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Behavior theory

Xun Yang, Jin Liu, Yajing Meng, Mingrui Xia, Zaixu Cui, Xi Wu, Xinyu Hu, Wei Zhang, Gaolang Gong, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Yong He
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and disabling condition characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of public scrutiny. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the emotional and behavior deficits in SAD are associated with abnormalities in regional brain function and functional connectivity. However, little is known about whether intrinsic functional brain networks in patients with SAD are topologically disrupted. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI data from 33 drug-naive patients with SAD and 32 healthy controls (HC), constructed functional networks with 34 predefined regions based on previous meta-analytic research with task-based fMRI in SAD, and performed network-based statistic and graph-theory analyses...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
Sha Gong, Yanli Wang, Zhen Wang, Yujie Wang, Wenbing Zhang
The yjdF riboswitch resides in potential 5' UTRs of homologues of protein-coding gene yjdF in Firmicutes. Unlike other 30 riboswitch classes previously validated, this riboswitch class, can sense and bind to a broad collection of azaaromatic ligands. Among these compounds, some do activate production of yjdF protein driven by the riboswitch, while others are out of riboswitch-mediated modulation possibly because of the toxicity at high ligand concentrations. By incorporating the structures with pseudoknots and ligand binding kinetics into the co-transcriptional folding theory, we theoretically studied the co-transcriptional folding behaviors of the yjdF riboswitch from Bacillus subtilis at different transcription conditions...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Jiangbo Ying, Philip Yap, Mihir Gandhi, Tau Ming Liew
BACKGROUND: Dementia caregiving is often stressful and depression in family caregivers is not uncommon. As caregiver depression can have significant effects, there is a need for preventive efforts which are consistent with the extensive literature. We sought to consolidate the wide range of evidence (using a multi-method approach) into a simple framework that can guide the prevention of caregiver depression. METHODS: Using multiple logistic regression, we derived the predictors of caregiver depression from an empirical dataset containing key information and depression scores (based on the Center-for-Epidemiological-Studies-Depression-Scale) of 394 family caregivers...
December 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Danya E Keene, Monica Guo, Sascha Murillo
Lack of affordable housing access represents a significant and growing problem for low-income households in the United States and these housing challenges may present barriers to the management of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, we examined how both housing challenges and housing resources shaped diabetes self-management behaviors. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 low-income residents of one US city, New Haven, Connecticut, who had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and either resided in or qualified for subsidized housing...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
K S Denisov, I V Rozhansky, N S Averkiev, E Lähderanta
We propose a new theory of the topological Hall effect (THE) in systems with non-collinear magnetization textures such as magnetic skyrmions. We solve the problem of electron scattering on a magnetic skyrmion exactly, for an arbitrary strength of exchange interaction and the skyrmion size. We report the existence of different regimes of THE and resolve the apparent contradiction between the adiabatic Berry phase theoretical approach and the perturbation theory for THE. We traced how the topological charge Hall effect transforms into the spin Hall effect upon varying the exchange interaction strength or the skyrmion size...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joseph W Rogers, Marc Fleming, Joyce Tipton, Angela Ward, Kevin W Garey, Elizabeth P Pitman
PURPOSE: Results of a study to determine behavioral factors that help explain why nurses often do not obtain and administer medications from automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) "one patient at a time" are reported. METHODS: To investigate nurses' frequent failure to adhere to best-practice standards for ADC use, a 12-item questionnaire developed using information obtained from an elicitation study and a focus group session was e-mailed to 755 nurses at an academic medical center...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Erland Axelsson, Elin Lindsäter, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erik Andersson, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a widespread measure of disability and functional impairment, which is bundled with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) for use in psychiatry. Administering psychometric scales via the Internet is an effective way to reach respondents and allow for convenient handling of data. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the psychometric properties of the 12-item self-report WHODAS 2...
