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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858205/statistical-inference-in-abstracts-of-major-medical-and-epidemiology-journals-1975-2014-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Andreas Stang, Markus Deckert, Charles Poole, Kenneth J Rothman
Since its introduction in the twentieth century, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a hybrid of significance testing (ST) advocated by Fisher and null hypothesis testing (NHT) developed by Neyman and Pearson, has become widely adopted but has also been a source of debate. The principal alternative to such testing is estimation with point estimates and confidence intervals (CI). Our aim was to estimate time trends in NHST, ST, NHT and CI reporting in abstracts of major medical and epidemiological journals...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855102/non-inferiority-trials-are-they-inferior-a-systematic-review-of-reporting-in-major-medical-journals
#2
Sunita Rehal, Tim P Morris, Katherine Fielding, James R Carpenter, Patrick P J Phillips
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of reporting of non-inferiority trials alongside the consistency and utility of current recommended analyses and guidelines. DESIGN: Review of randomised clinical trials that used a non-inferiority design published between January 2010 and May 2015 in medical journals that had an impact factor >10 (JAMA Internal Medicine, Archives Internal Medicine, PLOS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757242/no-difference-found-in-time-to-publication-by-statistical-significance-of-trial-results-a-methodological-review
#3
L Jefferson, C Fairhurst, E Cooper, C Hewitt, T Torgerson, L Cook, P Tharmanathan, S Cockayne, D Torgerson
OBJECTIVE: Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. DESIGN: Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637413/reporting-on-data-monitoring-committees-in-neonatal-randomised-controlled-trials-is-inconsistent
#4
L M Perrem, S Gosling, I Ravikumar, A S Khashan, J Miletin, C A Ryan, E Dempsey
AIM: To evaluate the reported use of Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs), the frequency of interim analysis, pre-specified stopping rules and early trial termination in neonatal randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We reviewed neonatal RCTs published in four high impact general medical journals, specifically looking at safety issues including documented involvement of a DMC, stated interim analysis, stopping rules and early trial termination. We searched all journal issues over an 11-year period (2003-2013) and recorded predefined parameters on each item for RCTs meeting inclusion criteria...
September 16, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617709/sugar-industry-and-coronary-heart-disease-research-a-historical-analysis-of-internal-industry-documents
#5
Cristin E Kearns, Laura A Schmidt, Stanton A Glantz
Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s. We examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. The SRF sponsored its first CHD research project in 1965, a literature review published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which singled out fat and cholesterol as the dietary causes of CHD and downplayed evidence that sucrose consumption was also a risk factor...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608487/vioxx-redux-or-how-i-learned-to-worry-about-industry-sponsored-clinical-trials
#6
James M Brophy
I read with interest Mark Wilson's recent article, "The New England Journal of Medicine: commercial conflict of interest and revisiting the Vioxx scandal". I believe this is an important contribution that underlines the aphorism "Those who don't know history are doomed to repeat it." As Vioxx is a seminal example, it is important to place it in its proper context, examining if this malfeasance extends beyond the VIGOR study. While the epicentre of this conflict of interest surely begins with the sponsor, I believe the following essay demonstrates that this wave of egregiously unethical behaviour can exist and be propagated only with the complicity of academic investigators, medical journals, a flawed peer-review system and an uncritical medical readership...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499481/henry-beecher-s-contributions-to-the-ethics-of-clinical-research
#7
Robert M Veatch
In the 1950s and '60s, Henry Beecher pioneered the discussion of the ethics of clinical research, leading eventually to the publication of the famous New England Journal of Medicine article summarizing 22 research studies that Beecher suggests were unethical. Those studies generally showed a pattern of posing serious risks to subjects without anticipated proportional benefit. Beecher famously claimed that the problem was not that researchers were malicious or evil; rather, he claimed the problem was they manifested thoughtlessness or carelessness...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490462/impact-factors-and-prediction-of-popular-topics-in-a-journal
#8
M B Nielsen, K Seitz
The impact factor (IF) for 2015 was recently released and this could be the time to once again reflect on its use as a metric of a journal. Problems and concerns regarding the IF have been addressed extensively elsewhere 1 2. The principle of the IF for a given year is that it represents the average number of citations of articles published in the journal in the two previous years.While authors frequently cite the IF as a determining factor for submission, the IF does not predict how many times individual articles will be cited...
