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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210564/more-misinformation-on-breast-cancer-screening
#1
COMMENT
Daniel B Kopans
Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107475/review-and-analysis-of-publication-trends-over-three-decades-in-three-high-impact-medicine-journals
#2
Alexander Ivanov, Beata A Kaczkowska, Saadat A Khan, Jean Ho, Morteza Tavakol, Ashok Prasad, Geetha Bhumireddy, Allan F Beall, Igor Klem, Parag Mehta, William M Briggs, Terrence J Sacchi, John F Heitner
CONTEXT: Over the past three decades, industry sponsored research expanded in the United States. Financial incentives can lead to potential conflicts of interest (COI) resulting in underreporting of negative study results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that over the three decades, there would be an increase in: a) reporting of conflict of interest and source of funding; b) percentage of randomized control trials c) number of patients per study and d) industry funding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103591/searching-the-footprints-of-pioneers-on-neurology-a-bibliometric-analysis
#3
Kang Min Park, Jee-Eun Kim, Yerim Kim, Si Eun Kim, Dae Young Yoon, Jong Seok Bae
BACKGROUND: We identify the most cited articles that have influenced the clinical practices of neurologists. METHODS: We first analyzed the top 100 cited articles published in 50 neurology journals with high impact factors. We collected all of the original articles on clinical neurology published in all 554 medical journals. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science search tools were used to identify the top 100 cited articles in the database of Journal Citation Reports since 1950, which were then manually reviewed to discover their contents...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093443/impact-of-advanced-autonomous-non-medical-practitioners-in-emergency-care-protocol-for-a-scoping-study
#4
Mark Sujan, Hannah Howard-Franks, Garry Swann, Kirsti Soanes, Catherine Pope, Robert Crouch, Sophie Staniszewska, Elaine Maxwell, Huayi Huang, Matthew Cooke
INTRODUCTION: Emergency care services are looking for new models of care delivery to deal with changing patient demographics and increased pressures. It has been suggested that advanced non-medical practitioners might be valuable for delivering such new models of care. However, it is not clear what the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care is. This scoping study addresses the following research question: What is known from the literature about the different types of impact of the deployment of advanced (autonomous) non-medical practitioners in emergency care? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping study will be undertaken to examine and map the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050393/metronomic-chemotherapy-seems-prowess-to-battle-against-cancer-in-current-scenario
#5
Prema Muthusamy, Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary, G K Nalini
INTRODUCTION: Metronomic chemotherapy is an emerging method of chemotherapy. Metronomic 'lowdose' chemotherapy regimen induces tumour dormancy and reduces cancer resistance against anticancer drugs. It tends to improve overall success rate of cancer chemotherapy than conventional cyclical regimen. AIM: The aim of this systemic review was to provide comprehensive data of metronomic chemotherapy trials, regimens used and it's outcome in cancer therapeutics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty chemotherapy trial data were searched sequentially from web...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011448/comparison-of-primary-outcomes-in-protocols-public-clinical-trial-registries-and-publications-the-example-of-oncology-trials
#6
A Perlmutter, V-T Tran, A Dechartres, P Ravaud
BACKGROUND: Protocols are often unavailable to peer-reviewers and readers. To detect outcome reporting bias (ORB), readers usually have to resort to publicly available descriptions of study design such as clinical-trial registries. We compared primary outcomes in protocols, ClinicalTrials.gov and publications of oncology trials and evaluated the use of ClinicalTrials.gov as compared with protocols in detecting discrepancies between planned and published outcomes. METHOD: We searched for phase III oncology trials registered in ClinicalTrials...
December 22, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979724/a-peer-reviewed-instructional-video-is-as-effective-as-a-standard-recorded-didactic-lecture-in-medical-trainees-performing-chest-tube-insertion-a-randomized-control-trial
#7
Tomas J Saun, Scott Odorizzi, Celine Yeung, Marjorie Johnson, Glen Bandiera, Shelly P Dev
OBJECTIVE: Online medical education resources are becoming an increasingly used modality and many studies have demonstrated their efficacy in procedural instruction. This study sought to determine whether a standardized online procedural video is as effective as a standard recorded didactic teaching session for chest tube insertion. DESIGN: A randomized control trial was conducted. Participants were taught how to insert a chest tube with either a recorded didactic teaching session, or a New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) video...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965044/criteria-for-use-of-composite-end-points-for-competing-risks-a-systematic-survey-of-the-literature-with-recommendations
#8
REVIEW
Veena Manja, Siwar AlBashir, Gordon Guyatt
BACKGROUND: Composite end points are frequently used in reports of clinical trials. One rationale for the use of composite end points is to account for competing risks. In the presence of competing risks, the event rate of a specific event depends on the rates of other competing events. One proposed solution is to include all important competing events in one composite end point. Clinical trialists require guidance regarding when this approach is appropriate. OBJECTIVES: To identify publications describing criteria for use of composite end points for competing risk and to offer guidance regarding when a composite end point is appropriate on the basis of competing risks...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858205/statistical-inference-in-abstracts-of-major-medical-and-epidemiology-journals-1975-2014-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Andreas Stang, Markus Deckert, Charles Poole, Kenneth J Rothman
Since its introduction in the twentieth century, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a hybrid of significance testing (ST) advocated by Fisher and null hypothesis testing (NHT) developed by Neyman and Pearson, has become widely adopted but has also been a source of debate. The principal alternative to such testing is estimation with point estimates and confidence intervals (CI). Our aim was to estimate time trends in NHST, ST, NHT and CI reporting in abstracts of major medical and epidemiological journals...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855102/non-inferiority-trials-are-they-inferior-a-systematic-review-of-reporting-in-major-medical-journals
#10
Sunita Rehal, Tim P Morris, Katherine Fielding, James R Carpenter, Patrick P J Phillips
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of reporting of non-inferiority trials alongside the consistency and utility of current recommended analyses and guidelines. DESIGN: Review of randomised clinical trials that used a non-inferiority design published between January 2010 and May 2015 in medical journals that had an impact factor >10 (JAMA Internal Medicine, Archives Internal Medicine, PLOS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757242/no-difference-found-in-time-to-publication-by-statistical-significance-of-trial-results-a-methodological-review
#11
L Jefferson, C Fairhurst, E Cooper, C Hewitt, T Torgerson, L Cook, P Tharmanathan, S Cockayne, D Torgerson
OBJECTIVE: Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. DESIGN: Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637413/reporting-on-data-monitoring-committees-in-neonatal-randomised-controlled-trials-is-inconsistent
#12
L M Perrem, S Gosling, I Ravikumar, A S Khashan, J Miletin, C A Ryan, E Dempsey
AIM: To evaluate the reported use of data monitoring committees (DMCs), the frequency of interim analysis, prespecified stopping rules and early trial termination in neonatal randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We reviewed neonatal RCTs published in four high-impact general medical journals, specifically looking at safety issues including documented involvement of a DMC, stated interim analysis, stopping rules and early trial termination. We searched all journal issues over an 11-year period (2003-2013) and recorded predefined parameters on each item for RCTs meeting inclusion criteria...
