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Behavior theory

Siheon Ryee, Myung Joon Han
A systematic comparative study has been performed to better understand DFT+U (density functional theory + U) method. We examine the effect of choosing different double counting and exchange-correlation functionals. The calculated energy distribution and the Hund-J dependence of potential profile for representative configurations clearly show the different behaviors of each DFT+U formalism. In particular, adopting spin-dependent exchange-correlation functionals likely leads to undesirable magnetic solution...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melvin Konner
This paper aims to serve three purposes, providing: 1. a half-century retrospective on research in on nonmaternal care of the young, with an emphasis on key advances; 2. a commentary on the research papers in this special issue on nonmaternal care; and 3. a summary of nonmaternal care among hunting-and-gathering cultures-representing the human Environments of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEAs)-in the broader context of human evolution. While the research being done now is excellent and uses appropriate evolutionary theory and cutting-edge methods ranging across behavioral biology (field and laboratory observational studies, controlled experiments, careful behavioral measures, energetics, neurotransmitter function, neuroendocrinology, neuroimaging, and genetics, among others), it is difficult to make generalizations beyond stating that nonmaternal care is a multifaceted evolved function in some species, which usually contributes to the reproductive success of the mother and the survival of the young...
September 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Stacy Rosenbaum, Lee T Gettler
The diversity of competing frameworks for explaining the evolution of non-maternal care in mammals (Part I, this issue) reflects the vast range of behaviors and associated outcomes these theories attempt to subsume. Caretaking comprises a wide variety of behavioral domains, and is mediated by an equally large range of physiological systems. In Part II, we provide an overview of how non-maternal care in mammals is expressed, the ways in which it is regulated, and the many effects such care has on both recipients and caretakers...
September 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kimberly Walker, Richard Jackson
The purpose of this study was to assess college students' knowledge of oral/oropharyngeal cancer and the relationship of human papillomavirus (HPV) to oropharyngeal cancer. Data were also collected to determine their perceived susceptibility to oropharyngeal cancer and awareness of emotions toward and intentions to receive an oral cancer examination in order to design tailored messages for promoting oropharyngeal cancer prevention on college campuses. Two hundred ten baccalaureate students in nonhealth majors from a public southeastern university were surveyed...
June 22, 2018: Health Care Manager
Chengxiang Ding, Long Zhang, Wenan Guo
Surface critical behavior (SCB) refers to the singularities of physical quantities on the surface at the bulk phase transition. It is closely related to and even richer than the bulk critical behavior. In this work, we show that three types of SCB universality are realized in the dimerized Heisenberg models at the (2+1)-dimensional O(3) quantum critical points by engineering the surface configurations. The ordinary transition happens if the surface is gapped in the bulk disordered phase, while the gapless surface state generally leads to the multicritical special transition, even though the latter is precluded in classical phase transitions because the surface is in the lower critical dimension...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Christina Psaroudaki, Daniel Loss
We study the dynamics of a Skyrmion in a magnetic insulating nanowire in the presence of time-dependent oscillating magnetic field gradients. These ac fields act as a net driving force on the Skyrmion via its own intrinsic magnetic excitations. In a microscopic quantum field theory approach, we include the unavoidable coupling of the external field to the magnons, which gives rise to time-dependent dissipation for the Skyrmion. We demonstrate that the magnetic ac field induces a super-Ohmic to Ohmic crossover behavior for the Skyrmion dissipation kernels with time-dependent Ohmic terms...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
S Fuchs, T Dey, G Aslan-Cansever, A Maljuk, S Wurmehl, B Büchner, V Kataev
We report electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy results on the double perovskite Ba_{2}YIrO_{6}. On general grounds, this material is expected to be nonmagnetic due to the strong coupling of the spin and orbital momenta of Ir^{5+} (5d^{4}) ions. However, controversial experimental reports on either strong antiferromagnetism with static order at low temperatures or just a weakly paramagnetic behavior have triggered a discussion on the breakdown of the generally accepted scenario of the strongly spin-orbit coupled ground states in the 5d^{4} iridates and the emergence of a novel exotic magnetic state...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Matthew A J Apps, Ryan McKay, Ruben T Azevedo, Harvey Whitehouse, Manos Tsakiris
OBJECTIVE: People are highly attuned to fairness, with people willingly suffering personal costs to prevent others benefitting from unfair acts. Are fairness judgments influenced by group alignments? A new theory posits that we favor ingroups and denigrate members of rival outgroups when our personal identity is fused to a group. Although the mPFC has been separately implicated in group membership and fairness processing, it is unclear whether group alignments affect medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity in response to fairness...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Kyra J Waligora, Mona N Bahouth, Hae-Ra Han
Background: More than 5.4 million informal caregivers (ICGs) in the United States care for persons with dementia (PWD). Failure of ICGs to incorporate self-care into their routine may lead to adverse health consequences. Caregivers and researchers need to understand the evidence around dementia ICGs' self-care practices. Purpose: To synthesize evidence on the self-care needs and behaviors of Alzheimer's and dementia ICGs and its research implications. Methods: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched to conduct a systematic review of research...
June 21, 2018: Gerontologist
Noah C Venables, Jens Foell, James R Yancey, Kevin M Beaver, William G Iacono, Christopher J Patrick
Purpose: Criminological theories of crime, delinquency, and deviancy emphasize the causal role of low self-control whereas models of psychopathology posit a general trait liability, "disinhibition", contributing to persistent antisocial behavior and substance use. The aim of the current work was to link these compatible perspectives on deviancy through reference to a biobehavioral conceptualization of disinhibition. Methods: We examined how the Grasmick et al...
