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Alessio Maria Monteleone, Palmiero Monteleone, Carmela Di Filippo, Francesca Pellegrino, Francesco Grillo, Mario Maj
OBJECTIVE: Cardiophysiological and neuroendocrine studies suggest that the two components of the endogenous stress response system, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are dysregulated in patients with schizophrenia. However, cardiophysiological measures are influenced by several confounding factors and the secretion of α-amylase in saliva is believed to represent a more reliable index of SNS activity. Therefore, to characterize the functional status of the SNS and HPA axis in schizophrenia we explored the concomitant salivary secretion of cortisol and α-amylase...
2015: Neuropsychobiology
Alex P Carll, Najwa Haykal-Coates, Darrell W Winsett, Mehdi S Hazari, Allen D Ledbetter, Judy H Richards, Wayne E Cascio, Daniel L Costa, Aimen K Farraj
Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiological events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflammation, oxidative stress, arrhythmia and autonomic nervous system imbalance. Cardiomyopathy results from cardiac injury, is the leading cause of heart failure, and can be induced in heart failure-prone rats through sub-chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO)...
February 2015: Inhalation Toxicology
Georg Seifert, Jenny-Lena Kanitz, Kim Pretzer, Günter Henze, Katharina Witt, Sina Reulecke, Andreas Voss
Background. Impairment of circadian rhythm is associated with various clinical problems. It not only has a negative impact on quality of life but can also be associated with a significantly poorer prognosis. Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is an anthroposophic movement therapy aimed at reducing fatigue symptoms and stress levels. Objective. This analysis of healthy subjects was conducted to examine whether the improvement in fatigue symptoms was accompanied by improvements in the circadian rhythm of heart rate variability (HRV)...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
D Anders, B Gompper, K Kräuchi
Cardiovascular and thermophysiological changes accompany the decision to fall asleep. A relationship between core body temperature and heart rate variability (HRV) especially during the sleep onset episode is suggested, but only few data are available, investigating a relationship between skin temperature and HRV at this time span. This study was aimed to elucidate the pattern of body temperature (i.e. distal and proximal skin temperature), heart rate and its variability in a specific population of ten healthy women having both, thermal discomfort from cold extremities and difficulties initiating sleep for two subsequent nights in the laboratory...
April 10, 2013: Physiology & Behavior
Alex P Carll, Robert M Lust, Mehdi S Hazari, Christina M Perez, Quentin Todd Krantz, Charly J King, Darrell W Winsett, Wayne E Cascio, Daniel L Costa, Aimen K Farraj
Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance of normal cardiac function. To explore this putative mechanism, we examined cardiophysiologic responses to DE inhalation in a model of aged heart failure-prone rats without signs or symptoms of overt heart failure. We hypothesized that acute DE exposure would alter heart rhythm, cardiac electrophysiology, and ventricular performance and dimensions consistent with autonomic imbalance while increasing biochemical markers of toxicity...
February 2013: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Alexander G Rabchevsky, Samir P Patel, Travis S Lyttle, Khalid C Eldahan, Christopher R O'Dell, Yi Zhang, Phillip G Popovich, Patrick H Kitzman, Kevin D Donohue
We recently reported that the neuropathic pain medication, gabapentin (GBP; Neurontin), significantly attenuated both noxious colorectal distension (CRD)-induced autonomic dysreflexia (AD) and tail pinch-induced spasticity compared to saline-treated cohorts 2-3 weeks after complete high thoracic (T4) spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we employed long-term blood pressure telemetry to test, firstly, the efficacy of daily versus acute GBP treatment in modulating AD and tail spasticity in response to noxious stimuli at 2 and 3 weeks post-injury...
2012: Frontiers in Physiology
Deborah M Fine, Jin-Hong Shin, Yongping Yue, Dietrich Volkmann, Stacey B Leach, Bruce F Smith, Mark McIntosh, Dongsheng Duan
The absence of dystrophin in the heart leads to Duchenne cardiomyopathy. Dystrophin-deficient dogs represent a critical model to translate novel therapies developed in mice to humans. Unfortunately, little is known about cardiophysiology changes in these dogs. We performed prospective electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations at 3, 6 and 12 months of age in four normal and three affected dogs obtained from the same litter. Affected dogs showed growth retardation and serum creatine kinase elevation...
July 2011: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
C Barr Taylor, Ansgar Conrad, Frank H Wilhelm, Diane Strachowski, Anna Khaylis, Eric Neri, Janine Giese-Davis, Walton T Roth, John P Cooke, Helena Kraemer, David Spiegel
To determine if improvement in mood would ameliorate autonomic dysregulation, HPA dysfunction, typical risk factors and C-reactive protein in depressed patients with elevated cardiovascular disease risk (CVD), 48 depressed participants with elevated cardiovascular risk factors were randomized to a cognitive behavioral intervention (CBT) or a waiting list control (WLC) condition. Twenty non-depressed age and risk-matched controls were also recruited. Traditional risk factors (e.g., lipids, blood pressure) and C-reactive protein were assessed pre- and post-treatment six months later...
December 2009: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Tracy J Pritchard, Evangelia G Kranias
Contractile dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmias associated with heart failure have been attributed to aberrant sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) cycling. The study of junctin (JCN) and histidine-rich Ca(2+) binding protein (HRC) becomes of particular importance since these proteins have been shown to be critical regulators of Ca(2+) cycling. Specifically, JCN is a SR membrane protein, which is part of the SR Ca(2+) release quaternary structure that also includes the ryanodine receptor, triadin and calsequestrin...
