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Central neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191467/effects-of-tibolone-on-the-central-nervous-system-clinical-and-experimental-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Rodolfo Pinto-Almazán, Julia J Segura-Uribe, Eunice D Farfán-García, Christian Guerra-Araiza
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of endometrial and breast cancer. A strategy to reduce this incidence is the use of tibolone (TIB). The aim of this paper was to address the effects of TIB on the central nervous system (CNS). For the present review, MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS (via BIREME), Ovid Global Health, SCOPUS, Scielo, and PsycINFO (ProQuest Research Library) electronic databases were searched for the results of controlled clinical trials on peri- and postmenopausal women published from 1990 to September 2016...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161508/contribution-of-neuroinflammation-and-immunity-to-brain-aging-and-the-mitigating-effects-of-physical-and-cognitive-interventions
#2
REVIEW
Svetlana Di Benedetto, Ludmila Müller, Elisabeth Wenger, Sandra Düzel, Graham Pawelec
It is widely accepted that the brain and the immune system continuously interact during normal as well as pathological functioning. Human aging is commonly accompanied by low-grade inflammation in both the immune and central nervous systems, thought to contribute to many age-related diseases. This review of the current literature focuses first on the normal neuroimmune interactions occurring in the brain, which promote learning, memory and neuroplasticity. Further, we discuss the protective and dynamic role of barriers to neuroimmune interactions, which have become clearer with the recent discovery of the meningeal lymphatic system...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137663/central-mechanisms-of-airway-sensation-and-cough-hypersensitivity
#3
REVIEW
Alexandria K Driessen, Alice E McGovern, Monica Narula, Seung-Kwon Yang, Jennifer A Keller, Michael J Farrell, Stuart B Mazzone
The airway sensory nervous system is composed of two anatomically distinct processing pathways that allow for the production of respiratory reflexes and voluntary evoked respiratory behaviours in response to sensing an airway irritation. Disordered sensory processing is a hallmark feature of many pulmonary disorders and results in the development of cough hypersensitivity syndrome, characterised by chronic cough and a persistent urge-to-cough in affected individuals. However, the mechanism underpinning how the airway sensory circuits become disordered, especially at the level of the central nervous system, is not well understood...
January 27, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108255/regular-exercise-promotes-memory-function-and-enhances-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#4
Tae-Woon Kim, Yun-Hee Sung
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS), and is characterized by the development of demyelinated lesions and plaques in the brain and spinal cord. Exercise is beneficial against dementia in elderly patients, so we investigated the effects of exercise on memory in relation to hippocampal demyelination and neuroplasticity in a mouse model of MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]). Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, EAE, and EAE and exercise (EAE+EX)...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108062/chronic-vortioxetine-treatment-in-rodents-modulates-gene-expression-of-neurodevelopmental-and-plasticity-markers
#5
Jessica A Waller, Joseph A Tamm, Aicha Abdourahman, Alan L Pehrson, Yan Li, Manuel Cajina, Connie Sánchez
The multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine displays an antidepressant profile distinct from those of conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and possesses cognitive-enhancing properties in preclinical and clinical studies. Recent studies have begun to investigate molecular mechanisms that may differentiate vortioxetine from other antidepressants. Acute studies in adult rats and chronic studies in a middle-aged mouse model reveal upregulation of several markers that play a central role in synaptic plasticity...
February 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#6
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#7
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075486/highly-expandable-human-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitor-cells-npc-and-neurons-for-central-nervous-system-disease-modeling-and-high-throughput-screening
#8
Chialin Cheng, Daniel M Fass, Kat Folz-Donahue, Marcy E MacDonald, Stephen J Haggarty
Reprogramming of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has greatly expanded the set of research tools available to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Realizing the promise of iPS cell technology for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and for high-throughput drug screening requires implementation of methods for the large-scale production of defined CNS cell types. Here we describe a protocol for generating stable, highly expandable, iPS cell-derived CNS neural progenitor cells (NPC) using multi-dimensional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify NPC defined by cell surface markers...
January 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069532/neural-plasticity-and-network-remodeling-from-concepts-to-pathology
#9
REVIEW
Erez James Cohen, Eros Quarta, Riccardo Bravi, Alberto Granato, Diego Minciacchi
Neuroplasticity has been subject to a great deal of research in the last century. Recently, significant emphasis has been placed on the global effect of localized plastic changes throughout the central nervous system, and on how these changes integrate in a pathological context. Specifically, alterations of network functionality have been described in various pathological contexts to which corresponding structural alterations have been proposed. However, considering the amount of literature and the different pathological contexts, an integration of this information is still lacking...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057459/parabrachial-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-activation-of-amygdala-endosomal-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-signaling-regulates-the-emotional-component-of-pain
#10
Galen Missig, Linda Mei, Margaret A Vizzard, Karen M Braas, James A Waschek, Kerry J Ressler, Sayamwong E Hammack, Victor May
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and stress-related psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety-associated abnormalities, are mutually reinforcing; however, the neuronal circuits and mechanisms that underlie this reinforcement are still not well understood. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1) and its cognate PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) are expressed in peripheral nociceptive pathways, participate in anxiety-related responses and have been have been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health afflictions...
August 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043855/age-related-alterations-in-human-neocortical-plasticity
#11
M J Spriggs, C J Cadwallader, J P Hamm, L J Tippett, I J Kirk
Age-related changes in neuroplasticity may be central to the cognitive decline associated with healthy ageing. Modulated Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long-Term Depression (LTD) have been repeatedly demonstrated in aged rodents, however the translation to human research has been limited by a scarcity of non-invasive methods for doing so. We have previously demonstrated that, following a block of high frequency presentations of a visual stimulus (referred to as a "visual tetanus"), there is a LTP-like enhancement of the N1b component of the visually evoked potential (VEP) to subsequent low frequency presentations of the same stimulus...
