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Evidence-base medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164483/dosimetry-based-treatment-planning-for-molecular-radiotherapy-a-summary-of-the-2017-report-from-the-internal-dosimetry-task-force
#1
Caroline Stokke, Pablo Minguez Gabiña, Pavel Solný, Francesco Cicone, Mattias Sandström, Katarina Sjögreen Gleisner, Carlo Chiesa, Emiliano Spezi, Maria Paphiti, Mark Konijnenberg, Matt Aldridge, Jill Tipping, Michael Wissmeyer, Boudewijn Brans, Klaus Bacher, Carsten Kobe, Glenn Flux
BACKGROUND: The European directive on basic safety standards (Council directive 2013/59 Euratom) mandates dosimetry-based treatment planning for radiopharmaceutical therapies. The directive comes into operation February 2018, and the aim of a report produced by the Internal Dosimetry Task Force of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine is to address this aspect of the directive. A summary of the report is presented. RESULTS: A brief review of five of the most common therapy procedures is included in the current text, focused on the potential to perform patient-specific dosimetry...
November 21, 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164163/neurocognitive-deficits-of-concussed-adolescent-athletes-at-self-reported-symptom-resolution-in-the-zurich-guidelines-era
#2
Peter K Kriz, Rebekah Mannix, Alex M Taylor, Danielle Ruggieri, William P Meehan
Background: Previous studies have evaluated high school and collegiate athletes in the pre-Zurich guidelines era; whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar neurocognitive decrements in the current concussion management era remains unclear. Purpose: To assess for the presence of neurocognitive deficits in adolescents with a sport-related concussion at the time of self-reported symptom resolution. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164047/cost-of-tuberculosis-treatment-evidence-from-iran-s-health-system
#3
Vahid Bay, Payam Tabarsi, Aziz Rezapour, Sima Marzban, Ehsan Zarei
Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the cost of smear-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) treatment of the patients in the Azadshahr district, Golestan Province, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, all new smear positive pulmonary TB patients who had been registered at the district's health network between April, 2013 and December, 2015 and had successfully completed their treatment were entered into the study (45 patients). Treatment costs were estimated from the provider's perspective using an activity-based costing (ABC) method...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164037/guidelines-for-the-management-of-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy-and-acute-spinal-cord-injury-development-process-and-methodology
#4
Lindsay A Tetreault, Andrea C Skelly, Joseph R Dettori, Jefferson R Wilson, Allan R Martin, Michael G Fehlings
The Institute of Medicine defines clinical practice guidelines as "statements that include recommendations intended to optimize patient care that are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefits and harms of alternative care options." Guidelines help clinicians implement best evidence into practice and encourage informed shared decision making with patients. Guidelines are intended to enhance the quality of patient care by discouraging ineffective and potentially harmful interventions and standardizing practice...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163061/cyclodextrins-and-iatrogenic-hearing-loss-new-drugs-with-significant-risk
#5
REVIEW
Mark A Crumling, Kelly A King, R Keith Duncan
Cyclodextrins are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with widespread usage in medicine, industry and basic sciences owing to their ability to solubilize and stabilize guest compounds. In medicine, cyclodextrins primarily act as a complexing vehicle and consequently serve as powerful drug delivery agents. Recently, uncomplexed cyclodextrins have emerged as potent therapeutic compounds in their own right, based on their ability to sequester and mobilize cellular lipids. In particular, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has garnered attention because of its cholesterol chelating properties, which appear to treat a rare neurodegenerative disorder and to promote atherosclerosis regression related to stroke and heart disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162756/integrating-medical-biostatistics-into-postgraduate-medical-curriculum
