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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550008/prioritizing-measures-of-digital-patient-engagement-a-delphi-expert-panel-study
#1
Lynn A Garvin, Steven R Simon
BACKGROUND: Establishing a validated scale of patient engagement through use of information technology (ie, digital patient engagement) is the first step to understanding its role in health and health care quality, outcomes, and efficient implementation by health care providers and systems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and prioritize measures of digital patient engagement based on patients' use of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)'s MyHealtheVet (MHV) portal, focusing on the MHV/Blue Button and Secure Messaging functions...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549759/-smile-away-your-cravings-facial-feedback-modulates-cue-induced-food-cravings
#2
Jennifer Schmidt, Alexandra Martin
Food cravings are common experiences that precede dysfunctional eating behaviors, such as overeating and binge eating. These cravings are often related to negative affect, especially in emotional eaters. Recent studies have revived interest in a theory on the implicit modulation of affect: the facial feedback-hypothesis. This theory claims that mimic expressions influence affective experiences. Given the association between negative affect and food craving, facial feedback could provide a means to reduce or prevent food cravings...
May 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549214/griffith-criterion-for-nanoscale-stress-singularity-in-brittle-silicon
#3
Takashi Sumigawa, Takahiro Shimada, Shuuhei Tanaka, Hiroki Unno, Naoki Ozaki, Shinsaku Ashida, Takayuki Kitamura
Brittle materials such as silicon fail via the crack nucleation and propagation, which is characterized by the singular stress field formed near the crack tip according to Griffith or fracture mechanics theory. The applicability of these continuum-based theories is, however, uncertain and questionable in nanoscale system due to its extremely small singular stress field of only a few nanometers. Here, we directly characterize the mechanical behavior of a nano-crack via the development of in situ nanomechanical testing using a transmission electron microscope, and demonstrate that Griffith or fracture mechanics theory can be applied to even 4-nm stress singularity despite their continuum-based concept...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548847/simulating-the-electronic-circular-dichroism-spectra-of-photo-reversible-peptide-conformations
#4
Hugo Gattuso, Cristina García-Iriepa, Diego Sampedro, Antonio Monari, Marco Marazzi
Electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of peptides is one of the most important experimental char-acterization tools to get insights regarding their structure. Nevertheless, even though highly useful, the reliable simulations of CD spectra result in a complex task. Here, we propose a combination of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods with a semi-empirical Hamiltonian based on the Frankel excitons theory to efficiently describe the behavior of a 27-amino acid α-helical peptide in water...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548829/fused-pentagon-configuration-dependent-electron-transfer-of-monotitanium-encapsulated-fullerenes
#5
Jing-Shuang Dang, Wei-Wei Wang, Jia-Jia Zheng, Xiang Zhao, Shigeru Nagase
We introduce monotitanium-based endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) using density functional theory calculations. Isomeric C64 fullerenes are initially employed as hosts, and Ti@C64 species show novel features on the electronic structures. Energetically, the preference of titanium residing on triple-fused-pentagon subunits is proposed in theory. More importantly, different from current knowledge on mono-EMFs, electron transfer between titanium and carbon cages is not unified but is essentially dependent on the pentagon distribution of the binding sites, giving rise to variations of the cationic titanium of Ti@C64...
May 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548609/a-pilot-study-to-validate-measures-of-the-theory-of-reasoned-action-for-organ-donation-behavior
#6
Shui Hung Wong, Amy Yin Man Chow
The present study aimed at taking the first attempt in validating the measures generated based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). A total of 211 university students participated in the study, 95 were included in the exploratory factor analysis and 116 were included in the confirmatory factor analysis. The TRA measurements were established with adequate psychometric properties, internal consistency and construct validity. Findings also suggested that attitude towards organ donation has both a cognitive and affective nature, while the subjective norm of the family seems to be important to students' views on organ donation...
May 26, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548528/typical-relaxation-of-isolated-many-body-systems-which-do-not-thermalize
#7
Ben N Balz, Peter Reimann
We consider isolated many-body quantum systems which do not thermalize; i.e., expectation values approach an (approximately) steady longtime limit which disagrees with the microcanonical prediction of equilibrium statistical mechanics. A general analytical theory is worked out for the typical temporal relaxation behavior in such cases. The main prerequisites are initial conditions which appreciably populate many energy levels and do not give rise to significant spatial inhomogeneities on macroscopic scales...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547681/exploratory-behaviors-and-recalibration-what-processes-are-shared-between-functionally-similar-affordances
#8
John M Franchak
Recalibration of affordance perception allows observers to adapt to changes in the body's size or abilities that alter possibilities for action. Of key interest is understanding how exploratory behaviors lead to successful recalibration. The present study was designed to test a novel hypothesis-that the same processes of exploration and recalibration should generalize between affordances that share a similar function. Most affordances for fitting the body through openings are recalibrated without feedback from practicing the action; locomotion exploration is sufficient...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546650/samango-monkeys-cercopithecus-albogularis-labiatus-manage-risk-in-a-highly-seasonal-human-modified-landscape-in-amathole-mountains-south-africa
#9
Katarzyna Nowak, Kirsten Wimberger, Shane A Richards, Russell A Hill, Aliza le Roux
Wild species use habitats that vary in risk across space and time. This risk can derive from natural predators and also from direct and indirect human pressures. A starving forager will often take risks that a less hungry forager would not. At a highly seasonal and human-modified site, we predicted that arboreal samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) would show highly flexible, responsive, risk-sensitive foraging. We first determined how monkeys use horizontal and vertical space across seasons to evaluate if high-risk decisions (use of gardens and ground) changed with season, a proxy for starvation risk...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545844/rise-and-fall-of-the-two-visual-systems-theory
#10
Yves Rossetti, Laure Pisella, Robert D McIntosh
Among the many dissociations describing the visual system, the dual theory of two visual systems, respectively dedicated to perception and action, has yielded a lot of support. There are psychophysical, anatomical and neuropsychological arguments in favor of this theory. Several behavioral studies that used sensory and motor psychophysical parameters observed differences between perceptive and motor responses. The anatomical network of the visual system in the non-human primate was very readily organized according to two major pathways, dorsal and ventral...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545493/three-approaches-to-glucose-monitoring-in-non-insulin-treated-diabetes-a-pragmatic-randomized-clinical-trial-protocol
#11
Laura A Young, John B Buse, Mark A Weaver, Maihan B Vu, April Reese, C Madeline Mitchell, Tamara Blakeney, Kimberlea Grimm, Jennifer Rees, Katrina E Donahue
BACKGROUND: For the nearly 75% of patients living with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) that do not use insulin, decisions regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) can be especially problematic. While in theory SMBG holds great promise for sparking favorable behavior change, it is a resource intensive activity without firmly established patient benefits. This study describes our study protocol to assess the impact of three different SMBG testing approaches on patient-centered outcomes in patients with non-insulin treated T2DM within a community-based, clinic setting...
