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C Buratti, F Fantozzi, M Barbanera, E Lascaro, M Chiorri, L Cecchini
Beef cattle production is a widespread activity in Italy in the agricultural field and determines an important impact on environment and resources consumption. Carbon footprint evaluation is thus necessary to evaluate the contributions of the different stages and the possible improvements of the production chain. In this study, two typical Italian beef production systems, a conventional and an organic one are investigated in order to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions from "cradle to gate farm" by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach; the carbon footprint (CF) per 1kg of live weight meat is calculated...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Denise Mendes da Silva, Mariana Gatto, Mariana Miziara de Abreu Teodoro, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Érika Alessandra Pelisson Nunes da Costa, Francilene Capel Tavares Carvalho, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is a serious public health issue. Its evolution involves an acute stage, characterized by no specific symptoms, and the chronic stage during most individuals are asymptomatic, but about 30 to 40% of them become symptomatic presenting the cardiac or digestive disease. Host immune response mechanisms involved in symptomatic or asymptomatic chronic disease are not fully understood. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial in host resistance. However, a fine control of this inflammatory process, by action of anti-inflammatory cytokines, is necessary to avoid tissue injury...
October 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Odete Gonçalves, L Filipe C Castro, Adam J Smolka, António Fontainhas, Jonathan M Wilson
The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2-3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade...
2016: PloS One
Ljerka Lah, Daronja Trense, Harald Benke, Per Berggren, Þorvaldur Gunnlaugsson, Christina Lockyer, Ayaka Öztürk, Bayram Öztürk, Iwona Pawliczka, Anna Roos, Ursula Siebert, Krzysztof Skóra, Gísli Víkingsson, Ralph Tiedemann
The population structure of the highly mobile marine mammal, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), in the Atlantic shelf waters follows a pattern of significant isolation-by-distance. The population structure of harbor porpoises from the Baltic Sea, which is connected with the North Sea through a series of basins separated by shallow underwater ridges, however, is more complex. Here, we investigated the population differentiation of harbor porpoises in European Seas with a special focus on the Baltic Sea and adjacent waters, using a population genomics approach...
2016: PloS One
Waraporn Hahor, Karun Thongprajukaew, Krueawan Yoonram, Somrak Rodjaroen
Postmortem changes have been previously studied in some terrestrial animal models, but no prior information is available on aquatic species. Gastrointestinal functionality was investigated in terms of indices, protein concentration, digestive enzyme activity, and scavenging activity, in an aquatic animal model, Nile tilapia, to assess the postmortem changes. Dead fish were floated indoors, and samples were collected within 48 h after death. Stomasomatic index decreased with postmortem time and correlated positively with protein, pepsin-specific activity, and stomach scavenging activity...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Song Cai, Chuwen Ling, Jun Lu, Songwei Duan, Yingzhao Wang, Huining Zhu, Ruibang Lin, Liang Chen, Xingchang Pan, Muyi Cai, Huaiyu Gu
A primary pathogeny of epilepsy is excessive activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPARs). To find potential molecules to inhibit AMPARs, high-throughput screening was performed in a library of tetrapeptides in silico. Computational results suggest that some tetrapeptides bind stably to the AMPAR. We aligned these sequences of tetrapeptide candidates with those from in vitro digestion of the trout skin protein. Among salmon-derived products, Glu-Gly-Ala-Arg (EGAR) showed a high biological affinity toward AMPAR when tested in silico...
October 25, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Lumin Sun, Bingyan Lu, Dongxing Yuan, Wenbo Hao, Ying Zheng
Variations in the composition of stable isotopes of mercury contained in tissues (root, stem, leaf, and hypocotyl or flower) of three typical mangrove plants (Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculata, and Bruguiera gymnorhiza), collected from the mangrove wetland of Jiulong estuary, SE China, were used to investigate the sources and transformation of mercury in the mangrove plants. Tissue samples from the plants were digested and mercury in the solution was pre-concentrated with purge-trap method and then analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS)...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Adelazil de Brito Fabricio Neta, Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento, Caroline Miranda Biondi, Peter van Straaten, Sheila Maria Bretas Bittar
Fernando de Noronha is a small volcanic archipelago in the Southern Atlantic, some 350 km NE of the city of Natal in NE Brazil. These remote volcanic islands represent a largely pristine environment, distant from sources of anthropogenic contamination. This study was carried out to determine the natural concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the A and B horizons of soils of Fernando de Noronha. The aims of the study were twofold: determine whether there is a relationship between the bedrock geology and soils and to establish quality reference values for soils from Fernando de Noronha...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Tanja Stachon, Krasimir Kolev, Zsuzsa Flaskó, Berthold Seitz, Achim Langenbucher, Nóra Szentmáry
PURPOSE: Keratoconus (KC) is a disease characterized by thinning and deformation of the cornea, but its etiology remains unknown. Seventy percent of the corneal stroma consists of collagen, which is composed of three intertwined polypeptide chains with glycine-hydroxyproline-proline repeats along their sequence. Arginase is a cytoplasmatic enzyme and catalyzes the conversion of arginine to urea and ornithine, which serves as a precursor for the endogenous synthesis of proline and hydroxyproline...
October 25, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
M C García, E González-García, R Vásquez-Villanueva, M L Marina
Stones from olives and Prunus genus fruits are cheap and sustainable sources of proteins and could be potential sources of bioactive peptides. The main limitation to the use of these seeds is the presence of amygdalin. This work proposes to determine amygdalin in olive and Prunus seeds and in protein isolates obtained from them. Moreover, antioxidant, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and hypocholesterolemic properties will be evaluated in hydrolysates obtained from these seeds. Despite some seeds contained amygdalin, all protein isolates were free of this substance...
