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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635107/new-space-time-metaphors-foster-new-nonlinguistic-representations
#1
Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like "breakfast is above dinner" or "breakfast is below dinner" (depending on condition). In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left-right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628583/improving-hypertension-control-population-wide-in-minnesota
#2
Kathryn Foti, John Auerbach, Sanne Magnan
CONTEXT: Hypertension is a common and costly risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but just over half of all adults with hypertension have their blood pressure controlled nationally. In Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota, the rate of hypertension control is approximately 70% despite a rate of hypertension control similar to the national average as recently as the first half of the 1990s. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to identify factors in Minneapolis-St Paul and state-level policies and programs in Minnesota that may have contributed to the more rapid increase in blood pressure control there than that in the rest of the nation and to identify factors that can potentially be replicated in other jurisdictions...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614406/learning-from-the-mistakes-of-others-how-female-elk-cervus-elaphus-adjust-behaviour-with-age-to-avoid-hunters
#3
Henrik Thurfjell, Simone Ciuti, Mark S Boyce
In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602562/the-humanitarian-system-is-not-just-broke-but-broken-recommendations-for-future-humanitarian-action
#4
REVIEW
Paul B Spiegel
An unprecedented number of humanitarian emergencies of large magnitude and duration is causing the largest number of people in a generation to be forcibly displaced. Yet the existing humanitarian system was created for a different time and is no longer fit for purpose. On the basis of lessons learned from recent crises, particularly the Syrian conflict and the Ebola epidemic, I recommend four sets of actions that would make the humanitarian system relevant for future public health responses: (1) operationalise the concept of centrality of protection; (2) integrate affected persons into national health systems by addressing the humanitarian-development nexus; (3) remake, do not simply revise, leadership and coordination; and (4) make interventions efficient, effective, and sustainable...
June 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584867/utilization-and-acceptance-of-virtual-patients-in-veterinary-basic-sciences-the-vetvip-project
#5
Christin Kleinsorgen, Marta Kankofer, Zbigniew Gradzki, Mira Mandoki, Tibor Bartha, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Hassan Y Naim, Martin Beyerbach, Andrea Tipold, Jan P Ehlers
Context: In medical and veterinary medical education the use of problem-based and cased-based learning has steadily increased over time. At veterinary faculties, this development has mainly been evident in the clinical phase of the veterinary education. Therefore, a consortium of teachers of biochemistry and physiology together with technical and didactical experts launched the EU-funded project "vetVIP", to create and implement veterinary virtual patients and problems for basic science instruction. In this study the implementation and utilization of virtual patients occurred at the veterinary faculties in Budapest, Hannover and Lublin...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580337/neural-network-based-learning-kernel-for-automatic-segmentation-of-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-images
#6
H Khastavaneh, H Ebrahimpour-Komleh
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disease of central nervous system. MS patients have some dead tissues in their brains called MS lesions. MRI is an imaging technique sensitive to soft tissues such as brain that shows MS lesions as hyper-intense or hypo-intense signals. Since manual segmentation of these lesions is a laborious and time consuming task, automatic segmentation is a need. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to segment MS lesions, a method based on learning kernels has been proposed...
