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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901705/peer-assisted-learning-and-small-group-teaching-to-improve-practice-placement-quality-and-capacity-in-dietetics
#1
Dianne P Reidlinger, Judy Lawrence, Jane E Thomas, Kevin Whelan
AIM: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has been positively evaluated during practice placements for medical, nursing and some allied health professional students. The aim of this study was to evaluate a PAL and small-group teaching model of dietetic practice placement education implemented in the UK setting as part of a quality improvement process. METHODS: A PAL placement model was adapted from a previously published Australian model, implemented and evaluated among dietetic students at King's College London and with their practice educators...
September 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894004/waiting-can-be-an-optimal-conservation-strategy-even-in-a-crisis-discipline
#2
Gwenllian D Iacona, Hugh P Possingham, Michael Bode
Biodiversity conservation projects confront immediate and escalating threats with limited funding. Conservation theory suggests that the best response to the species extinction crisis is to spend money as soon as it becomes available, and this is often an explicit constraint placed on funding. We use a general dynamic model of a conservation landscape to show that this decision to "front-load" project spending can be suboptimal if a delay allows managers to use resources more strategically. Our model demonstrates the existence of temporal efficiencies in conservation management, which parallel the spatial efficiencies identified by systematic conservation planning...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845071/exploration-of-factors-predictive-of-at-risk-fathers-participation-in-a-pilot-study-of-an-augmented-evidence-based-parent-training-program-a-mixed-methods-approach
#3
Whitney L Rostad, Shannon Self-Brown, Clinton Boyd, Melissa Osborne, Alexandria Patterson
There has been burgeoning parenting intervention research specifically addressing fathers in recent decades. Corresponding research examining their participation and engagement in evidence-based parent training programs, which have almost exclusively targeted mothers, is just emerging. The current study used mixed methods to examine factors that influenced completion of an augmented version of an evidence-based child maltreatment prevention program developed for male caregivers called SafeCare Dad to Kids (Dad2K) in a pilot study...
August 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813886/exploratory-design-of-a-compliant-mechanism-for-a-dynamic-hand-orthosis-lessons-learned
#4
Ronald A Bos, Dick H Plettenburg, Just L Herder
This study does not describe a success-story. Instead, it describes an exploratory process and the lessons learned while designing a compliant mechanism for a dynamic hand orthosis. Tools from engineering optimization and rapid prototyping techniques were used, with the goal to design a mechanism to compensate for hypertonic or contracted finger muscles. Results show that the mechanism did not reach its design constraints, mostly because it could not provide for the necessary stiffness and compliance at the same time...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812307/the-development-of-perceptual-averaging-learning-what-to-do-not-just-how-to-do-it
#5
Pete R Jones, Tessa M Dekker
The mature visual system condenses complex scenes into simple summary statistics (e.g., average size, location, orientation, etc.). However, children, often perform poorly on perceptual averaging tasks. Children's difficulties are typically thought to represent the suboptimal implementation of an adult-like strategy. This paper examines another possibility: that children actually make decisions in a qualitatively different way to adults (optimal implementation of a non-ideal strategy). Ninety children (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years) and 30 adults were asked to locate the middle of randomly generated dot-clouds...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797548/efficient-and-robust-cell-detection-a-structured-regression-approach
#6
Yuanpu Xie, Fuyong Xing, Xiaoshuang Shi, Xiangfei Kong, Hai Su, Lin Yang
Efficient and robust cell detection serves as a critical prerequisite for many subsequent biomedical image analysis methods and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). It remains a challenging task due to touching cells, inhomogeneous background noise, and large variations in cell sizes and shapes. In addition, the ever-increasing amount of available datasets and the high resolution of whole-slice scanned images pose a further demand for efficient processing algorithms. In this paper, we present a novel structured regression model based on a proposed fully residual convolutional neural network for efficient cell detection...
