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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777775/genome-analysis-of-the-ancient-tracheophyte-selaginella-tamariscina-reveals-evolutionary-features-relevant-to-the-acquisition-of-desiccation-tolerance
#1
Zhichao Xu, Tianyi Xin, Dorothea Bartels, Ying Li, Wei Gu, Hui Yao, Sai Liu, Haoying Yu, Xiangdong Pu, Jianguo Zhou, Jiang Xu, Caicai Xi, Hetian Lei, Jingyuan Song, Shilin Chen
Resurrection plants, which are the "gifts" of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27,761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive S...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777720/regulation-of-shigella-effector-kinase-ospg-through-modulation-of-its-dynamic-properties
#2
Andrey M Grishin, Kathryn R Barber, Ruo-Xu Gu, D Peter Tieleman, Gary S Shaw, Miroslaw Cygler
Gram-negative pathogens secrete effector proteins into human cells to modulate normal cellular processes and establish a bacterial replication niche. Shigella and pathogenic E. coli possess homologous effector kinases, OspG and NleH1/2, respectively. Upon translocation, OspG but not NleH binds to ubiquitin and a subset of E2~Ub conjugates, which was shown to activate its kinase activity. Here we show that OspG, having a minimal kinase fold, acquired a novel mechanism of regulation of its activity. Binding of the E2~Ub conjugate to OspG not only stimulates its kinase activity but also increases its optimal temperature for activity to match the human body temperature and stabilizes its labile C-terminal domain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777502/oxi1-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-resistance-of-arabidopsis-towards-aphids-myzus-persicae
#3
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777197/the-transition-state-structure-for-binding-between-taz1-of-cbp-and-the-disordered-hif-1%C3%AE-cad
#4
Ida Lindström, Eva Andersson, Jakob Dogan
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are common in eukaryotes. However, relatively few experimental studies have addressed the nature of the rate-limiting transition state for the coupled binding and folding reactions involving IDPs. By using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with kinetics measurements we have here characterized the transition state for binding between the globular TAZ1 domain of CREB binding protein and the intrinsically disordered C-terminal activation domain of Hif-1α (Hif-1α CAD)...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777050/the-yeast-telomerase-recruitment-module-requires-a-specific-rna-architecture
#5
Nancy Laterreur, Bruno Lemieux, Hannah Neumann, Jean-Christophe Berger-Dancause, Daniel Lafontaine, Raymund J Wellinger
Telomerases are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzymes that are related to reverse transcriptases. While they maintain genome stability, their composition varies significantly between species. Yeast telomerase RNPs contain an RNA that is comparatively large and its overall folding shows long helical segments with distal functional parts. Here we investigated the essential stem IVc module of the budding yeast telomerase RNA, called Tlc1. The distal part of stem IVc includes a conserved sequence element CS2a and structurally conserved features to which bind the Pop1/Pop6/Pop7 proteins and which together function analogously to the P3 domains of the RNase P/MRP RNPs...
May 18, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776931/shuffling-the-neutral-drift-of-unspecific-peroxygenase-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Javier Martin-Diaz, Carmen Paret, Eva García-Ruiz, Patricia Molina-Espeja, Miguel Alcalde
Unspecific peroxygenase (UPO) is a highly promiscuous biocatalyst and its selective mono(per)oxygenase activity makes it useful for many synthetic chemistry applications. Among the broad repertory of library creation methods for directed enzyme evolution, genetic drift allows neutral mutations to be accumulated gradually within a polymorphic network of variants. In this study, we conducted a campaign of genetic drift with UPO in Saccharomyces cerevisiae so that neutral mutations were simply added and recombined in vivo With low mutational loading and an activity threshold of 45% of the parent's native function, mutant libraries enriched in folded and active UPO variants were generated...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776750/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-vi-dt-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-phase-i-trial-in-healthy-filipino-adults-and-children
#7
Maria Rosario Capeding, Samuel Teshome, Tarun Saluja, Khalid Ali Syed, Deok Ryun Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Jae Seung Yang, Yang Hee Kim, Jiwook Park, Sue-Kyoung Jo, Yun Chon, Sudeep Kothari, Seon-Young Yang, Dong Soo Ham, Ji Hwa Ryu, Hee-Seong Hwang, Ju-Hwan Mun, Julia Lynch, Jerome Kim, Hun Kim, Jean-Louis Excler, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries where children aged 2-14 years bear the greatest burden. Vi polysaccharide is poorly immunogenic in children <2 years of age, and protection in adults is modest. The limitations of Vi polysaccharide vaccines can be overcome by conjugation of the Vi to a carrier protein. A typhoid conjugate vaccine composed of Vi polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) has been developed...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776380/use-of-designed-sequences-in-protein-structure-recognition
#8
Gayatri Kumar, Richa Mudgal, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Sankaran Sandhya
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the protein structure is a pre-requisite for improved understanding of molecular function. The gap in the sequence-structure space has increased in the post-genomic era. Grouping related protein sequences into families can aid in narrowing the gap. In the Pfam database, structure description is provided for part or full-length proteins of 7726 families. For the remaining 52% of the families, information on 3-D structure is not yet available. We use the computationally designed sequences that are intermediately related to two protein domain families, which are already known to share the same fold...
