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Central neuroplasticity

Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Santosh R Alluri, Patrick J Riss
We report the synthesis, radiosynthesis, and characterization of a radioligand for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). PARP is of central importance in cell homeostasis, neuroplasticity, and neurodegeneration in the brain. A radiolabeled PARP inhibitor was developed and used for autoradiographic quantification of PARP protein concentration in wild-type and transgenic rodent brains ex vivo in high resolution. The binding of [3 H]rucaparib was found to be confined to PARP-expressing domains, for example, cerebellar cortex or hippocampal regions in both models...
March 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri De Dios, Nichole Gadd, Scott Wood, Roy Riascos, Igor Kofman, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) is frequently utilized as a spaceflight analog research environment to study the effects of axial body unloading and fluid shifts that are associated with spaceflight in the absence of gravitational modifications. HDBR has been shown to result in balance changes, presumably due to sensory reweighting and adaptation processes. Here, we examined whether HDBR results in changes in the neural correlates of vestibular processing. Thirteen men participated in a 70-day HDBR intervention; we measured balance, functional mobility, and functional brain activity in response to vestibular stimulation at 7 time points before, during, and after HDBR...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Aline Siteneski, Mauricio P Cunha, Vicente Lieberknecht, Francis L Pazini, Karen Gruhn, Patricia S Brocardo, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Evidence has indicated that the practice of physical exercise has antidepressant effects that might be associated with irisin release and BDNF signaling. In this study we investigated the effects of the central administration of irisin or BDNF in predictive tests of antidepressant properties paralleled with the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC1-α), fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
François-Xavier Ferracci, Hugues Duffau
Radical glioma resection improves overall survival, both in low-grade and high-grade glial tumors. However, preservation of the quality of life is also crucial. Areas covered: Due to the diffuse feature of gliomas, which invade the central nervous system, and due to considerable variations of brain organization among patients, an individual cerebral mapping is mandatory to solve the classical dilemma between the oncological and functional issues. Because functional neuroimaging is not reliable enough, intraoperative electrical stimulation, especially in awake patients benefiting from a real-time cognitive monitoring, is the best way to increase the extent of resection while sparing eloquent neural networks...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Yanyang Zhang, Zhiqi Mao, Shiyu Feng, Xinyun Liu, Lan Lan, Jun Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Introduction: In neuroimaging studies, long-term unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is associated with functional changes in specific brain regions and connections; however, little is known regarding alterations in the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks and whether these alterations are related to hearing behavior in UHL patients. Methods: We acquired resting-state fMRI data from 21 patients with UHL caused by acoustic neuromas and 21 matched healthy controls...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Delfien Syx, Phuong B Tran, Rachel E Miller, Anne-Marie Malfait
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a major source of pain and disability worldwide. OA-associated pain is usually refractory to classically used analgesics, and disease-modifying therapies are still lacking. Therefore, a better understanding of mechanisms and mediators contributing to the generation and maintenance of OA pain is critical for the development of efficient and safe pain-relieving therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Both peripheral and central mechanisms contribute to OA pain...
February 26, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Renata Aparecida Leite, Fernanda Cristina Leite Magliaro, Jeziela Cristina Raimundo, Ricardo Ferreira Bento, Carla Gentile Matas
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare long-latency auditory evoked potentials before and after hearing aid fittings in children with sensorineural hearing loss compared with age-matched children with normal hearing. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects of both genders aged 7 to 12 years participated in this study and were divided into two groups as follows: 14 children with normal hearing were assigned to the control group (mean age 9 years and 8 months), and 18 children with mild to moderate symmetrical bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were assigned to the study group (mean age 9 years and 2 months)...
