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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457978/size-dependent-thermodynamics-and-kinetics-of-adsorption-on-nanoparticles-a-theoretical-and-experimental-study
#1
Zixiang Cui, Juan Zhang, Yongqiang Xue, Huijuan Duan
Owing to their excellent adsorption properties compared with those of the corresponding bulk materials, nanoparticles have been widely applied in many fields. Their properties depend on the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption, which depend on the particle size. In this paper, we present universal theories of the thermodynamics and kinetics for nano-adsorption that have been developed over the past few years. Theoretically, we have derived relationships between the adsorption thermodynamic properties and the particle size, as well as those between the adsorption kinetic parameters and the particle size...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457330/modeling-suicide-in-bipolar-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Grace Morris, Amber Hamilton, Zola Mannie
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence...
February 19, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455864/social-influence-on-positive-youth-development-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#3
Eva H Telzer, Jorien van Hoorn, Christina R Rogers, Kathy T Do
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455370/incomplete-copolymer-degradation-of-in-situ-chemotherapy
#4
Pierre Bourdillon, Tanguy Boissenot, Lauriane Goldwirt, Julien Nicolas, Caroline Apra, Alexandre Carpentier
In situ carmustine wafers containing 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma to overcome the brain-blood barrier. In theory, this chemotherapy diffuses into the adjacent parenchyma and the excipient degrades in maximum 8 weeks but no clinical data confirms this evolution, because patients are rarely operated again. A 75-year-old patient was operated twice for recurrent glioblastoma, and a carmustine wafer was implanted during the second surgery...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455104/sio-2-laof-eu-3-core-shell-functional-nanomaterials-for-sensitive-visualization-of-latent-fingerprints-and-wled-applications
#5
C Suresh, H Nagabhushana, R B Basavaraj, G P Darshan, D Kavyashree, B Daruka Prasad, S C Sharma, R Vanithamani
For the first time, intense red color composite of SiO2 @LaOF:Eu3+ core-shell nanostructures (NS) were fabricated via facile solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. The obtained core-shell particles display better spherical shape and non-agglomeration with a narrow size distribution. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra exhibits intense peaks at ∼593 nm, 611 nm, 650 nm corresponds to5 D0 → 7 FJ (J = 0, 1 and 2) Eu3+ transitions respectively. The spectral intensity parameters and Eu-O ligand behaviors are estimated by means of Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454389/recruitment-of-racial-and-ethnic-minorities-to-clinical-trials-conducted-within-specialty-clinics-an-intervention-mapping-approach
#6
Rossybelle P Amorrortu, Mariana Arevalo, Sally W Vernon, Arch G Mainous, Vanessa Diaz, M Diane McKee, Marvella E Ford, Barbara C Tilley
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to increase diversity in clinical trials, racial/ethnic minority groups generally remain underrepresented, limiting researchers' ability to test the efficacy and safety of new interventions across diverse populations. We describe the use of a systematic framework, intervention mapping (IM), to develop an intervention to modify recruitment behaviors of coordinators and specialist investigators with the goal of increasing diversity in trials conducted within specialty clinics...
February 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454251/uv-absorption-spectrum-of-allene-radical-cations-in-solid-argon
#7
Chih-Hao Chin, Meng-Yeh Lin, Tzu-Ping Huang, Yu-Jong Wu
Electron bombardment during deposition of an Ar matrix containing a small proportion of allene generated allene cations. Further irradiation of the matrix sample at 385 nm destroyed the allene cations and formed propyne cations in solid Ar. Both cations were identified according to previously reported IR absorption bands. Using a similar technique, we recorded the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of allene cations in solid Ar. The vibrationally resolved progression recorded in the range of 266-237 nm with intervals of about 800 cm -1 was assigned to the A 2 E ← X 2 E transition of allene cations, and the broad continuum absorption recorded in the region of 229-214 nm was assigned to their B 2 A 1 ← X 2 E transition...
