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Central neuroplasticity

Marzena Mielczarek, Joanna Michalska, Katarzyna Polatyńska, Jurek Olszewski
In our clinic invasive transtympanal promontory positive DC stimulations were first used, with a success rate of 42%. However, non-invasive hydrotransmissive negative DC stimulations are now favored, with improvement being obtained in 37.8% directly after the treatment, and 51.3% in a follow up 1 month after treatment. The further improvement after 1 month may be due to neuroplastic changes at central level as a result of altered peripheral input. The aim of the study was to determine how/whether a single electrical stimulation of the ear influences cortical activity, and whether changes observed in tinnitus after electrical stimulation are associated with any changes in cortical activity recorded in EEG...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anu Sharma, Hannah Glick, Emily Deeves, Erin Duncan
We review evidence for a high degree of neuroplasticity of the central auditory pathways in early childhood, citing evidence of studies of the P1 and N1 cortical auditory evoked potentials in congenitally deaf children receiving cochlear implants at different ages during childhood, children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and children with hearing loss and comorbid multiple disabilities. We discuss neuroplasticity, including cortico-cortical de-coupling and cross-modal re-organization that occurs in deafness...
December 2015: Otorinolaringologia
Thiago Fernando Beckhauser, José Francis-Oliveira, Roberto De Pasquale
In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Richard P Hulse, Robert A R Drake, David O Bates, Lucy F Donaldson
Neuropathic pain results from neuroplasticity in nociceptive neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate that control of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, through the splice factor serine-arginine splice factor 1 (SRSF1), is integral to the processing of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Neuropathic pain develops following a partial saphenous nerve ligation injury, at which time SRSF1 is activated in damaged myelinated primary afferent neurons, with minimal found in small diameter (IB4 positive) dorsal root ganglia neurons...
September 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Sara M F Turner, Darin J Falk, Barry J Byrne, David D Fuller
Pompe disease, caused by deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), leads to widespread glycogen accumulation and profound neuromuscular impairments. There has been controversy, however, regarding the role of central nervous system pathology in Pompe motor dysfunction. We hypothesized that absence of GAA protein causes progressive activation of neuropathological signaling, including pathways associated with cell death. To test this hypothesis, genomic data (Affymetrix Mouse Gene Array 2.0ST) from the mid-cervical spinal cord in 6- and 16-mo old Pompe (Gaa(-/-)) were evaluated (Broad Institute Molecular Signature Database), along with spinal cord histology...
September 9, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Dylan G Gee
Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental buffering regulates emotional behaviors and stress physiology as emotion regulation circuitry continues to mature. By contrast, disorganized or poor quality caregiving has profound and lasting consequences on the maturation of frontoamygdala circuitry essential for emotion regulation, even following termination of this early life stressor (e...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Samira Anderson, Kimberly Jenkins
Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function...
November 2015: Seminars in Hearing
J Amigó, A Díaz, F Pilar-Cuéllar, R Vidal, A Martín, V Compan, A Pazos, E Castro
Preclinical studies support a critical role of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4Rs) in depression and anxiety, but their influence in depression- and anxiety-like behaviours and the effects of antidepressants remain partly unknown. We evaluated 5-HT4R knockout (KO) mice in different anxiety and depression paradigms and mRNA expression of some neuroplasticity markers (BDNF, trkB and Arc) and the functionality of 5-HT1AR. Moreover, the implication of 5-HT4Rs in the behavioural and molecular effects of chronically administered fluoxetine was assessed in naïve and olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX) of both genotypes...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Katleho Limakatso, Lieselotte Corten, Romy Parker
BACKGROUND: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is characterized by the anatomical shifting of neighbouring somatosensory and motor areas into a deafferented cortical area of the brain contralateral to the amputated limb. It has been shown that maladaptive neuroplasticity is positively correlated to the perception of PLP in amputees. Recent studies support the use of graded motor imagery (GMI) and its component to alleviate the severity of PLP and disability. However, there is insufficient collective empirical evidence exploring the effectiveness of these treatment modalities in amputees with PLP...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Fatima Yousif Ismail, Ali Fatemi, Michael V Johnston
BACKGROUND: Neuroplasticity refers to the inherently dynamic biological capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to undergo maturation, change structurally and functionally in response to experience and to adapt following injury. This malleability is achieved by modulating subsets of genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms that influence the dynamics of synaptic connections and neural circuitry formation culminating in gain or loss of behavior or function. Neuroplasticity in the healthy developing brain exhibits a heterochronus cortex-specific developmental profile and is heightened during "critical and sensitive periods" of pre and postnatal brain development that enable the construction and consolidation of experience-dependent structural and functional brain connections...