May 9, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776378/differential-induction-of-mutant-sod1-misfolding-and-aggregation-by-tau-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#9
Michael C Pace, Guilian Xu, Susan Fromholt, John Howard, Benoit I Giasson, Jada Lewis, David R Borchelt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies in C. elegans demonstrated that the expression of aggregation-prone polyglutamine proteins in muscle wall cells compromised the folding of co-expressed temperature-sensitive proteins, prompting interest in whether the accumulation of a misfolded protein in pathologic features of human neurodegenerative disease burdens cellular proteostatic machinery in a manner that impairs the folding of other cellular proteins. METHODS: Mice expressing high levels of mutant forms of tau and α-synuclein (αSyn), which develop inclusion pathologies of the mutant protein in brain and spinal cord, were crossed to mice expressing low levels of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (G85R-SOD1:YFP) for aging and neuropathological evaluation...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776093/impact-of-hydrodynamic-interactions-on-protein-folding-rates-depends-on-temperature
#10
Fabio C Zegarra, Dirar Homouz, Yossi Eliaz, Andrei G Gasic, Margaret S Cheung
We investigated the impact of hydrodynamic interactions (HI) on protein folding using a coarse-grained model. The extent of the impact of hydrodynamic interactions, whether it accelerates, retards, or has no effect on protein folding, has been controversial. Together with a theoretical framework of the energy landscape theory (ELT) for protein folding that describes the dynamics of the collective motion with a single reaction coordinate across a folding barrier, we compared the kinetic effects of HI on the folding rates of two protein models that use a chain of single beads with distinctive topologies: a 64-residue α/β chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) protein, and a 57-residue β-barrel α-spectrin Src-homology 3 domain (SH3) protein...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775920/il-33-stimulates-expression-of-the-gpr84-ex33-fatty-acid-receptor-gene-and-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-genes-in-human-adipocytes
#11
Mohamed S Zaibi, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Parvathy Harikumar, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13...
May 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775704/alkaline-active-cyanide-dihydratase-of-flavobacterium-indicum-mtcc-6936-growth-optimization-purification-characterization-and-in-silico-analysis
#12
Virender Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Tek Chand Bhalla
The present work explores a rare cyanide dihydratase of Flavobacterium indicum MTCC 6936 for its potential of cyanide degradation. The enzyme is purified to 12 fold with a yield of 76%. SDS and native-PAGE analysis revealed that enzyme was monomer of 40 kDa size. The enzyme works well in mesophilic range at wide array of pH. The thermostability profile of cyanide dihydratase revealed that the enzyme is quite stable at 30 °C and 35 °C with half-life of 6 h 30 min and 5 h respectively. Km and Vmax for cyanide dihydratase of F...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775664/auto-induction-for-high-level-production-of-biologically-active-reteplase-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Mehrnoosh Fathi-Roudsari, Nader Maghsoudi, Amirhossein Maghsoudi, Sepideh Niazi, Morvarid Soleiman
Reteplase is a third generation tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) with a modified structure and prolonged half-life in comparison to native tPA. As a non-glycosylated protein, reteplase is expressed in Escherichia coli. Due to presence of several disulfide bonds, high level production of reteplase is complicated and needs extra steps for conversion to biologically active form. Auto-induction represents a method for high-yield growth of bacterial cells and higher expression of recombinant proteins. Here we have tried to optimize the auto-induction procedure for soluble and active expression of reteplase in E...