May 25, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544860/behavioral-processes-in-long-lag-intervention-studies
#12
Dale T Miller, Jennifer E Dannals, Julian J Zlatev
We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541240/homosexuality-according-to-ancient-greek-physicians
#13
K Laios, M M Moschos, E Koukaki, M-I Kontaxaki, G Androutsos
Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541088/-when-risk-communication-backfires-randomized-controlled-trial-on-self-affirmation-and-reactance-to-personalized-risk-feedback-in-high-risk-individuals-correction-to-sch%C3%A3-z-sch%C3%A3-z-and-eid-2013
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "When risk communication backfires: Randomized controlled trial on self-affirmation and reactance to personalized risk feedback in high-risk individuals" by Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz and Michael Eid (Health Psychology, 2013[May], Vol 32[5], 561-570). Several errors appear in the data in the Results section. The corrected information is provided. It is noted that, in all cases, the statistical conclusions remain the same. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-14977-010...
June 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541077/why-would-i-help-my-coworker-exploring-asymmetric-task-dependence-and-the-self-determination-theory-internalization-process
#15
Christopher Poile
Research on power suggests asymmetric task dependence (sending work resources to a coworker and receiving little in return) should create a power imbalance and promote selfishness. In contrast, work design theory suggests asymmetry can lead to felt responsibility, but this link has not been tested and its theory remains underdeveloped. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this article argues that work design characteristics can encourage the SDT internalization process-the transformation of external reasons for behavior into internal reasons...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539904/the-neural-systems-of-forgiveness-an-evolutionary-psychological-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Joseph Billingsley, Elizabeth A R Losin
Evolution-minded researchers posit that the suite of human cognitive adaptations may include forgiveness systems. According to these researchers, forgiveness systems regulate interpersonal motivation toward a transgressor in the wake of harm by weighing multiple factors that influence both the potential gains of future interaction with the transgressor and the likelihood of future harm. Although behavioral research generally supports this evolutionary model of forgiveness, the model's claims have not been examined with available neuroscience specifically in mind, nor has recent neuroscientific research on forgiveness generally considered the evolutionary literature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539895/individual-difference-variables-and-the-occurrence-and-effectiveness-of-faking-behavior-in-interviews
#17
Anne-Kathrin Buehl, Klaus G Melchers
There is widespread fear that applicants can fake during selection interviews and that this impairs the quality of selection decisions. Several theories assume that faking occurrence is influenced by personality and attitudes, which together influence applicants' motivation to show faking behavior. However, for faking behavior to be effective, interviewees also need certain skills and abilities. To investigate the impact of several relevant individual difference variables on faking behavior and interview success, we conducted two studies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539645/the-inherent-vice-in-the-anti-angiogenic-theory-may-cause-the-highly-metastatic-cancer-to-spread-more-aggressively
#18
Denian Wang, Chun Tan, Fei Xiao, Lan Zou, Lijun Wang, Yong'gang Wei, Hanshuo Yang, Wei Zhang
Although anti-angiogenic (AA) therapy is widely used in clinical practice, it is often challenged by insufficient efficacy and intrinsic resistance. Some studies have reported that AA therapy can even increase tumor metastasis. However, whether this is due to a specific AA drug causing a specific tumor to metastasize or because the anti-angiogenic theory has some "inherent vice" that may inevitably lead to tumor dissemination remains a mystery. Herein, we designed a model that completely blocks tumor blood supply using a physical barrier to examine tumor behavior in such circumstances...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539425/perceptual-competition-promotes-suppression-of-reward-salience-in-behavioral-selection-and-neural-representation
#19
Mengyuan Gong, Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Visual attentional selection is influenced by the value of objects. Previous studies have demonstrated that reward-associated items lead to rapid distraction and associated behavioral costs, which are difficult to override with top-down control. However, it has not been determined whether a perceptually competitive environment could render the reward-driven distraction more susceptible to top-down suppression. Here, we trained both genders of human subjects to associate two orientations with high and low magnitudes of reward...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538871/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-interventions-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Larissa Lyra, Luiz Eduardo Rizzo, Camila Sá Sunahara, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
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