August 9, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Jack W Tsao, Sacha B Finn, Matthew E Miller
Following left brachial plexus avulsion, a 20-year-old man had phantom limb pain and remapping of sensation from his paralyzed hand onto his face. Mirror therapy (15 min daily, 5 days/week) led immediately to good movement of the phantom limb with decreased pain. Within 2 weeks following nerve graft surgery, remapping of hand sensation onto the face disappeared along with resolution of phantom limb pain. Mirror therapy coupled with nerve grafting may relieve phantom limb pain due to brachial plexus avulsion and reverse hand-to-face remapping, suggesting that both peripheral and central mechanisms mediate development of phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization/neuroplasticity after brachial plexus avulsion...
June 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
A V Vasilenko, L S Onishchenko, S A Zhivolupov, S V Lobzin, N N Zabolotsky, T V Bodrova
AIM: Learning cycle «sleep-wake» is of great theoretical and practical importance because it allows to understand the general patterns of adaptive mechanisms of human interaction with the environment (neuroplasticity), violations of which are the basis of many diseases of the CNS, including epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Complex clinical and electroencephalographic (video-EEG monitoring with mandatory recording of sleep) study was carried out before and after prolonged sleep deprivation (for at least 1 day) of 178 patients with locally due to epilepsy (LEi)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Giuseppe Martano, Luca Murru, Edoardo Moretto, Laura Gerosa, Giulia Garrone, Vittorio Krogh, Maria Passafaro
INTRODUCTION: Neurons have a very high energy requirement, and their metabolism is tightly regulated to ensure delivery of adequate substrate to sustain neuronal activity and neuroplastic changes. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of neuronal metabolism, however, are not completely clear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the central carbon metabolism in neurons, in order to identify the regulatory pathways governing neuronal anabolism and catabolism...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Murat Serdar Gurses, Mustafa Numan Ural, Mehmet Akif Gulec, Omer Akyol, Sumeyya Akyol
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an environment that has various enzymes attended in regeneration and restoration processes which is very important to sustain physiological and biological functions of central nervous system (CNS). One of the participating enzyme systems in ECM turnover is matrix metalloproteinases. A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs (ADAMTS) is a unique family of ECM proteases found in mammals. Components of this family may be distinguished from the ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase) family based on the multiple copies of thrombospondin 1-like repeats...
August 2016: Aging and Disease
Dirk M Hermann, Claudio L Bassetti
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are highly prevalent in stroke patients. Recent studies suggest that they represent both a risk factor and a consequence of stroke and affect stroke recovery, outcome, and recurrence. METHODS: Review of literature. RESULTS: Several studies have proven SDB to represent an independent risk factor for stroke. Sleep studies in TIA and stroke patients are recommended in view of the very high prevalence (>50%) of SDB (Class IIb, level of evidence B)...
September 27, 2016: Neurology
Madhan Subramanian, Patrick J Mueller
Despite the classically held belief of an "all-or-none" activation of the sympathetic nervous system, differential responses in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) can occur acutely at varying magnitudes and in opposing directions. Sympathetic nerves also appear to contribute differentially to various disease states including hypertension and heart failure. Previously we have reported that sedentary conditions enhanced responses of splanchnic SNA (SSNA) but not lumbar SNA (LSNA) to activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in rats...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Laura Ortiz-Terán, Tomás Ortiz, David L Perez, Jose Ignacio Aragón, Ibai Diez, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Jorge Sepulcre
It is well established that the human brain reorganizes following sensory deprivations. In blind individuals, visual processing regions including the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) are activated by auditory and tactile stimuli as demonstrated by neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The mechanisms for such plasticity remain unclear, but shifts in connectivity across existing neural networks appear to play a critical role. The majority of research efforts to date have focused on neuroplastic changes within visual unimodal regions, however we hypothesized that neuroplastic alterations may also occur in brain networks beyond the visual cortices including involvement of multimodal integration regions and heteromodal cortices...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nitin B Gawali, Vipin D Bulani, Amrita A Chowdhury, Padmini S Deshpande, Dnyaneshwar M Nagmoti, Archana R Juvekar
Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling mechanisms play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Agmatine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator that has emerged as a potential agent to manage diverse central nervous system disorders. Agmatine has been shown to exert antidepressant-like effect. The present study investigated ability of agmatine to abolish the depressive-like behaviour induced by the administration of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice...
October 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Leonardo M Botelho, Leon Morales-Quezada, Joanna R Rozisky, Aline P Brietzke, Iraci L S Torres, Alicia Deitos, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Charles W Mcmonnies
Dry eye syndromes can involve both nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms. Nociceptive symptoms are the normal physiological responses to noxious stimuli. Neuropathic symptoms are caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and can be the result of hypersensitisation of peripheral or central corneal and conjunctival somatosensory nerves. For example, inflammation could induce neuroplastic peripheral sensitisation of the ocular surface or lid wiper and exacerbate nociceptive symptoms. Neuropathic symptoms may explain the incommensurate relation between signs and symptoms in some dry eye syndromes although absence of signs of a dry eye syndrome may also be a consequence of inappropriate methods used when examining for them...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Optometry
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