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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340790/an-automated-framework-for-qsar-model-building
#1
Samina Kausar, Andre O Falcao
BACKGROUND: In-silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based tools are widely used to screen huge databases of compounds in order to determine the biological properties of chemical molecules based on their chemical structure. With the passage of time, the exponentially growing amount of synthesized and known chemicals data demands computationally efficient automated QSAR modeling tools, available to researchers that may lack extensive knowledge of machine learning modeling...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333328/learning-tree-structured-detection-cascades-for-heterogeneous-networks-of-embedded-devices
#2
Hamid Dadkhahi, Benjamin M Marlin
In this paper, we present a new approach to learning cascaded classifiers for use in computing environments that involve networks of heterogeneous and resource-constrained, low-power embedded compute and sensing nodes. We present a generalization of the classical linear detection cascade to the case of tree-structured cascades where different branches of the tree execute on different physical compute nodes in the network. Different nodes have access to different features, as well as access to potentially different computation and energy resources...
August 2017: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333058/acquisition-of-a-socially-learned-tool-use-sequence-in-chimpanzees-implications-for-cumulative-culture
#3
Gillian L Vale, Sarah J Davis, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture underpins humanity's enormous success as a species. Claims that other animals are incapable of cultural ratcheting are prevalent, but are founded on just a handful of empirical studies. Whether cumulative culture is unique to humans thus remains a controversial and understudied question that has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the evolution of this phenomenon. We investigated whether one of human's two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees, are capable of a degree of cultural ratcheting by exposing captive populations to a novel juice extraction task...
September 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331743/preliminary-investigation-of-human-exhaled-breath-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-by-multidimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-and-machine-learning
#4
Marco Beccaria, Theodore R Mellors, Jacky S Petion, Christiaan A Rees, Mavra Nasir, Hannah K Systrom, Jean W Sairistil, Marc-Antoine Jean-Juste, Vanessa Rivera, Kerline Lavoile, Patrice Severe, Jean W Pape, Peter F Wright, Jane E Hill
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health malady that claims almost 1.8 million lives annually. Diagnosis of TB represents perhaps one of the most challenging aspects of tuberculosis control. Gold standards for diagnosis of active TB (culture and nucleic acid amplification) are sputum-dependent, however, in up to a third of TB cases, an adequate biological sputum sample is not readily available. The analysis of exhaled breath, as an alternative to sputum-dependent tests, has the potential to provide a simple, fast, and non-invasive, and ready-available diagnostic service that could positively change TB detection...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318984/a-brief-history-of-shigella
#5
Keith A Lampel, Samuel B Formal, Anthony T Maurelli
The history of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is a long and fascinating one. This brief historical account starts with descriptions of the disease and its impact on human health from ancient time to the present. Our story of the bacterium starts just before the identification of the dysentery bacillus by Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898 and follows the scientific discoveries and principal scientists who contributed to the elucidation of Shigella pathogenesis in the first 100 years. Over the past century, Shigella has proved to be an outstanding model of an invasive bacterial pathogen and has served as a paradigm for the study of other bacterial pathogens...
January 2018: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296289/a-personalized-predictive-framework-for-multivariate-clinical-time-series-via-adaptive-model-selection
#6
Zitao Liu, Milos Hauskrecht
Building of an accurate predictive model of clinical time series for a patient is critical for understanding of the patient condition, its dynamics, and optimal patient management. Unfortunately, this process is not straightforward. First, patient-specific variations are typically large and population-based models derived or learned from many different patients are often unable to support accurate predictions for each individual patient. Moreover, time series observed for one patient at any point in time may be too short and insufficient to learn a high-quality patient-specific model just from the patient's own data...
November 2017: Proceedings of the ... ACM International Conference on Information & Knowledge Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286511/cerebral-impact-of-prenatal-irradiation-by-131i-an-experimental-model-of-clinical-neuroradioembryological-effects
#7
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285834/evidence-for-increased-use-of-the-society-of-pediatric-anesthesia-critical-events-checklist-in-resource-limited-environments-a-retrospective-observational-study-of-app-data
#8
Vikas N O'Reilly-Shah, Jamie Kitzman, Craig S Jabaley, Grant C Lynde
BACKGROUND: Electronic decision support tools in anesthesiology practice have great value, including the potential for mobile applications to simplify delivery of best-practice guidelines. AIMS: We sought to combine demographics with usage information to elucidate important patterns in the rate of use of the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia Critical Events Checklist, as measured by in-app accesses of the checklist via the freely available anesthesia calculator app anesthesiologist...