#6
Tatjana M Ille, Ramprasad Muthukrishnan, Mihailo E Ille
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of biostatistics is important for a health professional to understand research methods, analyse new information presented in scientific journals and to assess its relevance for their clinical practice. METHODS: We discuss the implementation of biostatistics in medical curricula, give perspectives on medical education in India, and narrate our own experience of integration of biostatistics into the medical curriculum. RESULTS: Biostatistics is still not a part of all postgraduate curricula in spite of its growing importance for all medical practitioners in the 21st century...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162565/towards-evidence-based-medicine-for-paediatricians
#7
Bob Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162138/predictability-of-the-effects-of-facet-joint-infiltration-in-the-degenerate-lumbar-spine-when-assessing-mri-scans
#8
Ulf Krister Hofmann, Ramona Luise Keller, Christian Walter, Falk Mittag
BACKGROUND: Imaging results are frequently considered as hallmarks of disease by spine surgeons to plan their future treatment strategy. Numerous classification systems have been proposed to quantify or grade lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and thus objectify imaging findings. The clinical impact of the measured parameters remains, however, unclear. To evaluate the pathological significance of imaging findings in patients with multisegmental degenerative findings, clinicians can perform image-guided local infiltrations to target defined areas such as the facet joints...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162047/treatment-recommendations-within-the-leeway-of-clinical-guidelines-a-qualitative-interview-study-on-oncologists-clinical-deliberation
#9
I Otte, S Salloch, A Reinacher-Schick, J Vollmann
BACKGROUND: Recommending the optimal treatment for an individual patient requires a well-balanced consideration of various medical, social and ethical factors. The interplay of these factors, interpretation of the patient's situation and understanding of the existing clinical guidelines can lead to divergent therapy recommendations, depending on the attending physician. Gaining a better understanding of the individual process of medical decision-making and the differences occurring will support the delivery of optimal individualized care within the clinical setting...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161429/crosstalk-between-the-microbiome-and-epigenome-messages-from-bugs
#10
Yufeng Qin, Paul A Wade
Mammals exist in a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to have broad impacts on host health and disease. As omics-based technologies have matured, the potential mechanisms by which the microbiome affects host physiology are being addressed. The gut microbiome, which provides environmental cues, can modify host cell responses to stimuli through alterations in the host epigenome and, ultimately, gene expression. Increasing evidence highlights microbial generation of bioactive compounds that impact the transcriptional machinery in host cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161267/sugar-industry-sponsorship-of-germ-free-rodent-studies-linking-sucrose-to-hyperlipidemia-and-cancer-an-historical-analysis-of-internal-documents
#11
Cristin E Kearns, Dorie Apollonio, Stanton A Glantz
In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157839/lifestyles-guide-and-glaucoma-i-sports-and-activities
#12
J Moreno-Montañés, A Antón-López, S Duch-Tuesta, P Corsino Fernández-Vila, J García-Feijoó, E Millá-Griñó, F J Muñoz-Negrete, L Pablo-Júlvez, I Rodríguez-Agirretxe, J L Urcelay-Segura, F Ussa-Herrera, M P Villegas-Pérez
PURPOSES: The increase in quality and life expectancy, often leads to many patients asking the glaucoma specialist whether some sports, activities or hobbies would affect their illness. The aim of this article is to establish guidelines for patients, based on the scientific evidence of published papers. METHODS: Review of all published articles on glaucoma and sports or other activities. The papers were classified according to the level of scientific evidence based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine classification...