June 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543647/reflections-on-democratic-deliberation-in-bioethics
#7
Amy Gutmann, James W Wagner
Over the course of six years and more than two dozen meetings, members of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues learned so many things: about emerging science; technological challenges; citizen engagement; the public's, experts', and our own understandings and misperceptions; and even the nature of our own most cherished values. Our commission's commitment to democratic deliberation began deliberatively, when we decided (in the summer of 2010) upon basic principles to guide our first report...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542179/teaching-genetics-prior-to-teaching-evolution-improves-evolution-understanding-but-not-acceptance
#8
Rebecca Mead, Momna Hejmadi, Laurence D Hurst
What is the best way to teach evolution? As microevolution may be configured as a branch of genetics, it being a short conceptual leap from understanding the concepts of mutation and alleles (i.e., genetics) to allele frequency change (i.e., evolution), we hypothesised that learning genetics prior to evolution might improve student understanding of evolution. In the UK, genetics and evolution are typically taught to 14- to 16-y-old secondary school students as separate topics with few links, in no particular order and sometimes with a large time span between...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534792/neural-ailc-for-error-tracking-against-arbitrary-initial-shifts
#9
Mingxuan Sun, Tao Wu, Lejian Chen, Guofeng Zhang
This paper concerns with the adaptive iterative learning control using neural networks for systems performing repetitive tasks over a finite time interval. Two standing issues of such iterative learning control processes are addressed: one is the initial condition problem and the other is that related to the approximation error. Instead of the state tracking, an error tracking approach is proposed to tackle the problem arising from arbitrary initial shifts. The desired error trajectory is prespecified at the design stage, suitable to different tracking tasks...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522969/equilibrium-propagation-bridging-the-gap-between-energy-based-models-and-backpropagation
#10
Benjamin Scellier, Yoshua Bengio
We introduce Equilibrium Propagation, a learning framework for energy-based models. It involves only one kind of neural computation, performed in both the first phase (when the prediction is made) and the second phase of training (after the target or prediction error is revealed). Although this algorithm computes the gradient of an objective function just like Backpropagation, it does not need a special computation or circuit for the second phase, where errors are implicitly propagated. Equilibrium Propagation shares similarities with Contrastive Hebbian Learning and Contrastive Divergence while solving the theoretical issues of both algorithms: our algorithm computes the gradient of a well-defined objective function...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504951/a-sequential-learning-approach-for-scaling-up-filter-based-feature-subset-selection
#11
Gregory Ditzler, Robi Polikar, Gail Rosen
Increasingly, many machine learning applications are now associated with very large data sets whose sizes were almost unimaginable just a short time ago. As a result, many of the current algorithms cannot handle, or do not scale to, today's extremely large volumes of data. Fortunately, not all features that make up a typical data set carry information that is relevant or useful for prediction, and identifying and removing such irrelevant features can significantly reduce the total data size. The unfortunate dilemma, however, is that some of the current data sets are so large that common feature selection algorithms-whose very goal is to reduce the dimensionality-cannot handle such large data sets, creating a vicious cycle...
May 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464332/a-comparison-of-risk-prediction-methods-using-repeated-observations-an-application-to-electronic-health-records-for-hemodialysis
#12
Benjamin A Goldstein, Gina Maria Pomann, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Michael J Pencina
An increasingly important data source for the development of clinical risk prediction models is electronic health records (EHRs). One of their key advantages is that they contain data on many individuals collected over time. This allows one to incorporate more clinical information into a risk model. However, traditional methods for developing risk models are not well suited to these irregularly collected clinical covariates. In this paper, we compare a range of approaches for using longitudinal predictors in a clinical risk model...
May 2, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452499/flow-navigation-by-smart-microswimmers-via-reinforcement-learning
#13
Simona Colabrese, Kristian Gustavsson, Antonio Celani, Luca Biferale
Smart active particles can acquire some limited knowledge of the fluid environment from simple mechanical cues and exert a control on their preferred steering direction. Their goal is to learn the best way to navigate by exploiting the underlying flow whenever possible. As an example, we focus our attention on smart gravitactic swimmers. These are active particles whose task is to reach the highest altitude within some time horizon, given the constraints enforced by fluid mechanics. By means of numerical experiments, we show that swimmers indeed learn nearly optimal strategies just by experience...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448882/baccalaureate-student-nurses-study-habits-prior-to-admission-to-nursing-program-a-descriptive-qualitative-study
#14
Rhea Faye D Felicilda-Reynaldo, Jonas Preposi Cruz, Louise Bigley, Kathryn Adams
BACKGROUND: Faculty continue to observe students struggling as they adapt their study strategies to learn nursing core content. OBJECTIVES: This study described the study habits of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students prior to admission to the program. DESIGN: This study used a descriptive qualitative research design. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 19 BSN students (juniors [n=10] and seniors [n=9]) from a 4-year public Midwestern university were included in this study...
