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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906942/lower-learning-difficulty-and-fluoroscopy-reduction-of-transforaminal-percutaneous-endoscopic-lumbar-discectomy-with-an-accurate-preoperative-location-method
#1
Guoxin Fan, Xin Gu, Yifan Liu, Xinbo Wu, Hailong Zhang, Guangfei Gu, Xiaofei Guan, Shisheng He
BACKGROUND: Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (tPELD) poses great challenges for junior surgeons. Beginners often require repeated attempts using fluoroscopy causing more punctures, which may significantly undermine their confidence and increase the radiation exposure to medical staff and patients. Moreover, the impact of an accurate location on the learning curve of tPELD has not been defined. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the impact of an accurate preoperative location method on learning difficulty and fluoroscopy time of tPELD...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886184/a-view-of-the-current-and-future-role-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-the-management-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
REVIEW
U Schmidt-Erfurth, S Klimscha, S M Waldstein, H Bogunović
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an established diagnostic technology in the clinical management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OCT is being used for primary diagnosis, evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, and long-term monitoring. Computer-based advances in image analysis provide complementary imaging tools such as OCT angiography, further novel automated analysis methods as well as feature detection and prediction of prognosis in disease and therapy by machine learning. In early AMD, pathognomonic features such as drusen, pseudodrusen, and abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be imaged in a qualitative and quantitative way to identify early signs of disease activity and define the risk of progression...
November 25, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870925/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-student-tutors-as-near-peer-teachers-in-the-gross-anatomy-course
#3
J Walser, A Horneffer, W Oechsner, M Huber-Lang, S Gerhardt-Szep, A Boeckers
INTRODUCTION: Peer teaching is a well-established teaching method in medical education. During the 2012/13 winter term, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Ulm, Germany, introduced a longitudinal didactics program ("Train the Tutor": TtT) to train student tutors as near-peer teachers (NPT) in the dissection course (DC). Twenty-three of 38 tutors participated in the programme. Our study describes the educational concept and the NPTs' activities in the dissection course. METHODS: NPTs documented their activities on a daily basis in the form of semi-structured reports...
November 18, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865161/experiences-of-student-midwives-learning-and-working-abroad-in-europe-the-value-of-an-erasmus-undergraduate-midwifery-education-programme
#4
Jayne E Marshall
BACKGROUND: universities in the United Kingdom are being challenged to modify policies and curricula that reflect the changing global reality through internationalisation. An aspect of internationalisation is study abroad which the European Commission Erasmus exchange programme is just one means of addressing this. OBJECTIVE: to explore the experiences of student midwives who are engaged in the Erasmus exchange programme and the effect it has on their learning and working in an international context...
November 2, 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847490/neural-correlates-of-learning-from-induced-insight-a-case-for-reward-based-episodic-encoding
#5
Jasmin M Kizilirmak, Hannes Thuerich, Kristian Folta-Schoofs, Björn H Schott, Alan Richardson-Klavehn
Experiencing insight when solving problems can improve memory formation for both the problem and its solution. The underlying neural processes involved in this kind of learning are, however, thus far insufficiently understood. Here, we conceptualized insight as the sudden understanding of a novel relationship between known stimuli that fits into existing knowledge and is accompanied by a positive emotional response. Hence, insight is thought to comprise associative novelty, schema congruency, and intrinsic reward, all of which are separately known to enhance memory performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808553/representativity-and-univocity-of-traffic-signs-and-their-effect-on-trajectory-movement-in-a-driving-simulation-task-warning-signs
#6
Jose Luis Vilchez
Objective The effect of traffic signs in the motor behavior of drivers is not completely understood yet. Knowing about how humans process the meaning of signs (not just by learning but instinctively) will improve reaction time and decision making when traveling. The economic, social and psychological consequences of car accidents are well-known. Every single effort orientated to the solution of this social problem is welcome. Methods This study sounds out which traffic signs are more ergonomic for participants, from a cognitive point of view, and determines, at the same time, which is their effect in participants' movement trajectory in a driving-simulation task: the tracking task...