July 26, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777060/temporal-anticipation-based-on-memory
#7
André M Cravo, Gustavo Rohenkohl, Karin Moreira Santos, Anna C Nobre
The fundamental role that our long-term memories play in guiding perception is increasingly recognized, but the functional and neural mechanisms are just beginning to be explored. Although experimental approaches are being developed to investigate the influence of long-term memories on perception, these remain mostly static and neglect their temporal and dynamic nature. Here, we show that our long-term memories can guide attention proactively and dynamically based on learned temporal associations. Across two experiments, we found that detection and discrimination of targets appearing within previously learned contexts are enhanced when the timing of target appearance matches the learned temporal contingency...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764976/more-than-just-noise-inter-individual-differences-in-fear-acquisition-extinction-and-return-of-fear-in-humans-biological-experiential-temperamental-factors-and-methodological-pitfalls
#8
REVIEW
Tina B Lonsdorf, Christian J Merz
Why do only some individuals develop pathological anxiety following adverse events? Fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear paradigms serve as experimental learning models for the development, treatment and relapse of anxiety. Individual differences in experimental performance were however mostly regarded as 'noise' by researchers interested in basic associative learning principles. Our work for the first time presents a comprehensive literature overview and methodological discussion on inter-individual differences in fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759633/dictionary-learning-based-noisy-image-super-resolution-via-distance-penalty-weight-model
#9
Yulan Han, Yongping Zhao, Qisong Wang
In this study, we address the problem of noisy image super-resolution. Noisy low resolution (LR) image is always obtained in applications, while most of the existing algorithms assume that the LR image is noise-free. As to this situation, we present an algorithm for noisy image super-resolution which can achieve simultaneously image super-resolution and denoising. And in the training stage of our method, LR example images are noise-free. For different input LR images, even if the noise variance varies, the dictionary pair does not need to be retrained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759557/high-turnover-among-state-health-officials-public-health-directors-implications-for-the-public-s-health
#10
Paul K Halverson, John R Lumpkin, Valerie A Yeager, Brian C Castrucci, Sharon Moffatt, Hugh Tilson
CONTEXT: State health officials (SHOs) serve a critical role as the leaders of state public health systems. Despite their many responsibilities, there is no formal process for preparation to become an SHO, and few requirements influence the selection of an SHO. Furthermore, to date, no studies have examined SHO tenure or their experiences. OBJECTIVE: This study examines SHO tenure over time and the relationship between SHO tenure and organizational and state attributes...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743240/whole-brain-radiotherapy-versus-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-4-10-brain-metastases-a-phase-iii-randomised-multicentre-trial
#11
Jaap D Zindler, Anna M E Bruynzeel, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Coen W Hurkmans, Ans Swinnen, Philippe Lambin
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of quality of life is the primary goal during treatment of brain metastases (BM). This is a protocol of an ongoing phase III randomised multicentre study. This study aims to determine the exact additional palliative value of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) over whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with 4-10 BM. METHODS: The study will include patients with 4-10 BM from solid primary tumours diagnosed on a high-resolution contrast-enhanced MRI scan with a maximum lesional diameter of 2...
July 25, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727386/retroperitoneal-access-for-robotic-renal-surgery
#12
Barrett G Anderson, Alec J Wright, Aaron M Potretzke, R Sherburne Figenshau
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Retroperitoneal access for robotic renal surgery is an effective alternative to the commonly used transperitoneal approach. We describe our contemporary experience and technique for attaining retroperitoneal access. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We outline our institutional approach to retroperitoneal access for the instruction of urologists at the beginning of the learning curve. The patient is placed in the lateral decubitus position. The first incision is made just inferior to the tip of the twelfth rib as described by Hsu, et al...
