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Central neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#1
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#2
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075486/highly-expandable-human-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitor-cells-npc-and-neurons-for-central-nervous-system-disease-modeling-and-high-throughput-screening
#3
Chialin Cheng, Daniel M Fass, Kat Folz-Donahue, Marcy E MacDonald, Stephen J Haggarty
Reprogramming of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has greatly expanded the set of research tools available to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Realizing the promise of iPS cell technology for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and for high-throughput drug screening requires implementation of methods for the large-scale production of defined CNS cell types. Here we describe a protocol for generating stable, highly expandable, iPS cell-derived CNS neural progenitor cells (NPC) using multi-dimensional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify NPC defined by cell surface markers...
January 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069532/neural-plasticity-and-network-remodeling-from-concepts-to-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Erez James Cohen, Eros Quarta, Riccardo Bravi, Alberto Granato, Diego Minciacchi
Neuroplasticity has been subject to a great deal of research in the last century. Recently, significant emphasis has been placed on the global effect of localized plastic changes throughout the central nervous system, and on how these changes integrate in a pathological context. Specifically, alterations of network functionality have been described in various pathological contexts to which corresponding structural alterations have been proposed. However, considering the amount of literature and the different pathological contexts, an integration of this information is still lacking...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057459/parabrachial-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-activation-of-amygdala-endosomal-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-signaling-regulates-the-emotional-component-of-pain
#5
Galen Missig, Linda Mei, Margaret A Vizzard, Karen M Braas, James A Waschek, Kerry J Ressler, Sayamwong E Hammack, Victor May
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and stress-related psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety-associated abnormalities, are mutually reinforcing; however, the neuronal circuits and mechanisms that underlie this reinforcement are still not well understood. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1) and its cognate PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) are expressed in peripheral nociceptive pathways, participate in anxiety-related responses and have been have been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health afflictions...
August 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043855/age-related-alterations-in-human-neocortical-plasticity
#6
M J Spriggs, C J Cadwallader, J P Hamm, L J Tippett, I J Kirk
Age-related changes in neuroplasticity may be central to the cognitive decline associated with healthy ageing. Modulated Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long-Term Depression (LTD) have been repeatedly demonstrated in aged rodents, however the translation to human research has been limited by a scarcity of non-invasive methods for doing so. We have previously demonstrated that, following a block of high frequency presentations of a visual stimulus (referred to as a "visual tetanus"), there is a LTP-like enhancement of the N1b component of the visually evoked potential (VEP) to subsequent low frequency presentations of the same stimulus...
December 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038987/adaptive-reorganization-of-retinogeniculate-axon-terminals-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-experimental-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Vishal C Patel, Christopher W D Jurgens, Thomas E Krahe, John T Povlishock
The pathologic process in traumatic brain injury marked by delayed axonal loss, known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI), leads to partial deafferentation of neurons downstream of injured axons. This process is linked to persistent visual dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), however, examination of deafferentation in humans is impossible with current technology. To investigate potential reorganization in the visual system following mTBI, we utilized the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) mouse model of mTBI...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011743/5-ht2c-receptor-knockdown-in-the-amygdala-inhibits-neuropathic-pain-related-plasticity-and-behaviors
#8
Guangchen Ji, Wei Zhang, Lenin Mahimainathan, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Takaki Kiritoshi, Xiuzhen Fan, Jigong Wang, Thomas A Green, Volker Neugebauer
: Neuroplasticity in the amygdala drives pain-related behaviors. The central nucleus (CeA) serves major amygdala output functions and can generate emotional-affective behaviors and modulate nocifensive responses. The CeA receives excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the basolateral nucleus (BLA), and serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT2CR in the BLA, but not CeA, has been implicated anxiogenic behaviors and anxiety disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT2CR in the BLA plays a critical role in CeA plasticity and neuropathic pain behaviors in the rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009767/transient-sensory-recovery-in-stroke-patients-after-pulsed-radiofrequency-electrical-stimulation-on-dorsal-root-ganglia-a-case-series
#9
Seza Apiliogullari, Ilknur A Gezer, Funda Levendoglu
INTRODUCTION: The integrity of the somatosensory system is important for motor recovery and neuroplasticity after strokes. Peripheral stimulation or central stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality in improving function and in facilitating neuroplasticity. CASE REPORT: We present 2 hemiplegic cases with sensory motor deficit and the result of the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) electrical stimulation to the dorsal root ganglia...
January 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005191/central-nervous-system-adaptation-after-ligamentous-injury-a-summary-of-theories-evidence-and-clinical-interpretation
#10
REVIEW
Alan R Needle, Adam S Lepley, Dustin R Grooms
The array of dysfunction occurring after ligamentous injury is tied to long-term clinical impairments in functional performance, joint stability, and health-related quality of life. To appropriately treat individuals, and in an attempt to avoid sequelae such as post-traumatic osteoarthritis, investigators have sought to better establish the etiology of the persistent dysfunction present in patients who have sustained joint ligament injuries to the lower extremities. Recent evidence has suggested that changes within the brain and central nervous system may underlie these functional deficits, with support arising from direct neurophysiologic measures of somatosensory dysfunction, motor system excitability, and plasticity of neural networks...
December 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997354/applications-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-and-pediatrics
#11
Guadalupe Nathzidy Rivera-Urbina, Michael A Nitsche, Carmelo M Vicario, Andrés Molero-Chamizo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory noninvasive brain stimulation tool with potential to increase or reduce regional and remote cortical excitability. Numerous studies have shown the ability of this technique to induce neuroplasticity and to modulate cognition and behavior in adults. Clinical studies have also demonstrated the ability of tDCS to induce therapeutic effects in several central nervous system disorders. However, knowledge about its ability to modulate brain functions in children or induce clinical improvements in pediatrics is limited...