November 3, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786525/designing-for-development-across-the-scales-of-time
#7
Michael Cole
This essay traces the history of an activity designed to promote the intellectual and social development of elementary-age schoolchildren during the afterschool hours. Following in the footsteps of Urie Bronfenbrenner, I highlight his argument that just as all human development occurs in contexts of varying levels of inclusiveness and mutual interchange, human development occurs at intersecting scales of time that themselves vary in character and duration. The task of exploring Bronfenbrenner's idea confronts scholars interested in person-context coconstitutive processes with a difficult methodological requirement; they must study simultaneously the history of persons (at the microgenetic and ontogenetic time scales) as well the history of "the contexts of development" in which the persons participate...
November 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773367/bayesian-change-point-analysis-reveals-developmental-change-in-a-classic-theory-of-mind-task
#8
Sara T Baker, Alan M Leslie, C R Gallistel, Bruce M Hood
Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764128/-they-just-come-pick-and-go-the-acceptability-of-integrated-medication-adherence-clubs-for-hiv-and-non-communicable-disease-ncd-patients-in-kibera-kenya
#9
Emilie Venables, Jeffrey K Edwards, Saar Baert, William Etienne, Kelly Khabala, Helen Bygrave
INTRODUCTION: The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713717/just-google-it-young-children-s-preferences-for-touchscreens-versus-books-in-hypothetical-learning-tasks
#10
Sierra Eisen, Angeline S Lillard
Children today regularly interact with touchscreen devices (Rideout, 2013) and thousands of "educational" mobile applications are marketed to them (Shuler, 2012). Understanding children's own ideas about optimal learning has important implications for education, which is being transformed by electronic mobile devices, yet we know little about how children think about such devices, including what children think touchscreens are useful for. Based on a prior result that children prefer a book over a touchscreen for learning about dogs, the present study explored how children view touchscreens versus books for learning an array of different types of information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709983/more-than-just-beliefs-experience-and-beliefs-jointly-contribute-to-volume-effects-on-metacognitive-judgments
#11
David J Frank, Beatrice G Kuhlmann
Experience-based cues, such as perceptual fluency, have long been thought to influence metacognitive judgments (Kelley & Jacoby, 1996; Koriat, 1997). Studies found that manipulations of perceptual fluency via changes in font and volume alter Judgments of Learning (JOLs) without influencing memory performance (Rhodes & Castel, 2008, 2009). Nonetheless, recent research (Mueller, Tauber, & Dunlosky, 2013; Mueller, Dunlosky, Tauber, & Rhodes, 2014, 2016) has challenged the notion that experience-based cues such as fluency are the primary basis for item-level JOLs, arguing instead that preexisting beliefs about these manipulations are responsible for these effects...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708679/development-of-foraging-skills-in-two-orangutan-populations-needing-to-learn-or-needing-to-grow
#12
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia I F Forss, Ellen J M Meulman, Nicole Zweifel, Kevin C Lee, Evasari Rukmana, Erin R Vogel, Maria A van Noordwijk, Carel P van Schaik
BACKGROUND: Orangutans have one of the slowest-paced life histories of all mammals. Whereas life-history theory suggests that the time to reach adulthood is constrained by the time needed to reach adult body size, the needing-to-learn hypothesis instead suggests that it is limited by the time needed to acquire adult-level skills. To test between these two hypotheses, we compared the development of foraging skills and growth trajectories of immature wild orangutans in two populations: at Tuanan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), Borneo, and Suaq Balimbing (Pongo abelii), Sumatra...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694649/planning-and-budgeting-for-nutrition-programs-in-tanzania-lessons-learned-from-the-national-vitamin-a-supplementation-program
#13
Margaret Benjamin Lyatuu, Temina Mkumbwa, Raz Stevenson, Marissa Isidro, Francis Modaha, Heather Katcher, Christina Nyhus Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiency in Tanzania is a significant public health problem, with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affecting 34% of children aged 6 to 59 months. Since 2007, development partners have worked closely to advocate for the inclusion of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation and deworming (VASD) activities with budgets at the subnational level, where funding and implementation occur. As part of the advocacy work, a VASD planning and budgeting tool (PBT) was developed and is used by district officials to justify allocation of funds...
