwang, Hye Ri Kim, Doug Hyun Han, Ji Sun Hong, So-Hee Jeong, Jung-Ho Shin, Su-Hyun Kim, Jin Ho Hwang, Sun Mi Kim
Background: Non-adherence and comorbidities are prevalent among hemodialysis patients and are associated with increased mortality and financial burden. We aimed to investigate the influence of major coping strategies (CSs) on non-adherence and comorbidities in hemodialysis patients. Methods: A total of 49 patients were enrolled. We collected participant data including CS measured by a Korean version of the ways of coping questionnaire (K-WCQ), comorbidities measured by age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and adherence measured by the 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale (MMAS-8)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754253/young-macaques-macaca-fascicularis-preferentially-bias-attention-towards-closer-older-and-better-tool-users
#16
Amanda W Y Tan, Charlotte K Hemelrijk, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Michael D Gumert
Examining how animals direct social learning during skill acquisition under natural conditions, generates data for examining hypotheses regarding how transmission biases influence cultural change in animal populations. We studied a population of macaques on Koram Island, Thailand, and examined model-based biases during interactions by unskilled individuals with tool-using group members. We first compared the prevalence of interactions (watching, obtaining food, object exploration) and proximity to tool users during interactions, in developing individuals (infants, juveniles) versus mature non-learners (adolescents, adults), to provide evidence that developing individuals are actively seeking information about tool use from social partners...
May 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751937/beyond-thiamine-treatment-for-cognitive-impairment-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Justin M Johnson, Valerie Fox
BACKGROUND: Wernicke's encephalopathy is a condition whose treatment many consultation-liaison psychiatrists know quite well. Less clear, however, is the treatment of its dementia disorder descendent, the Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to review treatment options and provide recommendations for consultation-liaison psychiatrists treating cognitive impairment in KS. METHODS: In this nonsystematic review, we reviewed PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Google Scholar for published reports and studies regarding treatment of KS...
March 27, 2018: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750362/brief-motivational-intervention-for-underage-young-adult-drinkers-results-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Suzanne M Colby, Lindsay Orchowski, Molly Magill, James G Murphy, Linda A Brazil, Timothy R Apodaca, Christopher W Kahler, Nancy P Barnett
BACKGROUND: While there is a substantial literature on the efficacy of brief motivational intervention (BMI) for college student drinkers, research has focused less on young adults who do not attend a four-year college, despite their elevated risk for excessive alcohol use and associated harmful consequences. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (NCT01546025) compared the efficacy of BMI to a time-matched attention control intervention (Relaxation Training; REL) for reducing alcohol consumption and related negative consequences in an underage young adult sample...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749300/-centering-the-margins-moving-equity-to-the-center-of-men-s-health-research
#19
Derek M Griffith
How might the science of men's health progress if research on marginalized or subordinated men is moved from the margins of the literature to the center? This commentary seeks to answer this question, suggesting that if more attention is paid to men of color and other marginalized men, the field will be greatly enriched in its ability to understand determinants of men's health. Reimagining men's health by moving men's health disparities to a primary focus of the field may yield critical new insights that would be essential to moving men's health to the center of health equity research...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744041/the-social-biography-of-antibiotic-use-in-smallholder-dairy-farms-in-india
#20
Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Mathew Sunil George, Pranab Chatterjee, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace, Manish Kakkar
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the major threats to global health, food security and development today. While there has been considerable attention about the use and misuse of antibiotics amongst human populations in both research and policy environments, there is no definitive estimate of the extent of misuse of antibiotics in the veterinary sector and its contribution to AMR in humans. In this study, we explored the drivers ofirrational usage of verterinary antibiotics in the dairy farming sector in peri-urban India...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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