May 2018: Journal of Criminal Justice
S L Liu, H Y Na, W H Li, Q P Yun, X W Jiang, J N Liu, C Chang
OBJECTIVE: To provide autonomy support from three dimensions based on self-determination theory (SDT), i.e. professional support, peer support, family support, and to investigate whether this intervention can improve diabetes self-management behavior and glycemic control of diabetic patients, and to analyze the influencing factors of the effect. METHODS: Using convenient sampling method, three communities were selected respectively in Beijing. Each community selected health service stations with similar conditions as different intervention groups...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
L Fumagalli, A Esfandiar, R Fabregas, S Hu, P Ares, A Janardanan, Q Yang, B Radha, T Taniguchi, K Watanabe, G Gomila, K S Novoselov, A K Geim
The dielectric constant ε of interfacial water has been predicted to be smaller than that of bulk water (ε ≈ 80) because the rotational freedom of water dipoles is expected to decrease near surfaces, yet experimental evidence is lacking. We report local capacitance measurements for water confined between two atomically flat walls separated by various distances down to 1 nanometer. Our experiments reveal the presence of an interfacial layer with vanishingly small polarization such that its out-of-plane ε is only ~2...
June 22, 2018: Science
Mary D Adu, Usman H Malabu, Emily J Callander, Aduli Eo Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S Malau-Aduli
BACKGROUND: There is increased research interest in the use of mobile phone apps to support diabetes management. However, there are divergent views on what constitute the minimum standards for inclusion in the development of mobile phone apps. Mobile phone apps require an evidence-based approach to development which will consequently impact on their effectiveness. Therefore, comprehensive information on developmental considerations could help designers and researchers to develop innovative and effective patient-centered self-management mobile phone apps for diabetes patients...
June 21, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Yubing Zheng, Yang Ma, Lixin Guo, Jianchuan Cheng, Yunlong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Illegal parking in emergency lanes (paved highway shoulders) is becoming a serious road safety issue in China. The aim of this study was: 1) to examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) extended with descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and invulnerability in predicting Chinese drivers' intentions in illegal emergency lane parking; 2) to investigate whether respondents' demographic characteristics would impact their views towards the behavior and predictive patterns of intentions; 3) to identify significant predictors of intentions...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Angela M Dionisi, Julian Barling
The goal of this study was to examine the costs associated with witnessing the sexual harassment of a male colleague. More specifically, we investigate (a) whether observed male gender harassment is related to psychological and physical health, and negative and positive job-related behaviors and attitudes, and (b) the mediating roles of discrete negative emotions (anger, fear) and identity-based evaluations (collective self-esteem). We explore these questions in a sample of men and women employed in "blue collar" professions...
July 2018: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
William L Cook, Kahsi A Pedersen, Ann E Maloney
Parent and child physical activity levels are correlated, but are they interdependent? A dyadic version of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was developed to investigate interdependence in the motivation and intention of parents and their children with overweight to engage in healthy physical coactivity (HPCA). Baseline measures of the TPB constructs (subjective norms, attitude, perceived behavior control, and intention) for both dyad members were used to predict parent-reports of their actual HPCA at 12 weeks using the actor-partner interdependence model...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
David Richter, Rui Mata
To describe adult age differences in intertemporal choice, we analyzed data from 1,491 participants who completed an incentivized monetary intertemporal discounting choice task involving different conditions (e.g., time delay of 12 months vs. 1 month). Respondents completed a number of other survey measures including behavioral measures of cognitive ability and self-reports concerning health, financial security, and demographic characteristics. We found significant quadratic (U-shaped) effects of age in task conditions involving 12-month (but not 1-month) delays, with middle-aged adults proving most patient relative to younger and older adults...
June 21, 2018: Psychology and Aging
Deepti Chittamuru, Larry D Icard, John B Jemmott, Ann O'Leary
Studies show that having sex with multiple partners increases the risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The present article reports prospective predictors of having multiple sexual partners among 505 African American men in Philadelphia who have sex with men (MSM) who participated in an intervention trial and attended a 6-month follow-up. Participants completed audio computer-assisted surveys of demographics, sexual behavior, and Reasoned Action Approach and Social Cognitive Theory mediators concerning multiple partners...
June 20, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Kiran Grant, Stefanie Hassel, Jacqueline A Bobyn, Geoffrey B C Hall, Glenda M MacQueen
Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) processing have been observed in people with bipolar disorder (BD), but the neural basis of these deficits remains unclear. Here, we studied the relations between neural activation, dysfunctional beliefs and behavioral responses in people with BD during a second-order ToM task. Twenty-five patients and 25 healthy-control participants (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a novel ToM task. The Dysfunctional Attitudes scale (DAS) and the Brief Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (BHAPPI) were used to assess dysfunctional beliefs...
June 4, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Derrick Ssewanyana, Anneloes van Baar, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Health risk behavior (HRB) is of concern during adolescence. In sub-Saharan Africa, reliable, valid and culturally appropriate measures of HRB are urgently needed. This study aims at assembling and psychometrically evaluating a comprehensive questionnaire on HRB of adolescents in Kilifi County at the coast of Kenya. METHODS: The Kilifi Health Risk Behavior Questionnaire (KRIBE-Q) was assembled using items on HRB identified from a systematic review and by consulting 85 young people through 11 focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with 10 key informants like teachers and employees of organizations providing various services to young people in Kilifi County...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
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