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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150448/taking-a-goal-centred-dynamic-snapshot-as-a-possibility-for-local-homing-in-initially-na%C3%A3-ve-bumblebees
#1
Anne Lobecke, Roland Kern, Martin Egelhaaf
It is essential for central place foragers, such as bumblebees, to return reliably to their nest. Bumblebees, leaving their inconspicuous nest hole for the first time need to gather and learn sufficient information about their surroundings to allow them to return to their nest at the end of their trip, instead of just flying away to forage. Therefore, we assume an intrinsic learning program that manifests itself in the flight structure immediately after leaving the nest for the first time.In this study, we recorded and analysed the first outbound flight of individually marked naïve bumblebees in an indoor environment...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129536/event-boundaries-trigger-rapid-memory-reinstatement-of-the-prior-events-to-promote-their-representation-in-long-term-memory
#2
Ignasi Sols, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi, Lluís Fuentemilla
Although everyday experiences unfold continuously over time, shifts in context, or event boundaries, can influence how those events come to be represented in memory [1-4]. Specifically, mnemonic binding across sequential representations is more challenging at context shifts, such that successful temporal associations are more likely to be formed within than across contexts [1, 2, 5-9]. However, in order to preserve a subjective sense of continuity, it is important that the memory system bridge temporally adjacent events, even if they occur in seemingly distinct contexts...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118107/morphological-constraints-on-cerebellar-granule-cell-combinatorial-diversity
#3
Jesse I Gilmer, Abigail L Person
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar granule cell layer and examined how GCL architecture contributes to granule cell (GrC) combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081263/revisiting-the-merits-of-a-mandatory-large-group-classroom-learning-format-an-md-mba-perspective
#4
Shawn X Li, Roshini Pinto-Powell
The role of classroom learning in medical education is rapidly changing. To promote active learning and reduce student stress, medical schools have adopted policies such as pass/fail curriculums and recorded lectures. These policies along with the rising importance of the USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Examination) exams have made asynchronous learning popular to the detriment of classroom learning. In contrast to this model, modern day business schools employ mandatory large group classes with assigned seating and cold-calling...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066315/surgery-website-as-a-24-7-adjunct-to-a-surgical-curriculum
#5
Apram Jyot, Mohamed S Baloul, Eric J Finnesgard, Samuel J Allen, Nimesh D Naik, Miguel A Gomez Ibarra, Eduardo F Abbott, Becca Gas, Francisco J Cardenas-Lara, Muhammad H Zeb, Rachel Cadeliña, David R Farley
OBJECTIVE: Successfully teaching duty hour restricted trainees demands engaging learning opportunities. Our surgical educational website and its associated assets were assessed to understand how such a resource was being used. DESIGN: Our website was accessible to all Mayo Clinic employees via the internal web network. Website access data from April 2015 through October 2016 were retrospectively collected using Piwik. SETTING: Academic, tertiary care referral center with a large general surgery training program...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059349/using-elastic-net-penalized-cox-proportional-hazards-regression-to-identify-predictors-of-imminent-smoking-lapse
#6
Robert Suchting, Emily T Hébert, Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Michael S Businelle
Introduction: Machine learning algorithms such as elastic net regression and backwards selection provide a unique and powerful approach to model building given a set of psychosocial predictors of smoking lapse measured repeatedly via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Understanding these predictors may aid in developing interventions for smoking lapse prevention. Methods: In a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial, smartphone-based EMAs were collected from 92 participants following a scheduled quit date...