August 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470506/reporting-quality-of-randomised-controlled-trial-abstracts-among-high-impact-general-medical-journals-a-review-and-analysis
#9
Meredith Hays, Mary Andrews, Ramey Wilson, David Callender, Patrick G O'Malley, Kevin Douglas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts by five high-impact general medical journals and to assess whether the quality of reporting was homogeneous across these journals. DESIGN: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts in five high-impact general medical journals. PARTICIPANTS: We used up to 100 RCT abstracts published between 2011 and 2014 from each of the following journals: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals IM), The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (The BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)...
July 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466238/hundred-top-cited-articles-focusing-on-acute-kidney-injury-a-bibliometric-analysis
#10
Yuan-Hui Liu, Sheng-Qi Wang, Jin-Hua Xue, Yong Liu, Ji-Yan Chen, Guo-Feng Li, Peng-Cheng He, Ning Tan
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health issue, associated with poor short-term and long-term outcomes. Research on AKI is increasing with numerous articles published. However, the quantity and quality of research production in the field of AKI is unclear. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To analyse the characteristics of the most cited articles on AKI and to provide information about achievements and developments in AKI, we searched the Science Citation Index Expanded for citations of AKI articles...
July 27, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299995/the-100-most-cited-articles-in-visceral-surgery-a-systematic-review
#11
Martin Müller, Beat Gloor, Daniel Candinas, Thomas Malinka
BACKGROUND: Even though citation analysis has several limitations, it is a commonly used tool to determine the impact of scientific articles in different research fields. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to identify and systematically review the 100 most cited articles in the field of visceral surgery focusing on papers that modified therapeutic concepts and influenced the surgeons' decision making. METHODS: The 100 most cited clinical articles in visceral surgery were identified using Journal Citation Reports and Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pa...
2016: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238631/assessing-validity-of-observational-intervention-studies-the-benchmarking-controlled-trials
#12
Antti Malmivaara
BACKGROUND: Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. AIMS: To create and pilot test a checklist for appraising methodological validity of a BCT. METHODS: The checklist was created by extracting the most essential elements from the comprehensive set of criteria in the previous paper on BCTs. Also checklists and scientific papers on observational studies and respective systematic reviews were utilized...
May 29, 2016: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087576/doubly-blind-a-systematic-review-of-gender-in-randomised-controlled-trials
#13
Susan P Phillips, Katarina Hamberg
BACKGROUND: Although observational data show social characteristics such as gender or socio-economic status to be strong predictors of health, their impact is seldom investigated in randomised controlled studies (RCTs). OBJECTIVE & DESIGN: Using a random sample of recent RCTs from high-impact journals, we examined how the most often recorded social characteristic, sex/gender, is considered in design, analysis, and interpretation. Of 712 RCTs published from September 2008 to 31 December 2013 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Canadian Medical Association Journal, or New England Journal of Medicine, we randomly selected 57 to analyse funding, methods, number of centres, documentation of social circumstances, inclusion/exclusion criteria, proportions of women/men, and reporting about sex/gender in analyses and discussion...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046243/update-in-outpatient-general-internal-medicine-practice-changing-evidence-published-in-2015
#14
REVIEW
Jason H Szostek, Mark L Wieland, Jason A Post, Karna K Sundsted, Karen F Mauck
Identifying new practice-changing articles is challenging. To determine the 2015 practice-changing articles most relevant to outpatient general internal medicine, 3 internists independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of original articles, synopses of single studies and syntheses, and databases of syntheses. For original articles, internal medicine journals with the 7 highest impact factors were reviewed: New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), British Medical Journal, Public Library of Science Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and JAMA Internal Medicine...