December 28, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239925/the-validity-of-training-endoscopic-sinus-and-skull-base-surgery-techniques-on-the-experimental-head-model
#9
Ranko Mladina, Neven Skitarelić, Cemal Cingi, Lei Chen, Nuray Bayar Muluk
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to better understand the usual learning curve in acquiring endonasal endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery (ESSBS) techniques during the novice training on the lamb's head model. METHODS: Ten novices were asked to perform 10 bilateral dissections on the particular lamb's head each. The dissections were uniform, consisted of 10 well-defined steps, beginning from the simple removal of the inferior turbinate, and ending with more complicated procedures like cerebrospinal fluid leak repair, Draf 3 procedure for the frontal sinus and elevation of the nasal septal flap...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233428/training-student-pharmacists-to-administer-emergency-pediatric-influenza-vaccine-a-comparison-of-traditional-vs-just-in-time-training
#10
Colleen M Terriff, Kimberly McKeirnan
INTRODUCTION: This study compared traditional training (TT) and just-in-time training (JITT) of P3 student pharmacists regarding interest, confidence, and comfort pre- and post-training (primary objective); and assessment and administration competency (secondary objective) during a simulated influenza vaccination clinic. METHODS: Student pharmacists were randomized 1:1 to receive either TT or JITT, completed pre- and post-training surveys assessing interest, confidence and comfort; and evaluated on performance during a simulated emergency infant vaccination...
July 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227430/continuing-education-meets-the-learning-organization-the-challenge-of-a-systems-approach-to-patient-safety
#11
John M Eisenberg
Since the release of the report of the Institute of Medicine on medical errors and patient safety in November 1999, health policy makers and health care leaders in several nations have sought solutions that will improve the safety of health care. This attention to patient safety has highlighted the importance of a learning approach and a systems approach to quality measurement and improvement. Balanced with the need for public disclosure of performance, confidential reporting with feedback is one of the prime ways that nations such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia have approached this challenge...
October 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224379/just-in-time-consent-the-ethical-case-for-an-alternative-to-traditional-informed-consent-in-randomized-trials-comparing-an-experimental-intervention-with-usual-care
#12
Andrew J Vickers, Danny A Young-Afat, Behfar Ehdaie, Scott Yh Kim
Informed consent for randomized trials often causes significant and persistent anxiety, distress and confusion to patients. Where an experimental treatment is compared to a standard care control, much of this burden is potentially avoidable in the control group. We propose a "just-in-time" consent in which consent discussions take place in two stages: an initial consent to research from all participants and a later specific consent to randomized treatment only from those assigned to the experimental intervention...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217132/mobile-phone-sensors-and-supervised-machine-learning-to-identify-alcohol-use-events-in-young-adults-implications-for-just-in-time-adaptive-interventions
#13
Sangwon Bae, Tammy Chung, Denzil Ferreira, Anind K Dey, Brian Suffoletto
BACKGROUND: Real-time detection of drinking could improve timely delivery of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related injury, but existing detection methods are burdensome or impractical. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether phone sensor data and machine learning models are useful to detect alcohol use events, and to discuss implications of these results for just-in-time mobile interventions. METHODS: 38 non-treatment seeking young adult heavy drinkers downloaded AWARE app (which continuously collected mobile phone sensor data), and reported alcohol consumption (number of drinks, start/end time of prior day's drinking) for 28days...