February 19, 2018: Clinics
A Caipa, M Alomar, S Bashir
The application of medications with a well-defined mode of action on a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator of the central nervous system (CNS) can be utilized to test the pharmaco-physiological properties of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on cortical excitability and plasticity. Similarly, a physiologically well-defined TMS measure of cortical excitability may be exploited to study a particular drug's effect at the level of the cerebrum. In this review, we aim to assess the impact of calcium channel blockers, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), and GABAergic agents on cortical excitability and plasticity while concurrently investigating how TMS can enhance this understanding...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Zafer Keser, Roy Riascos, Ashot E Sargsyan, Larry A Kramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As part of its technological sophistication, the International Space Station (ISS) Program operates a robust medical surveillance schedule for its rotating 6-person crew to control the known health risks and to address knowledge gaps related to human health in space flight environment. Recent evidence on visual impairment in a subset of ISS crew has renewed the interest in the effects of long-duration space flight on the central nervous system (CNS). Through retrospective analysis in a sample of 10 healthy astronauts, we demonstrate the utility of multimodal quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based customized brain templates to examine the structural attributes of various CNS compartments in this occupational group...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces neuronal dysfunction and cellular loss that can culminate in lasting impairments in cognitive and motor abilities. Therapeutic agents that promote repair and replenish neurons after TBI hold promise in improving recovery of function. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor capable of mediating neuroprotective and neuroplasticity mechanisms. Targeted overexpression of IGF-1 enhances the generation of hippocampal newborn neurons in brain-injured mice; however, the translational neurogenic potential of exogenously administered IGF-1 after TBI remains unknown...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hans-Georg Schaible
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. Because there is no causal treatment of osteoarthritis, sufficient pain control is of uppermost importance but often not met. The review reports recent advances and controversies in our understanding of osteoarthritis pain and its treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteoarthritis pain is determined by processes at different levels. An important local factor of pain generation in the joint is inflammation such as synovitis, and neuropathic components of osteoarthritis pain are being discussed...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Dioneia Araldi, Eugen V Khomula, Luiz F Ferrari, Jon D Levine
Systemic fentanyl induces hyperalgesic priming, long-lasting neuroplasticity in nociceptor function characterized by prolongation of inflammatory mediator hyperalgesia. To evaluate priming at both nociceptor terminals, we studied, in male Sprague--Dawley rats, the effect of local administration of agents that reverse Type I (protein translation) or Type II (combination of Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]) priming. While at the central terminal, priming induced by systemic, intradermal or intrathecal fentanyl was reversed by the combination of Src and MAPK inhibitors, at the peripheral terminal it was reversed by the protein translation inhibitor...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
B B Ji, M Li, J N Zhang
Tinnitus is a subjective symptom of phantom sound in the ear or brain without sound or electrical stimulation in the environment. The mechanism of tinnitus is complicated and mostly unclear. Recent studies suggested that the abnormal peripheral auditory input lead to neuroplasticity changes in central nervous system followed by tinnitus. More research concerned on the tinnitus central mechanism. A rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique made it more widely used in tinnitus central mechanism research...
February 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Ken Wojcikowski, Vanessa J Vigar, Christopher J Oliver
Context • The mechanisms of chronic pain involve complex neuroplastic changes at all 3 orders of neurons involved in the transmission of pain as well as changes in the descending inhibitory pathway. Although traditional pharmaceutical therapies have some efficacy, substantial scope exists for a new model of individualized therapy, tailored to the specific response of each patient. Because changes occur at all levels of the pain pathway, successful treatment may require a combination of therapies with different mechanisms of action...
March 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
José J Jarero-Basulto, Yadira Gasca-Martínez, Martha C Rivera-Cervantes, Mónica E Ureña-Guerrero, Alfredo I Feria-Velasco, Carlos Beas-Zarate
Undoubtedly, one of the most interesting topics in the field of neuroscience is the ability of the central nervous system to respond to different stimuli (normal or pathological) by modifying its structure and function, either transiently or permanently, by generating neural cells and new connections in a process known as neuroplasticity. According to the large amount of evidence reported in the literature, many stimuli, such as environmental pressures, changes in the internal dynamic steady state of the organism and even injuries or illnesses (e...
February 7, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Søren S Olesen, Theresa Krauss, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Oliver H Wilder-Smith, Güralp O Ceyhan, Pankaj J Pasricha, Asbjørn M Drewes
Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the pancreas resulting in replacement of the normal functioning parenchyma by fibrotic connective tissue. This process leads to progressively impairment of exocrine and endocrine function and many patients develop a chronic pain syndrome. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the neurobiological signature of pain associated with CP and to discuss its implications for treatment strategies...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Courtney Clyburn, R Alberto Travagli, Kirsteen N Browning
Obesity is associated with dysregulation of vagal neurocircuits controlling gastric functions, including food intake and energy balance. In the short term, however, caloric intake is regulated homeostatically, although the precise mechanisms responsible are unknown. The present study examined the effects of acute high fat diet (HFD) on glutamatergic neurotransmission within central vagal neurocircuits and its effects on gastric motility. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or HFD diet (14% or 60% kcal from fat, respectively) for 3-5 days...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Janine M Makaronidis, Rachel L Batterham
Obesity constitutes a major global health threat. Despite the success of bariatric surgery in delivering sustainable weight loss and improvement in obesity-related morbidity, effective non-surgical treatments are urgently needed, necessitating an increased understanding of body weight regulation. Neuroimaging studies undertaken in people with healthy weight, overweight, obesity and following bariatric surgery have contributed to identifying the neurophysiological changes seen in obesity and are increasing our understanding of the mechanisms driving the favourable eating behaviour changes and sustained weight loss engendered by bariatric surgery...
January 24, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Michelle M Shannon, Marie Elf, Leonid Churilov, John Olver, Alan Pert, Julie Bernhardt
PURPOSE: To evaluate if a changed physical environment following redesign of a hospital ward influenced neurological patient physical and social activity. METHODS: A "before and after" observational design was used that included 17 acute neurological patients pre-move (median age 77 (IQR 69-85) years Ward A and 20 post-move (median age 70 (IQR 57-81) years Ward B. Observations occurred for 1 day from 08.00-17.00 using Behavioral Mapping of patient physical and social activity, and location of that activity...
January 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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