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Central neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#1
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209204/reward-circuitry-plasticity-in-pain-perception-and-modulation
#2
REVIEW
Marcos F DosSantos, Brenda de Souza Moura, Alexandre F DaSilva
Although pain is a widely known phenomenon and an important clinical symptom that occurs in numerous diseases, its mechanisms are still barely understood. Owing to the scarce information concerning its pathophysiology, particularly what is involved in the transition from an acute state to a chronic condition, pain treatment is frequently unsatisfactory, therefore contributing to the amplification of the chronic pain burden. In fact, pain is an extremely complex experience that demands the recruitment of an intricate set of central nervous system components...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204664/-central-and-peripheral-aspects-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#3
REVIEW
D Basta, M Gröschel, A Ernst
Noise is an important socioeconomic problem in industrialized countries. Development of efficient treatment options for the audiological phenomena resulting from noise-induced hearing loss requires in-depth understanding of the underlying damage mechanisms causing peripheral and central nervous changes. Mechanical damage, ischemia and excitotoxicity are mainly responsible for noise-induced cell death and biophysical changes in the cochlea. Auditory synaptopathy is an additional consequence. Besides these cochlear pathologies, noise exposure leads to extensive changes within the central auditory pathway...
December 4, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187252/atypical-non-standard-functions-of-the-microtubule-associated-tau-protein
#4
REVIEW
Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Marie-Christine Galas, Joana M Silva, Efthimios Skoulakis, Susanne Wegmann, Mahmoud Bukar Maina, David Blum, Carmen Laura Sayas, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow, Maria Grazia Spillantini, Nuno Sousa, Jesus Avila, Miguel Medina, Amrit Mudher, Luc Buee
Since the discovery of the microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) over 40 years ago, most studies have focused on Tau's role in microtubule stability and regulation, as well as on the neuropathological consequences of Tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. In recent years, however, research efforts identified new interaction partners and different sub-cellular localizations for Tau suggesting additional roles beyond its standard function as microtubule regulating protein...
November 29, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184487/the-role-of-celestial-compass-information-in-cataglyphis-ants-during-learning-walks-and-for-neuroplasticity-in-the-central-complex-and-mushroom-bodies
#5
Robin Grob, Pauline N Fleischmann, Kornelia Grübel, Rüdiger Wehner, Wolfgang Rössler
Central place foragers are faced with the challenge to learn the position of their nest entrance in its surroundings, in order to find their way back home every time they go out to search for food. To acquire navigational information at the beginning of their foraging career, Cataglyphis noda performs learning walks during the transition from interior worker to forager. These small loops around the nest entrance are repeatedly interrupted by strikingly accurate back turns during which the ants stop and precisely gaze back to the nest entrance-presumably to learn the landmark panorama of the nest surroundings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171414/non-invasive-electrical-brain-stimulation-from-acute-to-late-stage-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-damage
#6
REVIEW
Petra Henrich-Noack, Elena G Sergeeva, Bernhard A Sabel
Non-invasive brain current stimulation (NIBS) is a promising and versatile tool for inducing neuroplasticity, protection and functional rehabilitation of damaged neuronal systems. It is technically simple, requires no surgery, and has significant beneficial effects. However, there are various technical approaches for NIBS which influence neuronal networks in significantly different ways. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), alternating current stimulation (ACS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) all have been applied to modulate brain activity in animal experiments under normal and pathological conditions...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166690/-facial-emotion-recognition-theory-of-mind-and-empathy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah, Tania Kuempfel, Frank Padberg, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Ulrich Palm
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, causes frequent disability, mood disorders, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. As a part of the last, social cognition is frequently disturbed in MS patients. It comprises empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues. Social cognitive deficits worsen affect decoding, interpersonal relationship, and quality of life. Despite the impact of these deficits on global functioning, only a small number of studies have investigated its correlations and overlaps with MS symptoms...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149149/decreased-regional-grey-matter-volume-in-women-with-chronic-whiplash-associated-disorders-relationships-with-cognitive-deficits-and-disturbed-pain-processing
#8
Iris Coppieters, Robby De Pauw, Karen Caeyenberghs, Lieven Danneels, Jeroen Kregel, Astrid Pattyn, Mira Meeus, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD) are characterized by pain of traumatic origin, cognitive deficits, and central sensitization (CS). Previous neuroimaging studies revealed altered grey matter volume (GMV) in mild traumatic brain injury patients and chronic pain conditions also characterized by CS. It can therefore be hypothesized that GMV alterations also play a role in the persistent complaints of CWAD. However, brain alterations remain poorly investigated in these patients...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111577/applications-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-modulating-plasticity-of-central-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Ye Yang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Tian-Ran Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely applied for treatment of various neurological disorders. This manuscript will review the preclinical evidence of acupuncture in mediating neural plasticity, the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched acupuncture, plasticity, and other potential related words at the following sites: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP information data base. The following keywords were used: acupuncture, electroacupuncture, plasticity, neural plasticity, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, neuroblast, stem cell, progenitor cell, BrdU, synapse, synapse structure, synaptogenesis, axon, axon regeneration, synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, neurotrophin, neurotrophic factor, BDNF, GDNF, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, NT-3, NT-4, NT-5, p75NTR, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, dopamine, monamine...