February 8, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453843/behavioral-economics-and-the-public-acceptance-of-synthetic-biology
#8
Adam Oliver
Different applications of synthetic biology are alike in that their possible negative consequences are highly uncertain, potentially catastrophic, and perhaps irreversible; therefore, they are also alike in that public attitudes about them are fertile ground for behavioral economic phenomena. Findings from behavioral economics suggest that people may not respond to such applications according to the normal rules of economic evaluation, by which the value of an outcome is multiplied by the mathematical probability that the outcome will occur...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453758/theoretical-study-on-the-optical-response-behavior-to-hydrogen-chloride-gas-of-a-series-of-schiff-base-based-star-shaped-structures
#9
Fei Wang, Tianhong Qi, Zhongmin Su, Yuzhong Xie
Schiff-base compounds have many applications in the field of optoelectronic materials and chemical sensing because of their appealing coordination ability, and simple and easily accessible use in structural modification. Herein, five kinds of star-shaped Schiff-base compounds were designed and their optical response behavior to hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was studied using dependent/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT). Moreover, the relationship between structures and properties was investigated upon changing the benzene group into N atom or triazine group at the core-position and introducing a methoxyl (-OCH 3 ) or nitro (-NO 2 ) group into the star-shaped Schiff-bases at the tail of the branches...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453190/testing-behavior-change-techniques-to-encourage-primary-care-physicians-to-access-cancer-screening-audit-and-feedback-reports-protocol-for-a-factorial-randomized-experiment-of-email-content
#10
Gratianne Vaisson, Holly O Witteman, Zachary Bouck, Caroline A Bravo, Laura Desveaux, Diego Llovet, Justin Presseau, Marianne Saragosa, Monica Taljaard, Shama Umar, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Jill Tinmouth, Noah M Ivers
BACKGROUND: Cancer Care Ontario's Screening Activity Report (SAR) is an online audit and feedback tool designed to help primary care physicians in Ontario, Canada, identify patients who are overdue for cancer screening or have abnormal results requiring follow-up. Use of the SAR is associated with increased screening rates. To encourage SAR use, Cancer Care Ontario sends monthly emails to registered primary care physicians announcing that updated data are available. However, analytics reveal that 50% of email recipients do not open the email and less than 7% click the embedded link to log in to their report...
February 16, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453038/psychopathic-personality-traits-as-a-form-of-dispositional-capability-for-suicide
#11
Joye C Anestis, Michael D Anestis, Olivia C Preston
The capability to enact lethal self-harm has recently been highlighted as a critical risk factor for suicidal behavior. Klonsky and May's (2015) three step theory of suicide (3ST) expanded upon the construct of the capability for suicide by dividing it into categories: dispositional, acquired, and practical. The current study examined constructs of Patrick and colleagues' (2009) triarchic model of psychopathy as indicators of dispositional capability in gun owners, a sample at heightened risk for death by suicide (Anestis and Houtsma, 2017)...
February 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452362/reported-theory-use-in-walking-interventions-a-literature-review-and-research-agenda
#12
Mohammad Abdul Kadir, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele
There is mixed evidence with some suggesting walking can be increased up to the recommended level through interventions based on behaviour change models and others showing partial or no effects [Arbour and Ginis (A randomised controlled trial of the effects of implementation intentions on women's walking behaviour. Psychol Health, 2009;24:49-65); Merom et al. (Can a motivational intervention overcome an unsupportive environment for walking-findings from the Step-by-Step Study. Ann Behav Med 2009;38:137-46); Ornes and Ransdell (A pilot study examining exercise self-efficacy as a mediator for walking behavior in college-age women...