October 26, 2016: Food & Function
Kari Skrautvol, Dagfinn Nåden
People living with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experienced that knowledge about their embodied tolerance limits, diet, mental problem solving, and change in lifestyle together with integrative health care could promote recovery from their diagnosed disease in calmer periods of suffering. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze interviews with patients living with IBD outside hospitals. Thirteen young adults between 18 and 45 years of age in calmer phases of IBD participated in the study. Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: (1) Understanding limits in embodied tolerance, (2) Restoring balance is creating a new equilibrium, and (3) Creating resilience through integrative care...
October 25, 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
Wenfeng Li, Yalong Lu, Di Huang, Xiao Han, Xingbin Yang
BACKGROUND: Nutritional and absorption-promoting properties of stachyose combined with tea catechins (TC) have been revealed. However, the mechanism involved in non-digestible oligosaccharides-mediated enhancement of flavonoid absorption has largely remained elusive. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism of stachyose in enhancing absorption and transportation of TC in mice. Mice were orally pre-treated with stachyose (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg·bw) for 0-8 weeks, and 1 h before sacrifice, mice were treated with TC (250 mg/kg·bw)...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Jonathan B Puritz, John R Gold, David S Portnoy
Conservation and management of exploited species depends on accurate knowledge of how genetic variation is partitioned across a fishery, especially as it relates to recruitment. Using double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing, we surveyed variation in 7,382 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) young-of-the-year (YOY) sampled at six localities and in adults sampled at two localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Significant genetic heterogeneity was detected between the two adult samples, separated by ~600 km, and at spatial scales less than five kilometers among samples of  YOY...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
I M Fuentes, J A Christianson
Ion channels are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal system and regulate nearly every aspect of digestion, including fluid secretion and absorption, motility, and visceral sensitivity. It is therefore not surprising that in the setting of functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ion channels are often altered in terms of expression level and function and are a target of pharmacological intervention. This is particularly true of their role in driving abdominal pain through visceral hypersensitivity (VH), which is the main reason IBS patients seek medical care...
November 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Filipa R Fernandes Simoes, Nitin Kumar Batra, Bashir H Warsama, Christian G Canlas, Shashikant Pandurang Patole, Tahir F Yapici, Pedro M F J Costa
Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) is a common, relatively low cost and straightforward analytical technique for the study of trace quantities of metals in solid materials but its applicability to nanocarbons (e.g. graphene and nanotubes) has suffered from the lack of efficient digestion steps and certified reference materials (CRM). Here, various commercial and certified graphitic carbon materials were subjected to a "two-steps" microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure and the concentration of up to 18 elements was analysed by ICP-OES...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Dian Su, Carl K Ng, Mehraban Khosraviani, Shang-Fan Yu, Ely Cosino, Surinder Kaur, Keyang Xu
Affinity capture liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) intact antibody assay has been widely used for direct drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) and catabolite characterization of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). However, the intact mass spectra of new ADCs, which incorporate new types of linkers and/or payloads other than maytansines and auristatins, are more complex than those examined previously. The current method has showed some limitations in elucidating certain structural modifications. Herein, we report an alternative analytical approach for ADCs, such as THIOMABTM antibody-drug conjugates (TDCs), where the linker-drugs are site-specifically conjugated in the Fab region...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Li Zhang, Wei Song, Ru-Ping Liang, Jian-Ding Qiu
We design two artificial substrate peptides to synthesize blue-emissive Cu nanoclusters and red-emissive Au nanoclusters, respectively. In addition to the biomineralization function, these two peptides retain the biological activity to be phosphorylated by protein kinase and digested by carboxypeptidase Y. In the absence of protein kinase, the peptides capped on the nanoclusters suffer consecutive exocleavage by carboxypeptidase Y, resulting in oxidation and thus fluorescence quenching of the nanoclusters due to the losing of peptide protection...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Pedro Alan Sainz-Sánchez, Felipe López-González, Julieta Gertrudis Estrada-Flores, Carlos Galdino Martínez-García, Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán
The use and management of native grassland for dairy production during the rainy season was studied on two small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico. Two stocking rates (2 and 4 cows/ha) and two levels of supplementation with commercial concentrate (4 and 6 kg/cow/day) under grazing were given to 12 milking Holstein cows in a 4 × 4 Latin square design replicated three times in a factorial arrangement. Net herbage accumulation (NHA), sward height, chemical composition, and in vitro digestibility of organic matter were recorded for the grassland, as well as vegetation cover and herbage mass 12 weeks post experiment...
October 25, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ping Shuai, Yu Zhou, Bo Gong, Zhilin Jiang, Chong Yang, Hongji Yang, Dingding Zhang, Shikai Zhu
BACKGROUND: Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a newly discovered long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA), has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various cancers, and may serve as a novel potential biomarker for cancer prognosis. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of MALAT1 on cancer prognosis and lymph node metastasis. METHODS: A quantitative meta-analysis was performed using a systematic search of PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases to identify eligible papers on prognostic value of MALAT1 in cancers...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sergio Salazar-Villanea, Erik M A M Bruininx, Harry Gruppen, Wouter H Hendriks, Patrick Carré, Alain Quinsac, Antonius F B van der Poel
BACKGROUND: Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120 min, with samples taken every 20 min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the effects on its in vitro CP digestibility...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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