December 8, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
Michael P Ziemkiewicz, Christian Pluetzer, Jérôme Loreau, Ad van der Avoird, David J Nesbitt
Vibrationally state selective overtone spectroscopy and state- and nuclear spin-dependent predissociation dynamics of weakly bound ortho- and para-Ne-H2O complexes (D0(ortho) = 34.66 cm-1 and D0(para) = 31.67 cm-1) are reported, based on near-infrared excitation of van der Waals cluster bands correlating with vOH = 2 ← 0 overtone transitions (|02-〉 and |02+〉) out of the ortho (101) and para (000) internal rotor states of the H2O moiety. Quantum theoretical calculations for nuclear motion on a high level potential energy surface [CCSD(T)/VnZf12 (n = 3, 4)], corrected for basis set superposition error and extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, are employed to successfully predict and assign Π-Σ, Σ-Σ, and Σ-Π infrared bands in the spectra, where Σ or Π represent approximate projections of the body-fixed H2O angular momentum along the Ne-H2O internuclear axis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Luís Fernando Mercier Franco, Marcelo Castier, Ioannis G Economou
We show that the Zwanzig first-order perturbation theory can be obtained directly from a truncated Taylor series expansion of a two-body perturbation theory and that such truncation provides a more accurate prediction of thermodynamic properties than the full two-body perturbation theory. This unexpected result is explained by the quality of the resulting approximation for the fluid radial distribution function. We prove that the first-order and the two-body perturbation theories are based on different approximations for the fluid radial distribution function...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Z L Cao, H C Ong
The angular surface plasmon mediated fluorescence from a two-dimensional Au nanohole array has been studied by reflectivity spectroscopy and Fourier-space photoluminescence microscopy. By using the rate equation model and temporal coupled mode theory, we determine the momentum-dependent coupling rate of light emitters to (-1,0) Bloch-like surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the first Brillouin zone. The rate increases gradually when the SPPs propagate away from the Γ-X direction and split into two at the Γ-M point where two coupled modes are formed...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Z L Cao, H C Ong
By manipulating the relative amplitude and phase between two incoming lights, coherent control of photonic systems can be realized. Here, we show by temporal coupled mode theory and finite-difference time-domain simulation that a coupled system can be actively controlled to exhibit plenty of different spectral, angular, and excitation behaviors. Electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano spectral characteristics as well as strong beam steering have been observed. Remarkably, by selectively exciting the coupled modes, we have developed a new approach to determine the complex Hermitian and anti-Hermitian interaction constants...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Soheil Mehrabkhani, Thomas Schneider
In several areas of optics and photonics the behavior of the electromagnetic waves has to be calculated with the scalar theory of diffraction by computational methods. Many of these high-speed diffraction algorithms based on a fast-Fourier-transformation are approximations of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld-diffraction (RSD) theory. In this article a novel sampling condition for the well-sampling of the Riemann integral of the RSD is demonstrated, the fundamental restrictions due to this condition are discussed, it will be demonstrated that the restrictions are completely removed by a sampling below the Abbe resolution limit and a very general unified approach for applying the RSD outside its sampling domain is given...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Aaron R Voelker, Chris Eliasmith
Researchers building spiking neural networks face the challenge of improving the biological plausibility of their model networks while maintaining the ability to quantitatively characterize network behavior. In this work, we extend the theory behind the neural engineering framework (NEF), a method of building spiking dynamical networks, to permit the use of a broad class of synapse models while maintaining prescribed dynamics up to a given order. This theory improves our understanding of how low-level synaptic properties alter the accuracy of high-level computations in spiking dynamical networks...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
Michael E Noss, Anne T Hylden, Patrick J Carroll, Donald H Berry
The electrochemical properties of a series of ruthenium complexes bearing the redox noninnocent bis(imino)pyridine ligand were investigated with cyclic voltammetry. An unexpected electrochemical feature in one of the complexes indicated a possible electrochemical-chemical-electrochemical (ECE) process. Further investigation into the oxidation mechanism included the synthesis and isolation of cationic and dicationic analogues of the complex. Density functional theory calculations suggested that a solvent interaction facilitated the ECE mechanism, so a solvent adduct was also synthesized and isolated...
December 8, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Matheus Paes Lima
The synthesis of Silicon Nanotubes realized since the last decade demonstrates multi-walled tubular structures comprised of $Si$ atoms in the $sp^2$ and the $sp^3$ hybridizations. However, most of the theoretical models were elaborated taking as the starting point $sp^2$ structures analogous to the Carbon Nanotubes. These structures are unfavorable due to the natural tendency of the $Si$ atoms to undergo $sp^3$. In this work, through {\it ab-initio} simulations based on Density Functional Theory, we investigated double-walled Silicon Nanotubes proposing layered tubes possessing most of the $Si$ atoms in a $sp^3$ hybridization, and few $sp^2$ atoms localized at the outer wall...
December 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
E J Moon, Q He, S Ghosh, B J Kirby, S T Pantelides, A Y Borisevich, S J May
Modulation and δ-doping strategies, in which atomically thin layers of charged dopants are precisely deposited within a heterostructure, have played enabling roles in the discovery of new physical behavior in electronic materials. Here, we demonstrate a purely structural "δ-doping" strategy in complex oxide heterostructures, in which atomically thin manganite layers are inserted into an isovalent manganite host, thereby modifying the local rotations of corner-connected MnO_{6} octahedra. Combining scanning transmission electron microscopy, polarized neutron reflectometry, and density functional theory, we reveal how local magnetic exchange interactions are enhanced within the spatially confined regions of suppressed octahedral rotations...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Sigmund Kohler
We propose a protocol for the measurement of adiabatic phases of periodically driven quantum systems coupled to an open cavity that enables dispersive readout. It turns out that the cavity transmission exhibits peaks at frequencies determined by a resonance condition that involves the dynamical and the geometric phase. Since these phases scale differently with the driving frequency, one can determine them by fitting the peak positions to the theoretically expected behavior. For the derivation of the resonance condition and for a numerical study, we develop a Floquet theory for the dispersive readout of ac driven quantum systems...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Davide Michieletto, Negar Nahali, Angelo Rosa
Understanding how topological constraints affect the dynamics of polymers in solution is at the basis of any polymer theory and it is particularly needed for melts of rings. These polymers fold as crumpled and space-filling objects and, yet, they display a large number of topological constraints. To understand their role, here we systematically probe the response of solutions of rings at various densities to "random pinning" perturbations. We show that these perturbations trigger non-Gaussian and heterogeneous dynamics, eventually leading to nonergodic and glassy behavior...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Michael Sinhuber, Nicholas T Ouellette
Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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