September 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941380/using-virtual-environments-to-investigate-wayfinding-in-8-to-12-year-olds-and-adults
#7
Jamie Lingwood, Mark Blades, Emily K Farran, Yannick Courbois, Danielle Matthews
Wayfinding is the ability to learn and recall a route through an environment. Theories of wayfinding suggest that for children to learn a route successfully, they must have repeated experience of it, but in this experiment we investigated whether children could learn a route after only a single experience of the route. A total of 80 participants from the United Kingdom in four groups of 20 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were shown a route through a 12-turn maze in a virtual environment...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933883/not-just-numeracy-and-literacy-theory-of-mind-development-and-school-readiness-among-low-income-children
#8
Elizabeth Woodburn Cavadel, Douglas A Frye
The current study investigated the role of theory of mind development in school readiness among 120 low-income preschool and kindergarten children. A short-term longitudinal design was used to examine relations among theory of mind, the understanding of teaching, and learning behaviors and their collective role in children's literacy and numeracy skills at school entry. Results replicate differences in theory of mind development among low-income children as compared to typically studied, higher-income samples...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931079/an-evidence-based-evaluation-of-transferrable-skills-and-job-satisfaction-for-science-phds
#9
Melanie Sinche, Rebekah L Layton, Patrick D Brandt, Anna B O'Connell, Joshua D Hall, Ashalla M Freeman, Jessica R Harrell, Jeanette Gowen Cook, Patrick J Brennwald
PhD recipients acquire discipline-specific knowledge and a range of relevant skills during their training in the life sciences, physical sciences, computational sciences, social sciences, and engineering. Empirically testing the applicability of these skills to various careers held by graduates will help assess the value of current training models. This report details results of an Internet survey of science PhDs (n = 8099) who provided ratings for fifteen transferrable skills. Indeed, analyses indicated that doctoral training develops these transferrable skills, crucial to success in a wide range of careers including research-intensive (RI) and non-research-intensive (NRI) careers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901705/peer-assisted-learning-and-small-group-teaching-to-improve-practice-placement-quality-and-capacity-in-dietetics
#10
Dianne P Reidlinger, Judy Lawrence, Jane E Thomas, Kevin Whelan
AIM: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has been positively evaluated during practice placements for medical, nursing and some allied health professional students. The aim of this study was to evaluate a PAL and small-group teaching model of dietetic practice placement education implemented in the UK setting as part of a quality improvement process. METHODS: A PAL placement model was adapted from a previously published Australian model, implemented and evaluated among dietetic students at King's College London and with their practice educators...
September 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894004/waiting-can-be-an-optimal-conservation-strategy-even-in-a-crisis-discipline
#11
Gwenllian D Iacona, Hugh P Possingham, Michael Bode
Biodiversity conservation projects confront immediate and escalating threats with limited funding. Conservation theory suggests that the best response to the species extinction crisis is to spend money as soon as it becomes available, and this is often an explicit constraint placed on funding. We use a general dynamic model of a conservation landscape to show that this decision to "front-load" project spending can be suboptimal if a delay allows managers to use resources more strategically. Our model demonstrates the existence of temporal efficiencies in conservation management, which parallel the spatial efficiencies identified by systematic conservation planning...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845071/exploration-of-factors-predictive-of-at-risk-fathers-participation-in-a-pilot-study-of-an-augmented-evidence-based-parent-training-program-a-mixed-methods-approach
#12
Whitney L Rostad, Shannon Self-Brown, Clinton Boyd, Melissa Osborne, Alexandria Patterson
There has been burgeoning parenting intervention research specifically addressing fathers in recent decades. Corresponding research examining their participation and engagement in evidence-based parent training programs, which have almost exclusively targeted mothers, is just emerging. The current study used mixed methods to examine factors that influenced completion of an augmented version of an evidence-based child maltreatment prevention program developed for male caregivers called SafeCare Dad to Kids (Dad2K) in a pilot study...