June 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417516/discovering-what-matters-interrogating-clinician-responses-to-ethics-consultation
#15
Stuart G Finder, Virginia L Bartlett
Against the background assumptions that (a) knowing what clinical ethics consultation represents to those with whom ethics consultants work most closely is a necessary component for being responsible in the practice of ethics consultation, and (b) the complexities of soliciting and understanding colleague evaluations require another inherent responsibility for the methods by which ethics consultations are evaluated, in this article we report our experience soliciting, analyzing, and trying to understand retrospective evaluations of our Clinical Ethics Consultation Service...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405579/a-survey-of-methods-and-tools-to-detect-recent-and-strong-positive-selection
#16
REVIEW
Pavlos Pavlidis, Nikolaos Alachiotis
Positive selection occurs when an allele is favored by natural selection. The frequency of the favored allele increases in the population and due to genetic hitchhiking the neighboring linked variation diminishes, creating so-called selective sweeps. Detecting traces of positive selection in genomes is achieved by searching for signatures introduced by selective sweeps, such as regions of reduced variation, a specific shift of the site frequency spectrum, and particular LD patterns in the region. A variety of methods and tools can be used for detecting sweeps, ranging from simple implementations that compute summary statistics such as Tajima's D, to more advanced statistical approaches that use combinations of statistics, maximum likelihood, machine learning etc...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385174/take-home-training-in-laparoscopy
#17
Ebbe Thinggaard
When laparoscopy was first introduced, skills were primarily taught using the apprenticeship model. A limitation of this method when compared to open surgery, was that it requires more time to practise and more frequent learning opportunities in clinical practice. The unique set of skills required in laparoscopy highlighted the need for new training methods that reduce the need for supervision and do not put the patient at risk. Simulation training was developed to meet this need. The overall purpose of this thesis was to explore simulation-based laparoscopic training at home...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385071/treatment-of-missing-data-in-follow-up-studies-of-randomised-controlled-trials-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
Thomas R Sullivan, Lisa N Yelland, Katherine J Lee, Philip Ryan, Amy B Salter
BACKGROUND/AIMS: After completion of a randomised controlled trial, an extended follow-up period may be initiated to learn about longer term impacts of the intervention. Since extended follow-up studies often involve additional eligibility restrictions and consent processes for participation, and a longer duration of follow-up entails a greater risk of participant attrition, missing data can be a considerable threat in this setting. As a potential source of bias, it is critical that missing data are appropriately handled in the statistical analysis, yet little is known about the treatment of missing data in extended follow-up studies...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376571/immunotherapy-of-cancer
#19
Joseph A Trapani, Phillip K Darcy
BACKGROUND: For 50 years, cancer physicians have relied on just three primary treatment modalities: surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Over that time, enormous progress has been made in understanding cancer biology, targeted anti-cancer drugs have emerged, and thousands of clinical trials have taught us how best to craft treatment combinations that improve clinical outcomes. Only five years ago, a fourth and radically different form of therapy finally emerged: immune‑based cancer therapies...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364938/experiential-and-authentic-learning-approaches-in-vaccine-management
#20
Umit Kartoglu, James Vesper, Hanna Teräs, Thomas Reeves
A high level of concern is placed on the storage, handling, transportation, and distribution of vaccines and other pharmaceutical products, particularly those that are time and temperature sensitive. While active and passive cooling equipment and monitoring devices are important, it is the various personnel responsible for executing and writing procedures, designing and operating systems, and investigating problems and helping prevent them who are paramount in establishing and maintaining a "cold chain" for time and temperature sensitive pharmaceutical products (TTSPPs)...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
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