August 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043258/empagliflozin-reduces-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-in-type-2-diabetes
#15
Robert Guthrie
Review of: Zinnam, B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, et al. Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015; 373: 2117-2128. Patients were required to have a history of established cardiovascular disease, along with Type 2 Diabetes but were either not on antidiabetic therapy for the preceding 12 weeks, with a glycated hemoglobin level between 7% and 9%, or were on stable antidiabetic therapy for the preceding 12 weeks, with a glycated hemoglobin between 7...
May 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26980317/cardiac-mri-and-ischemic-heart-disease-role-in-diagnosis-and-risk-stratification
#16
REVIEW
Rahul N Sawlani, Jeremy D Collins
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has been under development for the past four decades and has more recently become an essential tool in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is the reference standard for quantification of both right and left ventricular volume and function and, after landmark work published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2000, has proven effective in identifying hibernating myocardium, or hypokinetic myocardium that will recover after revascularization. More recent literature continues to support both delayed enhancement imaging and CMRI stress perfusion as essential tools in evaluating IHD...
May 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974846/vitamin-d-and-cancer-does-it-really-matter
#17
Mariana Scaranti, Gilberto de Castro Júnior, Ana Oliveira Hoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a background for an evidence-based decision regarding the prescription of vitamin D for cancer prevention and improvement of outcomes in oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2014, Feldman and colleagues published a review suggesting a beneficial role for vitamin D in cancer development. In the same year, a Cochrane meta-analysis that included 18 randomized clinical trials comparing vitamin D administration versus no intervention in healthy population found no difference regarding cancer incidence between the groups...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880610/microsatellite-instability-as-a-biomarker-for-pd-1-blockade
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan C Dudley, Ming-Tseh Lin, Dung T Le, James R Eshleman
Initial results by Le and colleagues, which were published in the June 25, 2015 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, report significant responses of cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI) to anti-PD-1 inhibitors in patients who failed conventional therapy. This finding fits into a broader body of research associating somatic hypermutation and neoepitope formation with response to immunotherapy, with the added benefit of relying on a simple, widely used diagnostic test. This review surveys the pathogenesis and prognostic value of MSI, diagnostic guidelines for detecting it, and the frequency of MSI across tumors, with the goal of providing a reference for its use as a biomarker for PD-1 blockade...
February 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510726/identifying-low-value-clinical-practices-in-critical-care-medicine-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#19
REVIEW
Daniel J Niven, T Jared McCormick, Sharon E Straus, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Lianne P Jeffs, Henry T Stelfox
INTRODUCTION: Reducing unnecessary, low-value clinical practice (ie, de-adoption) is key to improving value for money in healthcare, especially among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) where resource consumption exceeds other medical and surgical populations. Research suggests that low-value clinical practices are common in medicine, however systematically and objectively identifying them is a widely cited barrier to de-adoption. We will conduct a scoping review to identify low-value clinical practices in adult critical care medicine that are candidates for de-adoption...
2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448046/statistical-use-in-clinical-studies-is-there-evidence-of-a-methodological-shift
#20
Dali Yi, Dihui Ma, Gaoming Li, Liang Zhou, Qin Xiao, Yanqi Zhang, Xiaoyu Liu, Hongru Chen, Julia Christine Pettigrew, Dong Yi, Ling Liu, Yazhou Wu
BACKGROUND: Several studies indicate that the statistical education model and level in medical training fails to meet the demands of clinicians, especially when they want to understand published clinical research. We investigated how study designs and statistical methods in clinical studies have changed in the last twenty years, and we identified the current trends in study designs and statistical methods in clinical studies. METHODS: We reviewed 838 eligible clinical study articles that were published in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in four journals New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association and Nature Medicine...
2015: PloS One
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