May 15, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775612/crystal-structure-of-wa352-provides-insight-into-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-rice
#14
Xiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Zhou Gong, Junjie Yan, Guangsheng Yang, Yao-Guang Liu, Ping Yin
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important phenomenon and is widely utilized in hybrid crop breeding. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA), a well-known CMS type, has been successfully applied in the commercial production of hybrid rice seeds for more than 40 years. The CMS-WA causal gene WA352 encodes a novel transmenbrane protein and the interacts with the mitochondrial copper chaperone COX11, triggering reactive oxygen species production and resulting in male sterility in CMS-WA lines. However, the structure of WA352 is currently unknown, and the structural mechanism whereby WA352 perturbs COX11 function to cause CMS remains largely unknown...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775201/tacrolimus-population-pharmacokinetics-and-multiple-cyp3a5-genotypes-in-black-and-white-renal-transplant-recipients
#15
Olivia Campagne, Donald E Mager, Daniel Brazeau, Rocco C Venuto, Kathleen M Tornatore
Tacrolimus exhibits inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability attributed to CYP3A5 isoenzymes and the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein. Most black renal transplant recipients require higher tacrolimus doses compared to whites to achieve similar troughs when race-adjusted recommendations are used. An established guideline provides tacrolimus genotype dosing recommendations based on CYP3A5*1(W/T) and loss of protein function variants: CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272), CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343) and may provide more comprehensive race-adjusted dosing recommendations...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775068/embedding-a-metal-binding-motif-for-copper-transporter-into-a-lipid-bilayer-by-cu-i-binding
#16
Mariko Okada, Shinji Kajimoto, Takakazu Nakabayashi
Peptide-lipid interactions are widely involved with biologically significant phenomena, including the pathogenic mechanisms of protein misfolding diseases, and transmembrane protein folding. In this paper, the interaction of the cysteine/tryptophan (Cys/Trp) motif, which is a metal binding motif of copper transporter (Ctr) proteins, with a lipid bilayer was studied using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The binding of Cu(I) to the Cys/Trp motif induced a large red-edge excitation shift (REES) in the Trp fluorescence, indicating that the Trp residue is located inside the lipid bilayer following complexation of Cu(I) with the Cys/Trp motif...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775058/multiple-click-selective-trna-synthetases-expand-mammalian-cell-specific-proteomics
#17
Andrew C Yang, Haley du Bois, Niclas Olsson, David Gate, Benoit Lehallier, Daniela Berdnik, Kyle D Brewer, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Joshua E Elias, Tony Wyss-Coray
Bio-orthogonal tools enable cell-type-specific proteomics, a prerequisite to understanding biological processes in multicellular organisms. Here we report two engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for mammalian bio-orthogonal labeling: a tyrosyl ( ScTyrY34G ) and a phenylalanyl ( MmPheT412G ) tRNA synthetase that incorporate azide-bearing noncanonical amino acids specifically into the nascent proteomes of host cells. Azide-labeled proteins are chemoselectively tagged via azide-alkyne cycloadditions with fluorophores for imaging or affinity resins for mass spectrometric characterization...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774529/inhibition-of-prmt3-activity-selectively-impairs-lxr-driven-transcription-of-hepatic-lipogenic-genes-in-vivo
#18
Joya E Nahon, Christianne Groeneveldt, Janine J Geerling, Miranda Van Eck, Menno Hoekstra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Agonists for the liver X receptor (LXR) are considered promising therapeutic moieties in cholesterol-driven diseases by promoting cellular cholesterol efflux pathways. However, current clinical application of these agents is hampered by the concomitant LXR-induced activation of a lipogenic transcriptional network, leading to hepatic steatosis. Recent studies have suggested that protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) may act as a selective co-activator of LXR activity...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774349/role-of-arsenic-3-oxidation-state-methyltransferase-in-arsenic-mediated-apl-treatment-an-in-vitro-investigation
#19
Yasen Maimaitiyiming, Chao Wang, Shi Xu, Khairul Islam, Ye Jia Chen, Chang Yang, Qian Qian Wang, Hua Naranmandura
Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is a key enzyme responsible for arsenic metabolism in humans, which facilitates conversion of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) to more reactive metabolites such as monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII). However, it is unclear whether the biotransformation of arsenic by AS3MT contributes to the promotion of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) therapy. In order to understand the probable role of AS3MT in APL patients, we evaluated the effects of arsenite (iAsIII) and three mixed arsenicals (i...
May 18, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774078/targeting-intracellular-mmps-efficiently-inhibits-tumor-metastasis-and-angiogenesis
#20
Yaqi Lv, Xiangmei Zhao, Lidan Zhu, Sijia Li, Qingqing Xiao, Wei He, Lifang Yin
Treatment for metastatic cancer is a great challenge throughout the world. Commonly, directed inhibition of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by cancer cells can reduce metastasis. Here, a novel nanoplatform (HPMC NPs) assembled from hyaluronic acid (HA)-paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug and marimastat (MATT)/β-casein (CN) complexes was established to cure a 4T1 metastatic cancer model via targeting CD44 and intracellular, rather than extracellular, MMPs. Methods: HPMC NPs were prepared by assembling the complexes and prodrug under ultrasonic treatment, which the interaction between them was evaluated by förster resonance energy transfer, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra...
2018: Theranostics
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