February 14, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452001/sexual-behavior-with-noncommercial-partners-a-concurrent-partnership-study-among-middle-aged-female-sex-workers-in-china
#13
Jennifer Guida, Liangyuan Hu, Hongjie Liu
Female sex workers (FSWs) often engage in concurrent partnerships, meaning they have multiple sexual relationships at the same time. The objective of this study was to investigate sexual concurrency and its associations with condom use and syphilitic infections among FSWs over age 35. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 1,245 FSWs in Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao, China. FSWs were asked to report whether they had concurrent partners in the past six months. Concurrency was defined as engagement in sex with commercial clients and (1) husbands and boyfriends (n = 167); (2) husbands only (n = 301); or (3) boyfriends only (n = 469)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451917/perceived-behavioral-control-as-a-potential-precursor-of-walking-three-times-a-week-patient-s-perspectives
#14
Peter Busse, J Jaime Miranda
BACKGROUND: Behavior change theories can identify people's main motivations to engage in recommended health practices and thus provide better tools to design interventions, particularly human centered design interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study had two objectives: (a) to identify salient beliefs about walking three times a week for 30 minutes nonstop among patients with hypertension in a low-resource setting and, (b) to measure the relationships among intentions, attitudes, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control about this behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451770/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-effects-in-the-crystallization-of-metal-organic-frameworks
#15
Anthony K Cheetham, G Kieslich, H H-M Yeung
The evolution of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been one of the most exciting aspects of materials chemistry over the last 20 years. In this Account, we discuss the development during this period in our understanding of the factors that control the crystallization of MOFs from solution. Both classical porous MOFs and dense MOF phases are considered. This is an opportune time at which to examine this complex area because the experimental tools now available to interrogate crystallization processes have matured significantly in the last 5 years, particularly with the use of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction...
February 16, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451031/condom-use-efficacy-and-sexual-communication-skills-among-african-american-college-women
#16
Sarah J Javier, Jasmine A Abrams, Melanie P Moore, Faye Z Belgrave
Despite condom use being the most protective measure against the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), little is known about the intermediary relationships between condom negotiation, assertive sexual communication, and condom use efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships between these constructs within the context of an HIV prevention intervention. We examined two samples of African American college women participating in two HIV prevention interventions, one of which was based on social learning theory ( N = 214)...
March 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450413/polyelectrolyte-scaling-laws-for-microgel-yielding-near-jamming
#17
Tapomoy Bhattacharjee, Christopher P Kabb, Christopher S O'Bryan, Juan M Urueña, Brent S Sumerlin, W Gregory Sawyer, Thomas E Angelini
Micro-scale hydrogel particles, known as microgels, are used in industry to control the rheology of numerous different products, and are also used in experimental research to study the origins of jamming and glassy behavior in soft-sphere model systems. At the macro-scale, the rheological behaviour of densely packed microgels has been thoroughly characterized; at the particle-scale, careful investigations of jamming, yielding, and glassy-dynamics have been performed through experiment, theory, and simulation...
February 16, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450256/creation-and-validation-of-the-barriers-to-alcohol-reduction-bar-scale-using-classical-test-theory-and-item-response-theory
#18
Zachary J Kunicki, Melissa R Schick, Nichea S Spillane, Lisa L Harlow
Those who binge drink are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences when compared to non-binge drinkers. Research shows individuals may face barriers to reducing their drinking behavior, but few measures exist to assess these barriers. This study created and validated the Barriers to Alcohol Reduction (BAR) scale. Participants were college students ( n = 230) who endorsed at least one instance of past-month binge drinking (4+ drinks for women or 5+ drinks for men). Using classical test theory, exploratory structural equation modeling found a two-factor structure of personal/psychosocial barriers and perceived program barriers...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449958/a-mobile-phone-based-program-to-promote-healthy-behaviors-among-adults-with-prediabetes-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Dina H Griauzde, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Brad Liestenfeltz, Caroline Richardson, Michele Heisler
Background: Rates of participation in Diabetes Prevention Programs (DPPs) are low. This may be due, in part, to low levels of autonomous motivation (i.e., motivation that arises from internal sources and sustains healthy behaviors over time) to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among many individuals with prediabetes. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies that incorporate principles from the Self-Determination Theory offer an effective and scalable approach to increase autonomous motivation levels...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449820/headache-and-alexithymia-in-children-and-adolescents-what-is-the-connection
#20
REVIEW
Giulia Natalucci, Noemi Faedda, Dario Calderoni, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Vincenzo Guidetti
Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints in children and adolescents and comorbidity rates are very high and the major associated diseases are depression, anxiety, atopic disorders, sleep, and behavioral disorders. In recent years, it has been highlighted that difficulties regulating emotions such as alexithymia have also been associated with diagnosis of somatization. Methods: We carried out a mini review analyzing the relation between alexithymia and primary headache (e.g., migraine and tension type headache) in children and adolescents by synthesizing the relevant studies in the literature on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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