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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102945/learning-based-deformable-image-registration-for-infant-mr-images-in-the-first-year-of-life
#1
Shunbo Hu, Lifang Wei, Yaozong Gao, Yanrong Guo, Guorong Wu, Dinggang Shen
PURPOSE: Many brain development studies have been devoted to investigate dynamic structural and functional changes in the first year of life. To quantitatively measure brain development in such a dynamic period, accurate image registration for different infant subjects with possible large age gap is of high demand. Although many state-of-the-art image registration methods have been proposed for young and elderly brain images, very few registration methods work for infant brain images acquired in the first year of life, because of (a) large anatomical changes due to fast brain development and (b) dynamic appearance changes due to white-matter myelination...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099326/implementation-of-a-needs-based-online-feedback-tool-for-anesthesia-residents-with-subsequent-mapping-of-the-feedback-to-the-acgme-milestones
#2
Pedro Tanaka, Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell, Kim Walker, Jennifer Zocca, Lena Scotto, Alyssa L Bogetz, Alex Macario
BACKGROUND: Optimizing feedback that residents receive from faculty is important for learning. The goals of this study were to (1) conduct focus groups of anesthesia residents to define what constitutes optimal feedback; (2) develop, test, and implement a web-based feedback tool; and (3) then map the contents of the written comments collected on the feedback tool to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) anesthesiology milestones. METHODS: All 72 anesthesia residents in the program were invited to participate in 1 of 5 focus groups scheduled over a 2-month period...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086812/person-centred-care-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-cross-sectional-study-of-patients-desires-for-self-management-support
#3
Kathryn Havas, Clint Douglas, Ann Bonner
BACKGROUND: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must self-manage their illness to assist with slowing disease-progression, but this is a complex task requiring support from healthcare professionals. Despite the established importance of person-centred care, people with CKD are rarely consulted regarding their desires for self-management support (SMS). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted face-to-face in a Queensland primary care clinic and distributed Australia-wide via an online interface promoted by Kidney Health Australia during 2015...
January 13, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076801/msmbuilder-statistical-models-for-biomolecular-dynamics
#4
Matthew P Harrigan, Mohammad M Sultan, Carlos X Hernández, Brooke E Husic, Peter Eastman, Christian R Schwantes, Kyle A Beauchamp, Robert T McGibbon, Vijay S Pande
MSMBuilder is a software package for building statistical models of high-dimensional time-series data. It is designed with a particular focus on the analysis of atomistic simulations of biomolecular dynamics such as protein folding and conformational change. MSMBuilder is named for its ability to construct Markov state models (MSMs), a class of models that has gained favor among computational biophysicists. In addition to both well-established and newer MSM methods, the package includes complementary algorithms for understanding time-series data such as hidden Markov models and time-structure based independent component analysis...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051893/shame-in-medical-education-a-randomized-study-of-the-acquisition-of-intimate-examination-skills-and-its-effect-on-subsequent-performance
#5
Wolf E Hautz, Therese Schröder, Katja A Dannenberg, Maren März, Henrike Hölzer, Olaf Ahlers, Anke Thomas
THEORY: Although medical students are exposed to a variety of emotions, the impact of emotions on learning has received little attention so far. Shame-provoking intimate examinations are among the most memorable events for students. Their emotions, however, are rarely addressed during training, potentially leading to withdrawal and avoidance and, consequently, performance deficits. However, emotions of negative valance such as shame may be particularly valuable for learning, as they might prompt mental rehearsal...
January 4, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047744/we-a-201-01-memorial-introduction
#6
C Marshall
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047091/we-a-201-02-modern-statistical-modeling
#7
A Niemierko
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046561/we-a-201-00-anne-and-donald-herbert-distinguished-lectureship-on-modern-statistical-modeling
#8
Joseph Deasy
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040746/sixty-five-years-of-the-long-march-in-protein-secondary-structure-prediction-the-final-stretch
#9
Yuedong Yang, Jianzhao Gao, Jihua Wang, Rhys Heffernan, Jack Hanson, Kuldip Paliwal, Yaoqi Zhou
Protein secondary structure prediction began in 1951 when Pauling and Corey predicted helical and sheet conformations for protein polypeptide backbone even before the first protein structure was determined. Sixty-five years later, powerful new methods breathe new life into this field. The highest three-state accuracy without relying on structure templates is now at 82-84%, a number unthinkable just a few years ago. These improvements came from increasingly larger databases of protein sequences and structures for training, the use of template secondary structure information and more powerful deep learning techniques...
