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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932877/factors-influencing-exacerbation-related-self-management-in-patients-with-copd-a-qualitative-study
#1
Yjg Korpershoek, Scjm Vervoort, Lit Nijssen, Jca Trappenburg, M J Schuurmans
BACKGROUND: In patients with COPD, self-management skills are important to reduce the impact of exacerbations. However, both detection and adequate response to exacerbations appear to be difficult for some patients. Little is known about the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and explain the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management behavior. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews was performed according to the grounded theory approach, following a cyclic process in which data collection and data analysis alternated...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932316/evaluation-of-diet-related-infographics-on-pinterest-for-use-of-behavior-change-theories-a-content-analysis
#2
Jessica L Wilkinson, Kate Strickling, Hannah E Payne, Kayla C Jensen, Joshua H West
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in Pinterest as a method of disseminating health information. However, it is unclear whether the health information promoted on Pinterest is evidence-based or incorporates behavior change theory. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the presence of health behavior theory (HBT) constructs in pins found on Pinterest and assess the relationship between various pin characteristics and the likelihood of inclusion of HBT...
December 8, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931338/health-care-provider-perspectives-on-tuberculosis-care-for-foreign-born-populations-in-new-york-city
#3
J R Zelnick, M R O'Donnell, S D Ahuja, A Chua, J Sullivan Meissner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in foreign-born patients is a key determinant of TB epidemiology in low-burden settings. In New York City (NYC), foreign-born TB populations are heterogeneous and face diverse challenges in accessing care. OBJECTIVE: To characterize barriers and facilitators to health care services and identify potential mechanisms to improve TB care for foreign-born patients in NYC. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews with health care providers identified through the NYC TB registry and snowball sampling...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930562/finding-resiliency-in-the-face-of-financial-barriers-development-of-a-conceptual-framework-for-people-with-cardiovascular-related-chronic-disease
#4
David J T Campbell, Braden J Manns, Pamela Leblanc, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Claudia Sanmartin, Kathryn King-Shier
Patients with chronic diseases often face financial barriers to optimize their health. These financial barriers may be related to direct healthcare costs such as medications or self-monitoring supplies, or indirect costs such as transportation to medical appointments. No known framework exists to understand how financial barriers impact patients' lives or their health outcomes.We undertook a grounded theory study to develop such a framework. We used semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of participants with cardiovascular-related chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, or stroke) from Alberta, Canada...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930304/emergent-oscillations-assist-obstacle-negotiation-during-ant-cooperative-transport
#5
Aviram Gelblum, Itai Pinkoviezky, Ehud Fonio, Nir S Gov, Ofer Feinerman
Collective motion by animal groups is affected by internal interactions, external constraints, and the influx of information. A quantitative understanding of how these different factors give rise to different modes of collective motion is, at present, lacking. Here, we study how ants that cooperatively transport a large food item react to an obstacle blocking their path. Combining experiments with a statistical physics model of mechanically coupled active agents, we show that the constraint induces a deterministic collective oscillatory mode that facilitates obstacle circumvention...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929671/development-and-initial-psychometrics-for-a-therapist-competence-instrument-for-cbt-for-youth-anxiety
#6
Bryce D McLeod, Michael A Southam-Gerow, Adriana Rodríguez, Alexis M Quinoy, Cassidy C Arnold, Philip C Kendall, John R Weisz
Therapist competence is an important component of treatment integrity. This article reports on the development and initial psychometric assessment of the Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Youth Competence Scale (CBAY-C), an observational instrument designed to capture therapist limited-domain competence (i.e., competence in the delivery of core interventions and delivery methods found in a specific psychosocial treatment program) in the delivery of the core practice elements in individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (ICBT) for youth anxiety...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929041/universalities-of-thermodynamic-signatures-in-topological-phases