November 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105941/assessment-and-manifestation-of-central-sensitisation-across-different-chronic-pain-conditions
#10
L Arendt-Nielsen, B Morlion, S Perrot, A Dahan, A Dickenson, H G Kress, C Wells, D Bouhassira, A Mohr Drewes
Different neuroplastic processes can occur along the nociceptive pathways and may be important in the transition from acute to chronic pain and for diagnosis and development of optimal management strategies. The neuroplastic processes may result in gain (sensitisation) or loss (desensitisation) of function in relation to the incoming nociceptive signals. Such processes play important roles in chronic pain, and although the clinical manifestations differ across condition processes, they share some common mechanistic features...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097049/the-absence-of-resting-state-high-gamma-cross-frequency-coupling-in-patients-with-tinnitus
#11
Min-Hee Ahn, Sung Kwang Hong, Byoung-Kyong Min
Tinnitus is a psychoacoustic phantom perception of currently unknown neuropathology. Despite a growing number of post-stimulus tinnitus studies, uncertainty still exists regarding the neural signature of tinnitus in the resting-state brain. In the present study, we used high-gamma cross-frequency coupling and a Granger causality analysis to evaluate resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) data in healthy participants and patients with tinnitus. Patients with tinnitus lacked robust frontal delta-phase/central high-gamma-amplitude coupling that was otherwise clearly observed in healthy participants...
October 30, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021765/enhancing-neuroplasticity-to-augment-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia
#12
REVIEW
Carol Jahshan, Yuri Rassovsky, Michael F Green
There is a burgeoning need for innovative treatment strategies to improve the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) is effective at the group level, but the variability in treatment response is large. Given that CR may depend on intact neuroplasticity to produce cognitive gains, it is reasonable to combine it with strategies that harness patients' neuroplastic potential. In this review, we discuss two non-pharmacological approaches that can enhance neuroplasticity and possibly augment the effects of CR in schizophrenia: physical exercise and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019708/effects-of-long-term-exercise-and-low-level-inhibition-of-gabaergic-synapses-on-motor-control-and-the-expression-of-bdnf-in-the-motor-related-cortex
#13
Takahiro Inoue, Shuta Ninuma, Masataka Hayashi, Akane Okuda, Tadayoshi Asaka, Hiroshi Maejima
Objectives Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in neuroplasticity in the brain. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of long-term exercise combined with low-level inhibition of GABAergic synapses on motor control and the expression of BDNF in the motor-related cortex. Methods ICR mice were divided into four groups based on the factors exercise and GABAA receptor inhibition. We administered the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline intraperitoneally (0.25 mg/kg)...