January 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617709/sugar-industry-and-coronary-heart-disease-research-a-historical-analysis-of-internal-industry-documents
#13
Cristin E Kearns, Laura A Schmidt, Stanton A Glantz
Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s. We examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. The SRF sponsored its first CHD research project in 1965, a literature review published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which singled out fat and cholesterol as the dietary causes of CHD and downplayed evidence that sucrose consumption was also a risk factor...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608487/vioxx-redux-or-how-i-learned-to-worry-about-industry-sponsored-clinical-trials
#14
James M Brophy
I read with interest Mark Wilson's recent article, "The New England Journal of Medicine: commercial conflict of interest and revisiting the Vioxx scandal". I believe this is an important contribution that underlines the aphorism "Those who don't know history are doomed to repeat it." As Vioxx is a seminal example, it is important to place it in its proper context, examining if this malfeasance extends beyond the VIGOR study. While the epicentre of this conflict of interest surely begins with the sponsor, I believe the following essay demonstrates that this wave of egregiously unethical behaviour can exist and be propagated only with the complicity of academic investigators, medical journals, a flawed peer-review system and an uncritical medical readership...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499481/henry-beecher-s-contributions-to-the-ethics-of-clinical-research
#15
Robert M Veatch
In the 1950s and '60s, Henry Beecher pioneered the discussion of the ethics of clinical research, leading eventually to the publication of the famous New England Journal of Medicine article summarizing 22 research studies that Beecher suggests were unethical. Those studies generally showed a pattern of posing serious risks to subjects without anticipated proportional benefit. Beecher famously claimed that the problem was not that researchers were malicious or evil; rather, he claimed the problem was they manifested thoughtlessness or carelessness...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490462/impact-factors-and-prediction-of-popular-topics-in-a-journal
#16
M B Nielsen, K Seitz
The impact factor (IF) for 2015 was recently released and this could be the time to once again reflect on its use as a metric of a journal. Problems and concerns regarding the IF have been addressed extensively elsewhere 1 2. The principle of the IF for a given year is that it represents the average number of citations of articles published in the journal in the two previous years.While authors frequently cite the IF as a determining factor for submission, the IF does not predict how many times individual articles will be cited...
August 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470506/reporting-quality-of-randomised-controlled-trial-abstracts-among-high-impact-general-medical-journals-a-review-and-analysis
#17
Meredith Hays, Mary Andrews, Ramey Wilson, David Callender, Patrick G O'Malley, Kevin Douglas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts by five high-impact general medical journals and to assess whether the quality of reporting was homogeneous across these journals. DESIGN: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts in five high-impact general medical journals. PARTICIPANTS: We used up to 100 RCT abstracts published between 2011 and 2014 from each of the following journals: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals IM), The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (The BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)...
July 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466238/hundred-top-cited-articles-focusing-on-acute-kidney-injury-a-bibliometric-analysis
#18
Yuan-Hui Liu, Sheng-Qi Wang, Jin-Hua Xue, Yong Liu, Ji-Yan Chen, Guo-Feng Li, Peng-Cheng He, Ning Tan
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health issue, associated with poor short-term and long-term outcomes. Research on AKI is increasing with numerous articles published. However, the quantity and quality of research production in the field of AKI is unclear. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To analyse the characteristics of the most cited articles on AKI and to provide information about achievements and developments in AKI, we searched the Science Citation Index Expanded for citations of AKI articles...
July 27, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299995/the-100-most-cited-articles-in-visceral-surgery-a-systematic-review
#19
Martin Müller, Beat Gloor, Daniel Candinas, Thomas Malinka
BACKGROUND: Even though citation analysis has several limitations, it is a commonly used tool to determine the impact of scientific articles in different research fields. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to identify and systematically review the 100 most cited articles in the field of visceral surgery focusing on papers that modified therapeutic concepts and influenced the surgeons' decision making. METHODS: The 100 most cited clinical articles in visceral surgery were identified using Journal Citation Reports and Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pa...
2016: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238631/assessing-validity-of-observational-intervention-studies-the-benchmarking-controlled-trials
#20
Antti Malmivaara
BACKGROUND: Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. AIMS: To create and pilot test a checklist for appraising methodological validity of a BCT. METHODS: The checklist was created by extracting the most essential elements from the comprehensive set of criteria in the previous paper on BCTs. Also checklists and scientific papers on observational studies and respective systematic reviews were utilized...
September 2016: Annals of Medicine
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