#7
S N Kempkes, A Quelle, C Morais Smith
Topological insulators (superconductors) are materials that host symmetry-protected metallic edge states in an insulating (superconducting) bulk. Although they are well understood, a thermodynamic description of these materials remained elusive, firstly because the edges yield a non-extensive contribution to the thermodynamic potential, and secondly because topological field theories involve non-local order parameters, and cannot be captured by the Ginzburg-Landau formalism. Recently, this challenge has been overcome: by using Hill thermodynamics to describe the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model in two dimensions, it was shown that at the topological phase transition the thermodynamic potential does not scale extensively due to boundary effects...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929038/designing-multipolar-resonances-in-dielectric-metamaterials
#8
Nikita A Butakov, Jon A Schuller
Dielectric resonators form the building blocks of nano-scale optical antennas and metamaterials. Due to their multipolar resonant response and low intrinsic losses they offer design flexibility and high-efficiency performance. These resonators are typically described in terms of a spherical harmonic decomposition with Mie theory. In experimental realizations however, a departure from spherical symmetry and the use of high-index substrates leads to new features appearing in the multipolar response. To clarify this behavior, we present a systematic experimental and numerical characterization of Silicon disk resonators...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927981/xylem-surfactants-introduce-a-new-element-to-the-cohesion-tension-theory
#9
H Jochen Schenk, Susana Espino, David M Romo, Neda Nima, Aissa Y T Do, Joseph M Michaud, Brigitte Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, Jinlong Yang, Yi Y Zuo, Kathy Steppe, Steven Jansen
Vascular plants transport water under negative pressure without constantly creating gas bubbles that would disable their hydraulic systems. Attempts to replicate this feat in artificial systems almost invariably result in bubble formation, except under highly controlled conditions with pure water and only hydrophilic surfaces present. In theory, conditions in the xylem should favor bubble nucleation even more: There are millions of conduits with at least some hydrophobic surfaces; xylem sap is saturated or sometimes supersaturated with atmospheric gas, and may contain surface active molecules that can lower surface tension...
December 7, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926600/supporting-rural-women-during-pregnancy-baby-beep-nurses
#10
Emily C Evans, Linda F C Bullock
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize nursing care provided by the research nurses from the Baby Behavioral Educational Enhancement of Pregnancy (Baby BEEP) study as they delivered a telephone social support intervention to low-income, pregnant women in the Midwestern United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a descriptive qualitative study that used Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations to frame and interpret the analysis. RESULTS: Research nurses from the Baby BEEP study found a novel way to reach a vulnerable population through weekly telephone interactions...
January 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926444/common-and-distinctive-approaches-to-motivation-in-different-disciplines
#11
T Strombach, S Strang, S Q Park, P Kenning
Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act. Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel. Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings. The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926443/applied-economics-the-use-of-monetary-incentives-to-modulate-behavior
#12
S Strang, S Q Park, T Strombach, P Kenning
According to standard economic theory higher monetary incentives will lead to higher performance and higher effort independent of task, context, or individual. In many contexts this standard economic advice is implemented. Monetary incentives are, for example, used to enhance performance at workplace or to increase health-related behavior. However, the fundamental positive impact of monetary incentives has been questioned by psychologists as well as behavioral economists during the last decade, arguing that monetary incentives can sometimes even backfire...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926438/exploring-individual-differences-in-task-switching-persistence-and-other-personality-traits-related-to-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function
#13
A Umemoto, C B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015)...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926436/to-work-or-not-to-work-neural-representation-of-cost-and-benefit-of-instrumental-action
#14
N B Kroemer, C Burrasch, L Hellrung