November 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209036/a-universal-3d-voxel-descriptor-for-solid-state-material-informatics-with-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#14
Seiji Kajita, Nobuko Ohba, Ryosuke Jinnouchi, Ryoji Asahi
Material informatics (MI) is a promising approach to liberate us from the time-consuming Edisonian (trial and error) process for material discoveries, driven by machine-learning algorithms. Several descriptors, which are encoded material features to feed computers, were proposed in the last few decades. Especially to solid systems, however, their insufficient representations of three dimensionality of field quantities such as electron distributions and local potentials have critically hindered broad and practical successes of the solid-state MI...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184889/the-conceptualization-of-a-just-in-time-adaptive-intervention-jitai-for-the-reduction-of-sedentary-behavior-in-older-adults
#15
REVIEW
Andre Matthias Müller, Ann Blandford, Lucy Yardley
Low physical activity and high sedentary behavior in older adults can be addressed with interventions that are delivered through modern technology. Just-In-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) are an emerging technology-driven behavior-change intervention type and capitalize on data that is collected via mobile sensing technology (e.g., smartphones) to trigger appropriate support in real-life. In this paper we integrated behavior change and aging theory and research as well as knowledge around older adult's technology use to conceptualize a JITAI targeting the reduction of sedentary behavior in older adults...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174162/moving-skills-training-closer-to-application-in-rotation-skills-curriculum-is-feasible-and-effective
#16
Stephen Haggerty, Tomokazu Kishiki, Michael Ujiki, Chi Wang, Nancy Schindler
PURPOSE: Using simulation can help surgical trainees acquire surgical skills but at the expense of clinical learning time. We postulate an in-rotation skills curriculum is feasible and minimizes time away from clinical experiences. METHODS: Surgical residents (PGY2-5) were allotted two hours of weekly protected time for rotation specific simulation modules that included assessment, mentoring, and practice. Between September 2015 and February 2016 performance data was collected and participants were surveyed...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171333/twelve-tips-for-implementing-effective-service-learning
#17
Denese Playford, Susan Bailey, Colleen Fisher, Ania Stasinska, Lewis Marshall, Michele Gawlinski, Susan Young
Service learning is an educational methodology that facilitates transformation of students' knowledge, attitudes and attitudes around holistic care through work with community organizations. To implement academically, defensible service learning requires faculty endorsement, consideration of course credit, an enthusiastic champion able to negotiate agreements with organizations, organizations' identification of their own projects so they are willing to both fund and supervise them, curricular underpinning that imparts the project skills necessary for success, embedding at a time when students' clinical identity is being formed, small packets of curriculum elements delivered "just in time" as students engage with their project, flexible online platform/s, assessment that is organically related to the project, providing cross cultural up-skilling, and focused on the students' responsibility for their own product...
November 24, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163094/where-are-you-throwing-the-ball-i-better-watch-your-body-not-just-your-arm
#18
Antonella Maselli, Aishwar Dhawan, Benedetta Cesqui, Marta Russo, Francesco Lacquaniti, Andrea d'Avella
The ability to intercept or avoid a moving object, whether to catch a ball, snatch one's prey, or avoid the path of a predator, is a skill that has been acquired throughout evolution by many species in the animal kingdom. This requires processing early visual cues in order to program anticipatory motor responses tuned to the forthcoming event. Here, we explore the nature of the early kinematics cues that could inform an observer about the future direction of a ball projected with an unconstrained overarm throw...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150448/taking-a-goal-centred-dynamic-snapshot-as-a-possibility-for-local-homing-in-initially-na%C3%A3-ve-bumblebees
#19
Anne Lobecke, Roland Kern, Martin Egelhaaf
It is essential for central place foragers, such as bumblebees, to return reliably to their nest. Bumblebees, leaving their inconspicuous nest hole for the first time need to gather and learn sufficient information about their surroundings to allow them to return to their nest at the end of their trip, instead of just flying away to forage. Therefore, we assume an intrinsic learning program that manifests itself in the flight structure immediately after leaving the nest for the first time.In this study, we recorded and analysed the first outbound flight of individually marked naïve bumblebees in an indoor environment...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129536/event-boundaries-trigger-rapid-memory-reinstatement-of-the-prior-events-to-promote-their-representation-in-long-term-memory
#20
Ignasi Sols, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi, Lluís Fuentemilla
Although everyday experiences unfold continuously over time, shifts in context, or event boundaries, can influence how those events come to be represented in memory [1-4]. Specifically, mnemonic binding across sequential representations is more challenging at context shifts, such that successful temporal associations are more likely to be formed within than across contexts [1, 2, 5-9]. However, in order to preserve a subjective sense of continuity, it is important that the memory system bridge temporally adjacent events, even if they occur in seemingly distinct contexts...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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