July 20, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725785/pathology-course-director-perspectives-of-a-recent-lcme-experience-preparation-in-an-integrated-curriculum-with-the-revised-standards
#13
Barbara E C Knollmann-Ritschel, Eric Suarez, William Gilliland, Richard Conran, Arnyce Pock
Preparation for a Liaison Committee of Medical Education (LCME) accreditation site visit is a daunting task for any medical school, particularly for medical schools that have adopted integrated curricula. The LCME accreditation is the standard that all US and Canadian allopathic medical schools must meet in order for the school to award the degree of medical doctor. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) recently underwent a full-scale LCME accreditation visit that was conducted under the newly revised LCME standards and elements...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714187/a-critique-of-utilitarian-and-instrumentalist-concepts-for-the-teaching-of-gross-anatomy-to-medical-and-dental-students-provoking-debate
#14
Bernard J Moxham, Diogo Pais
Medical and dental curricula, together with anatomical sciences courses, are increasingly having to change, mainly because there is a drive to being what is termed, without adequate definition, "clinically relevant." The concept of "clinical anatomy" has accordingly been invented and it is expected that, at all times, the teaching of anatomy is directly focused on clinical scenarios, meaning almost invariably the disease-based model of medicine and dentistry. Furthermore, students are not expected to have a detailed knowledge of gross anatomy and the time devoted to teaching and learning the subject has decreased significantly...
July 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671513/historic-leadership-one-courageous-school-nurse-s-heroic-journey-part-4
#15
Ellen F Johnsen, Katherine J Pohlman
School nursing practice establishes itself in the midst of both education and nursing philosophies, ethics, standards, laws, and regulations. Treading these two worlds is difficult at times and requires that a school nurse possess a strong foundational knowledge base, seek professional collaboration, and navigate conflicting professional demands in order to promote student and public safety. This article is Part 4 of a four-part series that recounts the inspiring story of a school nurse, Ellen Johnsen, who did just that back in the 1980s in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma...
July 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635107/new-space-time-metaphors-foster-new-nonlinguistic-representations
#16
Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like "breakfast is above dinner" or "breakfast is below dinner" (depending on condition). In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left-right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635062/mobile-phone-text-messaging-to-improve-knowledge-and-practice-of-diabetic-foot-care-in-a-developing-country-feasibility-and-outcomes
#17
Zeinab M Hassan
PURPOSE: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of using mobile phone text messaging to reinforce learning and the practice of diabetic foot care in a developing country. METHODS: Ongoing learning reinforcement (2-3 times weekly) by text messaging followed an informal class on diabetic foot care in a community clinic setting. Subjects with cell phone access and no history of diabetic foot wounds or current wounds were recruited for participation (N = 225). Foot examinations and pretesting by survey occurred just before patients departed the clinic; the posttest survey and a final foot examination occurred 12 weeks later...
June 2017: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628583/improving-hypertension-control-population-wide-in-minnesota
#18
Kathryn Foti, John Auerbach, Sanne Magnan
CONTEXT: Hypertension is a common and costly risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but just over half of all adults with hypertension have their blood pressure controlled nationally. In Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota, the rate of hypertension control is approximately 70% despite a rate of hypertension control similar to the national average as recently as the first half of the 1990s. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to identify factors in Minneapolis-St Paul and state-level policies and programs in Minnesota that may have contributed to the more rapid increase in blood pressure control there than that in the rest of the nation and to identify factors that can potentially be replicated in other jurisdictions...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614406/learning-from-the-mistakes-of-others-how-female-elk-cervus-elaphus-adjust-behaviour-with-age-to-avoid-hunters
#19
Henrik Thurfjell, Simone Ciuti, Mark S Boyce
In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602562/the-humanitarian-system-is-not-just-broke-but-broken-recommendations-for-future-humanitarian-action
#20
REVIEW
Paul B Spiegel
An unprecedented number of humanitarian emergencies of large magnitude and duration is causing the largest number of people in a generation to be forcibly displaced. Yet the existing humanitarian system was created for a different time and is no longer fit for purpose. On the basis of lessons learned from recent crises, particularly the Syrian conflict and the Ebola epidemic, I recommend four sets of actions that would make the humanitarian system relevant for future public health responses: (1) operationalise the concept of centrality of protection; (2) integrate affected persons into national health systems by addressing the humanitarian-development nexus; (3) remake, do not simply revise, leadership and coordination; and (4) make interventions efficient, effective, and sustainable...
June 7, 2017: Lancet
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