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Just in time learning

Malinda R Douglas, Jon P Lowry, Latricia A Morgan
Training of practitioners on evidence-based public health has shown to be beneficial, yet overwhelming. Chunking information and proximate practical application are effective techniques to increase retention in adult learning. Evidence-based public health training for practitioners from African American and Hispanic/Latino community agencies and tribes/tribal nations incorporated these 2 techniques. The community-level practitioners alternated attending training and implementing the steps of the evidence-based public health framework as they planned state-funded programs...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Donghuan Lu, Karteek Popuri, Gavin Weiguang Ding, Rakesh Balachandar, Mirza Faisal Beg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with a commonly seen prodromal mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase where memory loss is the main complaint progressively worsening with behavior issues and poor self-care. However, not all individuals clinically diagnosed with MCI progress to AD. A fraction of subjects with MCI either progress to non-AD dementia or remain stable at the MCI stage without progressing to dementia. Although a curative treatment of AD is currently unavailable, it is extremely important to correctly identify the individuals in the MCI phase that will go on to develop AD so that they may benefit from a curative treatment when one becomes available in the near future...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Sarah J Anderson, Kent G Hecker, Olave E Krigolson, Heather A Jamniczky
In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online) meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mauro Zuccarini, Giuseppina Ledonne, Loris Bonetti
AIM: The aim of this study was investigating, analysing and evaluating which aspects of the clinical training would be most useful to newly degreed nurses in carrying out their work activities post-graduation, based on their experience. METHODS: This is a phenomenological qualitative study, with semi-structured, face-to-face, in depth interviews. We used purposive sample. Recruiting of interviewees stopped at achievement of data saturation. Interviews were all audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed in double blind, in order to identify the main themes that emerged...
October 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
Yangyang Ding, Xin Ma, Youqing Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intelligent status monitoring for critically ill patients can help medical stuff quickly discover and assess the changes of disease and then make appropriate treatment strategy. However, general-type monitoring model now widely used is difficult to adapt the changes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients' status due to its fixed pattern, and a more robust, efficient and fast monitoring model should be developed to the individual. METHODS: A data-driven learning approach combining locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) and principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly proposed and applied to monitor the nonlinear process of patients' health status in ICU...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Brent Doiron
The synaptic connectivity of cortex is plastic, with experience shaping the ongoing interactions between neurons. Theoretical studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have focused on either just pairs of neurons or large-scale simulations. A simple analytic account for how fast spike time correlations affect both microscopic and macroscopic network structure is lacking. We develop a low-dimensional mean field theory for STDP in recurrent networks and show the emergence of assemblies of strongly coupled neurons with shared stimulus preferences...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
J Harvey, E S Pearson, P Sanzo, A E Lennon
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that 91% of Canadian children are not engaging in enough physical activity (PA) to achieve health benefits. Physical education (PE) classes have been identified as a way to improve child health by facilitating engagement in movement-based activities. The daily physical activity (DPA) initiative was created with similar intentions and requires that students participate in at least 20 min of PA daily via PE classes and/or during instructional time for other subjects...
February 5, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Jessie Williams
What does it take to light a fire to create cultural change about the way we do death, dying and bereavement in Australia? The GroundSwell Project set out to embark on a bold journey to create cultural change in the death and dying space in Australia. For 7 years we have delivered over 55 arts/health projects and have punched well above our weight. What have we learned about change and innovation? We've learned that we had to set up a fiercely independent organisation, drawing on short term funding so that we were never locked into delivering results that perpetuated 'systemic malaise'...
January 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Marcelo T de Oliveira, Edson Katekawa
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has proved to be an invaluable tool in medicinal chemistry. Data availability at unprecedented levels through various databases have collaborated to a resurgence in the interest for QSAR. In this context, rapid generation of quality predictive models is highly desirable for hit identification and lead optimization. We showcase the application of an automated QSAR approach, which randomly selects multiple training/test sets and utilizes machine-learning algorithms to generate predictive models...
February 1, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Ariffin Marzuki Mokhtar
The future hospital is a resilient, physical learning facility featuring digital enhancement and leveraging an ecosystem of platforms for the Internet of Things (IoT) and analytics, achieving patient-centric care delivery via multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams coordinated to meet patients' medical, psychological, social and economic needs. It exists in a just ecosystem that assimilates the care spectrum from healthy living, the prevention of disease to acute care and the rehabilitation of patients recuperating from illnesses...