May 3, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640910/weekly-e-mailed-teaching-tips-and-reading-material-influence-teaching-among-general-surgery-residents
#14
Ammara A Watkins, Stephen P Gondek, Kiran H Lagisetty, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Sidharta P Gangadharan, Michael J Cahalane, Tara S Kent
BACKGROUND: A nonintrusive e-mail reminder incorporating teaching tips and manuscripts was developed to supplement resident-as-teacher curricula. METHODS: Ten high-yield manuscripts and 10 teaching tips exemplifying the themes of mentorship or role modeling, teaching methods, adult learning theory, feedback, and the resident role of teaching were distributed to general surgery house staff through a weekly e-mail series. House staff completed surveys before and after the 20-week e-mail series...
July 9, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625613/the-role-of-interactional-quality-in-learning-from-touch-screens-during-infancy-context-matters
#15
Elizabeth Zack, Rachel Barr
Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a two-dimensional (2D) screen and three-dimensional (3D) object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emotional responsiveness and infant outcomes during a transfer of learning task...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625040/concise-review-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-pediatric-disease-perspectives-on-success-and-potential-improvements
#16
Christopher R Nitkin, Tracey L Bonfield
: : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a potentially revolutionary therapy for a wide variety of pediatric diseases, but the optimal cell-based therapeutics for such diversity have not yet been specified. The published clinical trials for pediatric pulmonary, cardiac, orthopedic, endocrine, neurologic, and hematologic diseases provide evidence that MSCs are indeed efficacious, but the significant heterogeneity in therapeutic approaches between studies raises new questions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate new preclinical and clinical trials to investigate these factors...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624485/oral-anticoagulation-with-vitamin-k-inhibitors-and-determinants-of-successful-self-management-in-primary-care
#17
E Tamayo Aguirre, A Galo-Anza, O Dorronsoro-Barandiaran, E Uranga-Saez Del Burgo, A Ostiza Irigoyen, A Garcia-Carro, I Lopez-Fernandez, N Colera, P Saez-Garbayo, I Tamayo-Uria
BACKGROUND: Self-management may be an option to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy in health systems, but before recommending it, we need to assess patients' ability to take on this task. The purpose of the study was to describe patients' ability to self-manage and associated factors. METHODS: This was a 3-year prospective quasi-experimental study with a control group. Overall, 333 patients on anticoagulant therapy from seven primary care health centres of the Basque Health Service were included in the intervention group and followed up for 6 months after the intervention, assessing their ability to self-test and self-manage...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608482/model-driven-analysis-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-reveals-the-underlying-structure-of-cerebellar-plasticity-and-neuronal-activity
#18
Alberto Antonietti, Claudia Casellato, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi
The cerebellum plays a critical role in sensorimotor control. However, how the specific circuits and plastic mechanisms of the cerebellum are engaged in closed-loop processing is still unclear. We developed an artificial sensorimotor control system embedding a detailed spiking cerebellar microcircuit with three bidirectional plasticity sites. This proved able to reproduce a cerebellar-driven associative paradigm, the eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), in which a precise time relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) is established...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595735/reproductive-responses-to-economic-uncertainty-fertility-decline-in-post-soviet-ust-avam-siberia
#19
David A Nolin, John P Ziker
In the face of economic and political changes following the end of the Soviet Union, total fertility rates fell significantly across the post-Soviet world. In this study we examine the dramatic fertility transition in one community in which the total fertility rate fell from approximately five children per woman before 1993 to just over one child per woman a decade later. We apply hypotheses derived from evolutionary ecology and demography to the question of fertility transition in the post-Soviet period, focusing on an indigenous community (Ust'-Avam) in the Taimyr Region, northern Russia...
September 5, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592330/symptom-burden-in-heart-failure-assessment-impact-on-outcomes-and-management
#20
Craig M Alpert, Michael A Smith, Scott L Hummel, Ellen K Hummel
Evidence-based management has improved long-term survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, an unintended consequence of increased longevity is that patients with HF are exposed to a greater symptom burden over time. In addition to classic symptoms such as dyspnea and edema, patients with HF frequently suffer additional symptoms such as pain, depression, gastrointestinal distress, and fatigue. In addition to obvious effects on quality of life, untreated symptoms increase clinical events including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and long-term mortality in a dose-dependent fashion...
September 3, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
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