By definition, instrumental actions are performed in order to obtain certain goals. Nevertheless, the attainment of goals typically implies obstacles, and response vigor is known to reflect an integration of subjective benefit and cost. Whereas several brain regions have been associated with cost/benefit ratio decision-making, trial-by-trial fluctuations in motivation are not well understood. We review recent evidence supporting the motivational implications of signal fluctuations in the mesocorticolimbic system...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925732/effect-of-nematic-order-on-the-low-energy-spin-fluctuations-in-detwinned-bafe_-1-935-ni_-0-065-as_-2
#15
Wenliang Zhang, J T Park, Xingye Lu, Yuan Wei, Xiaoyan Ma, Lijie Hao, Pengcheng Dai, Zi Yang Meng, Yi-Feng Yang, Huiqian Luo, Shiliang Li
The origin of nematic order remains one of the major debates in iron-based superconductors. In theories based on spin nematicity, one major prediction is that the spin-spin correlation length at (0,π) should decrease with decreasing temperature below the structural transition temperature T_{s}. Here, we report inelastic neutron scattering studies on the low-energy spin fluctuations in BaFe_{1.935}Ni_{0.065}As_{2} under uniaxial pressure. Both intensity and spin-spin correlation start to show anisotropic behavior at high temperature, while the reduction of the spin-spin correlation length at (0,π) happens just below T_{s}, suggesting the strong effect of nematic order on low-energy spin fluctuations...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925219/job-insecurity-and-discretionary-behaviors-social-exchange-perspective-versus-group-value-model
#16
Beatrice Piccoli, Hans De Witte, William D Reisel
This study examines the relationship between job insecurity and discretionary behaviors, that is, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), with the purpose to extend knowledge on the theoretical explanations for these outcomes. Considering the employment relationship with the organization, two different perspectives are suggested and compared in a multiple mediator model, in order to understand the reasons for discretionary behaviors. We draw upon social exchange theory as the basis of psychological contract perceptions and we rely on the group value model to explain organizational justice evaluations...
December 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924863/high-performance-sers-substrate-based-on-hybrid-structure-of-graphene-oxide-agnps-cu-film-pyramid-si
#17
Zhe Li, Shi Cai Xu, Chao Zhang, Xiao Yun Liu, Sai Sai Gao, Li Tao Hu, Jia Guo, Yong Ma, Shou Zhen Jiang, Hai Peng Si
We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10(-15) M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924315/control-of-selective-ion-transfer-across-liquid-liquid-interfaces-a-rectifying-heterojunction-based-on-immiscible-electrolytes
#18
Guillermo Iván Guerrero-García, Francisco J Solis, Kalyan Raidongia, Andrew Robert Koltonow, Jiaxing Huang, Mónica Olvera de la Cruz
The current rectification displayed by solid-state p-n semiconductor diodes relies on the abundance of electrons and holes near the interface between the p-n junction. In analogy to this electronic device, we propose here the construction of a purely ionic liquid-state electric rectifying heterojunction displaying an excess of monovalent cations and anions near the interface between two immiscible solvents with different dielectric properties. This system does not need any physical membrane or material barrier to show preferential ion transfer but relies on the ionic solvation energy between the two immiscible solvents...
November 23, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923975/efficacy-of-nonselective-optogenetic-control-of-the-medial-septum-over-hippocampal-oscillations-the-influence-of-speed-and-implications-for-cognitive-enhancement
#19
Benjamin J Blumberg, Sean P Flynn, Sylvain J Barriere, Philippe R Mouchati, Rod C Scott, Gregory L Holmes, Jeremy M Barry
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. To date, no studies have examined the efficacy of optogenetic stimulation for altering hippocampal oscillations in freely moving wild-type rats, or how these alterations would affect performance on behavioral tasks. Here, we used an AAV virus to express ChR2 in the medial septum (MS) of wild-type rats, and optically stimulated septal neurons at 6 Hz and 30 Hz...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923885/a-systematic-review-of-interventions-to-enhance-healthy-lifestyle-behaviors-in-adolescents-delivered-via-mobile-phone-text-messaging
#20
Lois J Loescher, Stephen A Rains, Sandra S Kramer, Chelsie Akers, Renee Moussa
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review healthy lifestyle interventions targeted to adolescents and delivered using text messaging (TM). DATA SOURCE: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases. STUDY INCLUSION CRITERIA: Research articles published during 2011 to 2014; analyses focused on intervention targeting adolescents (10-19 years), with healthy lifestyle behaviors as main variables, delivered via mobile phone-based TM...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
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