November 17, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157239/does-faculty-development-influence-the-quality-of-in-training-evaluation-reports-in-pharmacy
#13
Kerry Wilbur
BACKGROUND: In-training evaluation reports (ITERs) of student workplace-based learning are completed by clinical supervisors across various health disciplines. However, outside of medicine, the quality of submitted workplace-based assessments is largely uninvestigated. This study assessed the quality of ITERs in pharmacy and whether clinical supervisors could be trained to complete higher quality reports. METHODS: A random sample of ITERs submitted in a pharmacy program during 2013-2014 was evaluated...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157096/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-the-mozart-effect-on-childhood-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#14
Dana E Brackney, Jessica L Brooks
This systematic review examines the effectiveness of Mozart's music in decreasing seizures in children with epilepsy (Mozart Effect) using the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice rating scale(©). A search for articles with "Mozart Effect," "child*," and "epilepsy" was conducted in CINAHL Complete, Science Direct, Cochrane, and PubMed databases. Eight studies were selected based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria after removal of duplicates ( n = 17) and others ( n = 46). Studies included were English language, peer reviewed, published between April 2010 and February 2017, and available in full text with an abstract...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156742/prmda-personalized-recommendation-based-mirna-disease-association-prediction
#15
Zhu-Hong You, Luo-Pin Wang, Xing Chen, Shanwen Zhang, Xiao-Fang Li, Gui-Ying Yan, Zheng-Wei Li
Recently, researchers have been increasingly focusing on microRNAs (miRNAs) with accumulating evidence indicating that miRNAs serve as a vital role in various biological processes and dysfunctions of miRNAs are closely related with human complex diseases. Predicting potential associations between miRNAs and diseases is attached considerable significance in the domains of biology, medicine, and bioinformatics. In this study, we developed a computational model of Personalized Recommendation-based MiRNA-Disease Association prediction (PRMDA) to predict potential related miRNA for all diseases by implementing personalized recommendation-based algorithm based on integrated similarity for diseases and miRNAs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156546/systematic-review-of-epigenetic-effects-of-pharmacological-agents-for-bipolar-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Laura E Lockwood, Nagy A Youssef
Epigenetic effects of medications are an evolving field of medicine, and can change the landscape of drug development. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the literature of the relationship between common medications used for treatment of bipolar disorders and epigenetic modifications. MedLine/PubMed searches were performed based on pre-specified inclusion criteria from inception to November 2017. Six animal and human studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined the epigenetic changes in the main classes of medications that are used in bipolar disorders, namely mood stabilizers and antipsychotics...
November 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156540/the-new-old-and-old-new-medical-model-four-decades-navigating-the-biomedical-and-psychosocial-understandings-of-health-and-illness
#17
REVIEW
Albert Farre, Tim Rapley
The importance of how disease and illness are conceptualised lies in the fact that such definition is paramount to understand the boundaries and scope of responsibility associated with medical work. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the interplay of these understandings in shaping the nature of medical work, philosophically, and in practice. We first discuss the emergence of the biopsychosocial model as an attempt to both challenge and broaden the traditional biomedical model. Then, we outline the main criticisms associated with the biopsychosocial model and note a range of contributions addressing the shortcomings of the model as initially formulated...
November 18, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155376/smartphone-apps-meet-evidence-based-medicine-the-future-of-medicine-may-or-may-not-be-in-your-smartphone
#18
Kenneth R Foster, David J Callans
"The future of medicine is in your smartphone," proclaimed an eminent medical researcher in a 2015 Wall Street Journal essay. In a sense, that future has already arrived, judging from the proliferation of apps and medical devices now connected to smartphones. One 2015 industry study identified more than 165,000 health-related smartphone apps available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. But to what extent does this technology lead to improved patient outcomes? That question is one for evidence-based medicine, to be answered by clinical trials and systematic reviews by medical experts...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155312/designing-clinical-studies-in-orthopedic-traumatology
#19
REVIEW
D M Rouleau
The design of clinical studies in orthopedic traumatology is challenging in several respects. In this era of evidence-based medicine, the pressure is high to choose our treatments solely based on randomized controlled studies. This type of study, when well-constructed, makes it possible to discern the best treatment for a specific fracture in a given group of patients and in connection with a specific outcome. Randomized controlled trials require a lot of resources and are not designed to answer all research questions...
November 16, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154064/living-with-chronic-pain-evaluating-patient-experiences-with-a-medical-group-visit-focused-on-mindfulness-and-non-pharmacological-strategies
#20
Anna Sophia Lestoquoy, Lance D Laird, Suzanne Mitchell, Katherine Gergen-Barnett, N Lily Negash, Kelly McCue, Racquel Enad, Paula Gardiner
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the acceptance of non-pharmacological group strategies delivered to low income racially diverse patients with chronic pain and depression. This paper examines how the Integrative Medical Group Visit (IMGV) addresses many of the deficits identified with usual care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Six IMGVs cohorts were held at a safety net hospital and two federally funded community health centres. Data was gathered through focus groups. Transcripts were analysed using both a priori codes and inductive coding...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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