December 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038987/adaptive-reorganization-of-retinogeniculate-axon-terminals-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-experimental-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Vishal C Patel, Christopher W D Jurgens, Thomas E Krahe, John T Povlishock
The pathologic process in traumatic brain injury marked by delayed axonal loss, known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI), leads to partial deafferentation of neurons downstream of injured axons. This process is linked to persistent visual dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), however, examination of deafferentation in humans is impossible with current technology. To investigate potential reorganization in the visual system following mTBI, we utilized the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) mouse model of mTBI...
March 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011743/5-ht2c-receptor-knockdown-in-the-amygdala-inhibits-neuropathic-pain-related-plasticity-and-behaviors
#13
Guangchen Ji, Wei Zhang, Lenin Mahimainathan, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Takaki Kiritoshi, Xiuzhen Fan, Jigong Wang, Thomas A Green, Volker Neugebauer
Neuroplasticity in the amygdala drives pain-related behaviors. The central nucleus (CeA) serves major amygdala output functions and can generate emotional-affective behaviors and modulate nocifensive responses. The CeA receives excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the basolateral nucleus (BLA) and serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT2CR in the BLA, but not CeA, has been implicated anxiogenic behaviors and anxiety disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT2CR in the BLA plays a critical role in CeA plasticity and neuropathic pain behaviors in the rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009767/transient-sensory-recovery-in-stroke-patients-after-pulsed-radiofrequency-electrical-stimulation-on-dorsal-root-ganglia-a-case-series
#14
Seza Apiliogullari, Ilknur A Gezer, Funda Levendoglu
INTRODUCTION: The integrity of the somatosensory system is important for motor recovery and neuroplasticity after strokes. Peripheral stimulation or central stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality in improving function and in facilitating neuroplasticity. CASE REPORT: We present 2 hemiplegic cases with sensory motor deficit and the result of the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) electrical stimulation to the dorsal root ganglia...
January 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005191/central-nervous-system-adaptation-after-ligamentous-injury-a-summary-of-theories-evidence-and-clinical-interpretation
#15
REVIEW
Alan R Needle, Adam S Lepley, Dustin R Grooms
The array of dysfunction occurring after ligamentous injury is tied to long-term clinical impairments in functional performance, joint stability, and health-related quality of life. To appropriately treat individuals, and in an attempt to avoid sequelae such as post-traumatic osteoarthritis, investigators have sought to better establish the etiology of the persistent dysfunction present in patients who have sustained joint ligament injuries to the lower extremities. Recent evidence has suggested that changes within the brain and central nervous system may underlie these functional deficits, with support arising from direct neurophysiologic measures of somatosensory dysfunction, motor system excitability, and plasticity of neural networks...
December 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997354/applications-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-and-pediatrics
#16
Guadalupe Nathzidy Rivera-Urbina, Michael A Nitsche, Carmelo M Vicario, Andrés Molero-Chamizo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory noninvasive brain stimulation tool with potential to increase or reduce regional and remote cortical excitability. Numerous studies have shown the ability of this technique to induce neuroplasticity and to modulate cognition and behavior in adults. Clinical studies have also demonstrated the ability of tDCS to induce therapeutic effects in several central nervous system disorders. However, knowledge about its ability to modulate brain functions in children or induce clinical improvements in pediatrics is limited...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935040/network-based-characterization-of-the-synaptic-proteome-reveals-that-removal-of-epigenetic-regulator-prmt8-restricts-proteins-associated-with-synaptic-maturation
#17
Patrick Kia Ming Lee, Wilson Wen Bin Goh, Judy Chia Ghee Sng
The brain adapts to dynamic environmental conditions by altering its epigenetic state, thereby influencing neuronal transcriptional programs. An example of an epigenetic modification is protein methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT). One member, Prmt8, is selectively expressed in the central nervous system during a crucial phase of early development, but little else is known regarding its function. We hypothesize Prmt8 plays a role in synaptic maturation during development. To evaluate this, we used a proteome-wide approach to characterize the synaptic proteome of Prmt8 knockout versus wild-type mice...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#18
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890578/adult-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Martino Bussa, Adriana Mascaro, Lorena Cuffaro, Simona Rinaldi
: Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a multifactorial painful disorder with a complex pathogenesis. Both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. Acute CRPS I is considered to be an exaggerated inflammatory disorder; however, over time, because of altered function of the sympathetic nervous system and maladaptive neuroplasticity, CRPS I evolves into a neurological disorder. This review thoroughly describes the pathophysiological aspects of CRPS I and summarizes the potential therapeutic options...
November 23, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837170/differential-contributions-of-vasopressin-v1a-and-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-amygdala-to-pain-related-behaviors-in-rats
#20
Bryce Cragg, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
Neuroplastic changes in the amygdala account for emotional-affective aspects of pain and involve neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide and corticotropin-releasing factor. Another neuropeptide system, central arginine vasopressin, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, but its role in pain-related emotional expression and neuroplasticity remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginine vasopressin in the amygdala contributes to pain-related emotional-affective responses, using stereotaxic applications of arginine vasopressin and antagonists for G-protein coupled vasopressin V1A and oxytocin receptors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2016: Molecular Pain
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