August 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813886/exploratory-design-of-a-compliant-mechanism-for-a-dynamic-hand-orthosis-lessons-learned
#13
Ronald A Bos, Dick H Plettenburg, Just L Herder
This study does not describe a success-story. Instead, it describes an exploratory process and the lessons learned while designing a compliant mechanism for a dynamic hand orthosis. Tools from engineering optimization and rapid prototyping techniques were used, with the goal to design a mechanism to compensate for hypertonic or contracted finger muscles. Results show that the mechanism did not reach its design constraints, mostly because it could not provide for the necessary stiffness and compliance at the same time...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812307/the-development-of-perceptual-averaging-learning-what-to-do-not-just-how-to-do-it
#14
Pete R Jones, Tessa M Dekker
The mature visual system condenses complex scenes into simple summary statistics (e.g., average size, location, orientation, etc.). However, children, often perform poorly on perceptual averaging tasks. Children's difficulties are typically thought to represent the suboptimal implementation of an adult-like strategy. This paper examines another possibility: that children actually make decisions in a qualitatively different way to adults (optimal implementation of a non-ideal strategy). Ninety children (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years) and 30 adults were asked to locate the middle of randomly generated dot-clouds...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797548/efficient-and-robust-cell-detection-a-structured-regression-approach
#15
Yuanpu Xie, Fuyong Xing, Xiaoshuang Shi, Xiangfei Kong, Hai Su, Lin Yang
Efficient and robust cell detection serves as a critical prerequisite for many subsequent biomedical image analysis methods and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). It remains a challenging task due to touching cells, inhomogeneous background noise, and large variations in cell sizes and shapes. In addition, the ever-increasing amount of available datasets and the high resolution of whole-slice scanned images pose a further demand for efficient processing algorithms. In this paper, we present a novel structured regression model based on a proposed fully residual convolutional neural network for efficient cell detection...
July 26, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777060/temporal-anticipation-based-on-memory
#16
André M Cravo, Gustavo Rohenkohl, Karin Moreira Santos, Anna C Nobre
The fundamental role that our long-term memories play in guiding perception is increasingly recognized, but the functional and neural mechanisms are just beginning to be explored. Although experimental approaches are being developed to investigate the influence of long-term memories on perception, these remain mostly static and neglect their temporal and dynamic nature. Here, we show that our long-term memories can guide attention proactively and dynamically based on learned temporal associations. Across two experiments, we found that detection and discrimination of targets appearing within previously learned contexts are enhanced when the timing of target appearance matches the learned temporal contingency...
December 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764976/more-than-just-noise-inter-individual-differences-in-fear-acquisition-extinction-and-return-of-fear-in-humans-biological-experiential-temperamental-factors-and-methodological-pitfalls
#17
REVIEW
Tina B Lonsdorf, Christian J Merz
Why do only some individuals develop pathological anxiety following adverse events? Fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear paradigms serve as experimental learning models for the development, treatment and relapse of anxiety. Individual differences in experimental performance were however mostly regarded as 'noise' by researchers interested in basic associative learning principles. Our work for the first time presents a comprehensive literature overview and methodological discussion on inter-individual differences in fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759633/dictionary-learning-based-noisy-image-super-resolution-via-distance-penalty-weight-model
#18
Yulan Han, Yongping Zhao, Qisong Wang
In this study, we address the problem of noisy image super-resolution. Noisy low resolution (LR) image is always obtained in applications, while most of the existing algorithms assume that the LR image is noise-free. As to this situation, we present an algorithm for noisy image super-resolution which can achieve simultaneously image super-resolution and denoising. And in the training stage of our method, LR example images are noise-free. For different input LR images, even if the noise variance varies, the dictionary pair does not need to be retrained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759557/high-turnover-among-state-health-officials-public-health-directors-implications-for-the-public-s-health
#19
Paul K Halverson, John R Lumpkin, Valerie A Yeager, Brian C Castrucci, Sharon Moffatt, Hugh Tilson
CONTEXT: State health officials (SHOs) serve a critical role as the leaders of state public health systems. Despite their many responsibilities, there is no formal process for preparation to become an SHO, and few requirements influence the selection of an SHO. Furthermore, to date, no studies have examined SHO tenure or their experiences. OBJECTIVE: This study examines SHO tenure over time and the relationship between SHO tenure and organizational and state attributes...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743240/whole-brain-radiotherapy-versus-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-4-10-brain-metastases-a-phase-iii-randomised-multicentre-trial
#20
Jaap D Zindler, Anna M E Bruynzeel, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Coen W Hurkmans, Ans Swinnen, Philippe Lambin
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of quality of life is the primary goal during treatment of brain metastases (BM). This is a protocol of an ongoing phase III randomised multicentre study. This study aims to determine the exact additional palliative value of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) over whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with 4-10 BM. METHODS: The study will include patients with 4-10 BM from solid primary tumours diagnosed on a high-resolution contrast-enhanced MRI scan with a maximum lesional diameter of 2...
July 25, 2017: BMC Cancer
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