December 20, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935040/network-based-characterization-of-the-synaptic-proteome-reveals-that-removal-of-epigenetic-regulator-prmt8-restricts-proteins-associated-with-synaptic-maturation
#12
Patrick Kia Ming Lee, Wilson Wen Bin Goh, Judy Chia Ghee Sng
The brain adapts to dynamic environmental conditions by altering its epigenetic state, thereby influencing neuronal transcriptional programs. An example of an epigenetic modification is protein methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT). One member, Prmt8, is selectively expressed in the central nervous system during a crucial phase of early development, but little else is known regarding its function. We hypothesize Prmt8 plays a role in synaptic maturation during development. To evaluate this, we used a proteome-wide approach to characterize the synaptic proteome of Prmt8 knockout versus wildtype mice...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#13
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890578/adult-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Martino Bussa, Adriana Mascaro, Lorena Cuffaro, Simona Rinaldi
: Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a multifactorial painful disorder with a complex pathogenesis. Both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. Acute CRPS I is considered to be an exaggerated inflammatory disorder; however, over time, because of altered function of the sympathetic nervous system and maladaptive neuroplasticity, CRPS I evolves into a neurological disorder. This review thoroughly describes the pathophysiological aspects of CRPS I and summarizes the potential therapeutic options...
November 23, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837170/differential-contributions-of-vasopressin-v1a-and-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-amygdala-to-pain-related-behaviors-in-rats
#15
Bryce Cragg, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
Neuroplastic changes in the amygdala account for emotional-affective aspects of pain and involve neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide and corticotropin-releasing factor. Another neuropeptide system, central arginine vasopressin, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, but its role in pain-related emotional expression and neuroplasticity remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginine vasopressin in the amygdala contributes to pain-related emotional-affective responses, using stereotaxic applications of arginine vasopressin and antagonists for G-protein coupled vasopressin V1A and oxytocin receptors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819338/quinolinic-acid-injection-in-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex-affects-reversal-learning-abilities-cortical-connectivity-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#16
Amira Latif-Hernandez, Disha Shah, Tariq Ahmed, Adrian C Lo, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Annemie Van der Linden, Detlef Balschun, Rudi D'Hooge
Intracerebral injection of the excitotoxic, endogenous tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic acid (QA), constitutes a chemical model of neurodegenerative brain disease. Complementary techniques were combined to examine the consequences of QA injection into medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of C57BL6 mice. In accordance with the NMDAR-mediated synapto- and neurotoxic action of QA, we found an initial increase in excitability and an augmentation of hippocampal long-term potentiation, converting within two weeks into a reduction and impairment, respectively, of these processes...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818352/exercise-combined-with-low-level-gabaa-receptor-inhibition-up-regulates-the-expression-of-neurotrophins-in-the-motor-cortex
#17
Kazuma Takahashi, Hiroshi Maejima, Gaku Ikuta, Hiroki Mani, Tadayoshi Asaka
Neurotrophins play a crucial role in neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. Aerobic exercise is known to increase the expression of BDNF in the cerebral cortex. Several animal studies have evaluated the tonic inhibition of GABAergic synapses to enhance hippocampal plasticity as well as learning and memory, whereas the effects of GABAergic inhibition on plasticity in the cerebral cortex related to motor learning are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactive effect of low-level GABAA receptor inhibition and exercise on the expression of neurotrophins including BDNF in the murine motor cortex...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803816/eeg-source-imaging-guided-by-spatiotemporal-specific-fmri-toward-an-understanding-of-dynamic-cognitive-processes
#18
Thinh Nguyen, Thomas Potter, Trac Nguyen, Christof Karmonik, Robert Grossman, Yingchun Zhang
Understanding the mechanism of neuroplasticity is the first step in treating neuromuscular system impairments with cognitive rehabilitation approaches. To characterize the dynamics of the neural networks and the underlying neuroplasticity of the central motor system, neuroimaging tools with high spatial and temporal accuracy are desirable. EEG and fMRI stand among the most popular noninvasive neuroimaging modalities with complementary features, yet achieving both high spatial and temporal accuracy remains a challenge...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766069/an-increase-in-alpha-band-frequency-in-resting-state-eeg-after-electrical-stimulation-of-the-ear-in-tinnitus-patients-a-pilot-study
#19
Marzena Mielczarek, Joanna Michalska, Katarzyna Polatyńska, Jurek Olszewski
In our clinic invasive transtympanal promontory positive DC stimulations were first used, with a success rate of 42%. However, non-invasive hydrotransmissive negative DC stimulations are now favored, with improvement being obtained in 37.8% directly after the treatment, and 51.3% in a follow up 1 month after treatment. The further improvement after 1 month may be due to neuroplastic changes at central level as a result of altered peripheral input. The aim of the study was to determine how/whether a single electrical stimulation of the ear influences cortical activity, and whether changes observed in tinnitus after electrical stimulation are associated with any changes in cortical activity recorded in EEG...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688594/the-p1-biomarker-for-assessing-cortical-maturation-in-pediatric-hearing-loss-a-review
#20
Anu Sharma, Hannah Glick, Emily Deeves, Erin Duncan
We review evidence for a high degree of neuroplasticity of the central auditory pathways in early childhood, citing evidence of studies of the P1 and N1 cortical auditory evoked potentials in congenitally deaf children receiving cochlear implants at different ages during childhood, children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and children with hearing loss and comorbid multiple disabilities. We discuss neuroplasticity, including cortico-cortical de-coupling and cross-modal re-organization that occurs in deafness...
December 2015: Otorinolaringologia
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