December 31, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028217/relationship-between-local-structure-and-relaxation-in-out-of-equilibrium-glassy-systems
#10
Samuel S Schoenholz, Ekin D Cubuk, Efthimios Kaxiras, Andrea J Liu
The dynamical glass transition is typically taken to be the temperature at which a glassy liquid is no longer able to equilibrate on experimental timescales. Consequently, the physical properties of these systems just above or below the dynamical glass transition, such as viscosity, can change by many orders of magnitude over long periods of time following external perturbation. During this progress toward equilibrium, glassy systems exhibit a history dependence that has complicated their study. In previous work, we bridged the gap between structure and dynamics in glassy liquids above their dynamical glass transition temperatures by introducing a scalar field called "softness," a quantity obtained using machine-learning methods...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009072/taking-the-brakes-off-the-learning-curve
#11
Freja Gheysen, Gabriel Lasne, Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac, Genevieve Albouy, Sabine Meunier, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon, Traian Popa
Motor learning is characterized by patterns of cerebello-striato-cortical activations shifting in time, yet the early dynamic and function of these activations remains unclear. Five groups of subjects underwent either continuous or intermittent theta-burst stimulation of one cerebellar hemisphere, or no stimulation just before learning a new motor sequence during fMRI scanning. We identified three phases during initial learning: one rapid, one slow, and one quasi-asymptotic performance phase. These phases were not changed by left cerebellar stimulation...
December 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007070/the-american-board-of-thoracic-surgery-congenital-fellowship-have-we-lost-our-international-heritage
#12
REVIEW
Vaughn A Starnes, Maura E Sullivan
Since 2005 there have been very few (if any) individuals trained outside of the United States in congenital surgery. Confining congenital training to only programs in the US has with it some unintended consequences. First, we need to recognize that progress is made around the world and not only in the US. Second, we decrease our opportunity to establish international peers, which leads to less opportunity for multi-institutional and multi-national studies and intellectual isolation. Third, we are in a new age of globalization...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003881/approaches-to-r-education-in-canadian-universities
#13
Michael A Carson, Nathan Basiliko
Introduction: R language is a powerful tool used in a wide array of research disciplines and owes a large amount of its success to its open source and adaptable nature. The popularity of R has grown rapidly over the past two decades and the number of users and packages is increasing at a near exponential rate. This rapid growth has prompted a number of formal and informal online and text resources, the volume of which is beginning to present challenges to novices learning R. Students are often first exposed to R in upper division undergraduate classes or during their graduate studies...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991680/toward-amino-acid-typing-for-proteins-in-fflux
#14
Timothy L Fletcher, Paul L A Popelier
Continuing the development of the FFLUX, a multipolar polarizable force field driven by machine learning, we present a modern approach to atom-typing and building transferable models for predicting atomic properties in proteins. Amino acid atomic charges in a peptide chain respond to the substitution of a neighboring residue and this response can be categorized in a manner similar to atom-typing. Using a machine learning method called kriging, we are able to build predictive models for an atom that is defined, not only by its local environment, but also by its neighboring residues, for a minimal additional computational cost...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965547/regular-cycles-of-forward-and-backward-signal-propagation-in-prefrontal-cortex-and-in-consciousness
#15
Paul J Werbos, Joshua J J Davis
This paper addresses two fundamental questions: (1) Is it possible to develop mathematical neural network models which can explain and replicate the way in which higher-order capabilities like intelligence, consciousness, optimization, and prediction emerge from the process of learning (Werbos, 1994, 2016a; National Science Foundation, 2008)? and (2) How can we use and test such models in a practical way, to track, to analyze and to model high-frequency (≥ 500 hz) many-channel data from recording the brain, just as econometrics sometimes uses models grounded in the theory of efficient markets to track real-world time-series data (Werbos, 1990)? This paper first reviews some of the prior work addressing question (1), and then reports new work performed in MATLAB analyzing spike-sorted and burst-sorted data on the prefrontal cortex from the Buzsaki lab (Fujisawa et al...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943192/photomarking-relocalization-technique-for-correlated-two-photon-and-electron-microcopy-imaging-of-single-stimulated-synapses