October 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Andrew L Skinner, Christopher J Stone, Hazel Doughty, Marcus R Munafò
Introduction: Recent developments in smoking cessation support systems and interventions have highlighted the requirement for unobtrusive, passive ways to measure smoking behaviour. A number of systems have been developed for this that either use bespoke sensing technology, or expensive combinations of wearables and smartphones. Here we present StopWatch, a system for passive detection of cigarette smoking that runs on a low-cost smartwatch and does not require additional sensing or a connected smartphone...
January 24, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Nicole Landi, Jeffrey G Malins, Stephen J Frost, James Magnuson, Peter Molfese, Kayleigh Ryherd, Jay G Rueckl, William E Mencl, Kenneth R Pugh
Word learning depends not only on efficient online binding of phonological, orthographic and lexical information, but also on consolidation of new word representations into permanent lexical memory. Work on word learning under a variety of contexts indicates that reading and language skill impact facility of word learning in both print and speech. In addition, recent research finds that individuals with language impairments show deficits in both initial word form learning and in maintaining newly learned representations over time, implicating mechanisms associated with maintenance that may be driven by deficits in overnight consolidation...
January 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Richard W Burkhardt
When the Muséum d'histoire naturelle in Paris learned in 1836 that it had the chance to buy a live, young orangutan, it was excited by the prospect. Specimens were the focus of the Museum's activities, and this particular specimen seemed especially promising, not only because the Museum had very few orangutan specimens in its collection, but also because of what was perceived to be the orangutan's unique place in the natural order of things, namely, at the very boundary between the animal kingdom and humans...
January 22, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Samina Kausar, Andre O Falcao
BACKGROUND: In-silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based tools are widely used to screen huge databases of compounds in order to determine the biological properties of chemical molecules based on their chemical structure. With the passage of time, the exponentially growing amount of synthesized and known chemicals data demands computationally efficient automated QSAR modeling tools, available to researchers that may lack extensive knowledge of machine learning modeling...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
Hamid Dadkhahi, Benjamin M Marlin
In this paper, we present a new approach to learning cascaded classifiers for use in computing environments that involve networks of heterogeneous and resource-constrained, low-power embedded compute and sensing nodes. We present a generalization of the classical linear detection cascade to the case of tree-structured cascades where different branches of the tree execute on different physical compute nodes in the network. Different nodes have access to different features, as well as access to potentially different computation and energy resources...
August 2017: KDD: Proceedings
Gillian L Vale, Sarah J Davis, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture underpins humanity's enormous success as a species. Claims that other animals are incapable of cultural ratcheting are prevalent, but are founded on just a handful of empirical studies. Whether cumulative culture is unique to humans thus remains a controversial and understudied question that has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the evolution of this phenomenon. We investigated whether one of human's two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees, are capable of a degree of cultural ratcheting by exposing captive populations to a novel juice extraction task...
September 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
Marco Beccaria, Theodore R Mellors, Jacky S Petion, Christiaan A Rees, Mavra Nasir, Hannah K Systrom, Jean W Sairistil, Marc-Antoine Jean-Juste, Vanessa Rivera, Kerline Lavoile, Patrice Severe, Jean W Pape, Peter F Wright, Jane E Hill
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health malady that claims almost 1.8 million lives annually. Diagnosis of TB represents perhaps one of the most challenging aspects of tuberculosis control. Gold standards for diagnosis of active TB (culture and nucleic acid amplification) are sputum-dependent, however, in up to a third of TB cases, an adequate biological sputum sample is not readily available. The analysis of exhaled breath, as an alternative to sputum-dependent tests, has the potential to provide a simple, fast, and non-invasive, and ready-available diagnostic service that could positively change TB detection...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Keith A Lampel, Samuel B Formal, Anthony T Maurelli
The history of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is a long and fascinating one. This brief historical account starts with descriptions of the disease and its impact on human health from ancient time to the present. Our story of the bacterium starts just before the identification of the dysentery bacillus by Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898 and follows the scientific discoveries and principal scientists who contributed to the elucidation of Shigella pathogenesis in the first 100 years. Over the past century, Shigella has proved to be an outstanding model of an invasive bacterial pathogen and has served as a paradigm for the study of other bacterial pathogens...
January 2018: EcoSal Plus
Zitao Liu, Milos Hauskrecht
Building of an accurate predictive model of clinical time series for a patient is critical for understanding of the patient condition, its dynamics, and optimal patient management. Unfortunately, this process is not straightforward. First, patient-specific variations are typically large and population-based models derived or learned from many different patients are often unable to support accurate predictions for each individual patient. Moreover, time series observed for one patient at any point in time may be too short and insufficient to learn a high-quality patient-specific model just from the patient's own data...
November 2017: Proceedings of the ... ACM International Conference on Information & Knowledge Management
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
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