October 11, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977718/sustained-cell-body-reactivity-and-loss-of-neun-in-a-subset-of-axotomized-bulbospinal-neurons-after-a-chronic-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Fannie Darlot, Stéphane Vinit, Valéry Matarazzo, Anne Kastner
Following central nervous system lesion, the ability of injured axons to regrowth may depend on the level and duration of the injured cell body response (CBR). Therefore, in order to investigate whether axotomized brainstem neurons maintain a durable growth-competent state after spinal cord injury, we studied the effect of a chronic C2 hemisection in rats on the expression of various CBR markers involved in axon regeneration, such as c-Jun, ATF-3, HSP27, NO synthase (NOS), and also of the neural mature phenotype marker NeuN, in the bulbospinal respiratory neurons as compared to the Gigantocellularis nucleus...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971481/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i-a-review
#15
REVIEW
R Nardone, F Brigo, Y Höller, L Sebastianelli, V Versace, L Saltuari, P Lochner, E Trinka
The sensory and motor cortical representation corresponding to the affected limb is altered in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a useful non-invasive approach for studying cortical physiology. If delivered repetitively, TMS can also modulate cortical excitability and induce long-lasting neuroplastic changes. In this review, we performed a systematic search of all studies using TMS to explore cortical excitability/plasticity and repetitive TMS (rTMS) for the treatment of CRPS...
October 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967356/pain-sensitisation-in-osteoarthritis
#16
REVIEW
Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Treating chronic musculoskeletal pain, and chronic joint pain (osteoarthritis (OA)) in particular, is challenging as the peripheral and central pain mechanisms are not fully discovered, and safe and as efficient analgesic drugs are not available. In general, the preclinical models of OA are limited to provide fundamental understanding of the pain mechanisms involved in patients with chronic joint pain (1). The pain associated with joint discomfort is highly variable, often underestimated by clinicians, and shows only modest association with crude radiological scorings...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966631/primary-cilia-as-a-novel-horizon-between-neuron-and-environment
#17
REVIEW
Gregory W Kirschen, Qiaojie Xiong
The primary cilium, a hair-like sensory organelle found on most mammalian cells, has gained recent attention within the field of neuroscience. Although neural primary cilia have been known to play a role in embryonic central nervous system patterning, we are just beginning to appreciate their importance in the mature organism. After several decades of investigation and controversy, the neural primary cilium is emerging as an important regulator of neuroplasticity in the healthy adult central nervous system...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960184/fragile-x-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Randi J Hagerman, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Heather Cody Hazlett, Donald B Bailey, Herve Moine, R Frank Kooy, Flora Tassone, Ilse Gantois, Nahum Sonenberg, Jean Louis Mandel, Paul J Hagerman
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, and patients can present with severe behavioural alterations, including hyperactivity, impulsivity and anxiety, in addition to poor language development and seizures. FXS is a trinucleotide repeat disorder, in which >200 repeats of the CGG motif in FMR1 leads to silencing of the gene and the consequent loss of its product, fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP). FMRP has a central role in gene expression and regulates the translation of potentially hundreds of mRNAs, many of which are involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal synaptic connections...
September 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928195/reach-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-trial-of-rehabilitation-very-early-in-congenital-hemiplegia
#19
Roslyn N Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose
OBJECTIVES: Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP). Children with unilateral CP show signs of upper limb asymmetry by 8 months corrected age (ca) but are frequently not referred to therapy until after 12 months ca. This study compares the efficacy of infant-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy (Baby mCIMT) to infant friendly bimanual therapy (Baby BIM) on upper limb, cognitive and neuroplasticity outcomes in a multisite randomised comparison trial...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912688/a-shift-from-a-pivotal-to-supporting-role-for-the-growth-associated-protein-gap-43-in-the-coordination-of-axonal-structural-and-functional-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Matthew R Holahan
In a number of animal species, the growth-associated protein (GAP), GAP-43 (aka: F1, neuromodulin, B-50, G50, pp46), has been implicated in the regulation of presynaptic vesicular function and axonal growth and plasticity via its own biochemical properties and interactions with a number of other presynaptic proteins. Changes in the expression of GAP-43 mRNA or distribution of the protein coincide with axonal outgrowth as a consequence of neuronal damage and presynaptic rearrangement that would occur following instances of elevated patterned neural activity including memory formation and development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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