#16
Miquel Bosch, Jorge Castro, Mriganka Sur, Yasunori Hayashi
Synapses learn and remember by persistent modifications of their internal structures and composition but, due to their small size, it is difficult to observe these changes at the ultrastructural level in real time. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) allows time-course live imaging of individual synapses but lacks ultrastructural resolution. Electron microscopy (EM) allows the ultrastructural imaging of subcellular components but cannot detect fluorescence and lacks temporal resolution. Here, we describe a combination of procedures designed to achieve the correlated imaging of the same individual synapse under both 2PM and EM...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943086/a-data-driven-soft-sensor-for-needle-deflection-in-heterogeneous-tissue-using-just-in-time-modelling
#17
Carlos Rossa, Thomas Lehmann, Ronald Sloboda, Nawaid Usmani, Mahdi Tavakoli
Global modelling has traditionally been the approach taken to estimate needle deflection in soft tissue. In this paper, we propose a new method based on local data-driven modelling of needle deflection. External measurement of needle-tissue interactions is collected from several insertions in ex vivo tissue to form a cloud of data. Inputs to the system are the needle insertion depth, axial rotations, and the forces and torques measured at the needle base by a force sensor. When a new insertion is performed, the just-in-time learning method estimates the model outputs given the current inputs to the needle-tissue system and the historical database...
December 10, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918598/sighted-and-visually-impaired-students-perspectives-of-illustrations-diagrams-and-drawings-in-school-science
#18
Celia McDonald, Susan Rodrigues
Background In this paper we report on the views of students with and without visual impairments on the use of illustrations, diagrams and drawings (IDD) in science lessons. Method Our findings are based on data gathered through a brief questionnaire completed by a convenience sample of students prior to trialling new resource material. The questionnaire sought to understand the students' views about using IDD in science lessons. The classes involved in the study included one class from a primary school, five classes from a secondary school and one class from a school for visually impaired students...
2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906942/lower-learning-difficulty-and-fluoroscopy-reduction-of-transforaminal-percutaneous-endoscopic-lumbar-discectomy-with-an-accurate-preoperative-location-method
#19
Guoxin Fan, Xin Gu, Yifan Liu, Xinbo Wu, Hailong Zhang, Guangfei Gu, Xiaofei Guan, Shisheng He
BACKGROUND: Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (tPELD) poses great challenges for junior surgeons. Beginners often require repeated attempts using fluoroscopy causing more punctures, which may significantly undermine their confidence and increase the radiation exposure to medical staff and patients. Moreover, the impact of an accurate location on the learning curve of tPELD has not been defined. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the impact of an accurate preoperative location method on learning difficulty and fluoroscopy time of tPELD...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886184/a-view-of-the-current-and-future-role-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-the-management-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
REVIEW
U Schmidt-Erfurth, S Klimscha, S M Waldstein, H Bogunović
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an established diagnostic technology in the clinical management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OCT is being used for primary diagnosis, evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, and long-term monitoring. Computer-based advances in image analysis provide complementary imaging tools such as OCT angiography, further novel automated analysis methods as well as feature detection and prediction of prognosis in disease and therapy by machine learning. In early AMD, pathognomonic features such as drusen, pseudodrusen, and abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be imaged in a qualitative and quantitative way to identify early signs of disease activity and define the risk of progression...
November 25, 2016: Eye
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