July 1, 2009: Journal of Physiology
Ellen van Rooijen, Emile E Voest, Ive Logister, Jeroen Korving, Thorsten Schwerte, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Rachel H Giles, Fredericus J van Eeden
We have generated 2 zebrafish lines carrying inactivating germline mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene ortholog vhl. Mutant embryos display a general systemic hypoxic response, including the up-regulation of hypoxia-induced genes by 1 day after fertilization and a severe hyperventilation and cardiophysiologic response. The vhl mutants develop polycythemia with concomitantly increased epo/epor mRNA levels and erythropoietin signaling. In situ hybridizations reveal global up-regulation of both red and white hematopoietic lineages...
June 18, 2009: Blood
Swapna Upadhyay, Tobias Stoeger, Volkar Harder, Ronald F Thomas, Mette C Schladweiler, Manuela Semmler-Behnke, Shinji Takenaka, Erwin Karg, Peter Reitmeir, Michael Bader, Andreas Stampfl, Urmila P Kodavanti, Holger Schulz
BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study we sought to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) following inhalation of UfCPs (24 h, 172 mug.m-3), to assess whether compromised animals (SHR) exhibit a different response pattern compared to the previously studied healthy rats (WKY). METHODS: Cardiophysiological response in SHRs was analyzed using radiotelemetry...
December 4, 2008: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Pradeep Kumar Shreenivasaiah, Seong-Hwan Rho, Taeyong Kim, Do Han Kim
The cardiac system has been a major target for intensive studies in the multi-scale modeling field for many years. Reproduction of the action potential and the ionic currents of single cardiomyocytes, as well as the construction of a whole organ model is well established. Still, there are major hurdles to overcome in creating a realistic and predictive functional cardiac model due to the lack of a profound understanding of the complex molecular interactions and their outcomes controlling both normal and pathological cardiophysiology...
March 2008: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Benjamin A Vaghari, Martin E Goldman
Echocardiography enables physicians to examine the heart noninvasively and provides a comprehensive evaluation of the cardiovascular system. However, because it is a relatively expensive procedure compared to an ECG or X-ray, it is crucial that "echo" be utilized appropriately and judiciously. Using a retrospective chart review, we sought to determine whether there are differences in concordance between the diagnoses and echo findings of cardiologists and those of other physicians. Due to cardiologists' greater knowledge of cardiophysiology and echocardiography, cardiologists were expected to have a higher concordance between patient diagnosis and echocardiogram findings when compared to noncardiology physicians...
September 2006: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
Andrew M Terrell, Paul R Crisostomo, George M Wairiuko, Meijing Wang, Eric D Morrell, Daniel R Meldrum
Cytokines are important mediators of cardiac disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that members of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines promote cardiac hypertrophy through the activation of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway. Aberrant Jak/STAT signaling may promote progression from hypertrophy to heart failure. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are underexplored, negative regulators of Jak/STAT signaling. SOCS proteins may also interact with other inflammatory pathways known to affect cardiac function...
September 2006: Shock
C Barr Taylor, Ansgar Conrad, Frank H Wilhelm, Eric Neri, Allyson DeLorenzo, Marie A Kramer, Janine Giese-Davis, Walton T Roth, Roberta Oka, John P Cooke, Helena Kraemer, David Spiegel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare psychophysiological and cortisol reactions to psychological stress in older depressed and nondepressed patients at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Forty-eight depressed participants and 20 controls with elevated cardiovascular risk factors underwent a psychological stress test during which cardiovascular variables were measured. Salivary cortisol was collected after each test segment. Traditional (e...
July 2006: Psychosomatic Medicine
Christopher R Pryce, Andrea C Dettling, Marianne Spengler, Christian R Schnell, Joram Feldon
BACKGROUND: Early environment is a major determinant of long-term mental health, evidenced by the relationship between early-life neglect or abuse and chronically increased vulnerability to developmental psychopathology, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Animal studies can increase understanding of environmentally mediated causal risk processes. We describe how daily deprivation of biological parenting in primate infants disrupts development of homeostatic and reward systems central to MDD...
July 15, 2004: Biological Psychiatry
Patricia Gerber, Christian R Schnell
Common marmosets exhibit under captive conditions socially monogamous propensities. During confrontation with opposite-sexed stranger, in the presence of the pairmate, common marmosets often respond aggressively. However, in the absence of their mates, males actively solicit contact and even sexual interactions with strange females whereas mated females are indifferent to strange males. In the present study behavioral and cardiophysiological responses of pairmates of six established pairs of common marmosets were recorded during confrontation with an opposite-sexed stranger (1) in the presence or (2) in the absence of the familiar pairmate...
July 2004: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Marina Arad, Haim Ring, Shimon Abboud, Michal M Radai, Ada Tamir, Abraham Adunsky
OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between a clinical measure of function in patients undergoing rehabilitation who had recently had an ischemic stroke and to examine cardiophysiologic measures registered during effort. DESIGN: A cohort study comprising a sample of consecutive patients, without a history of cardiac disease or rhythm disturbances, admitted for rehabilitation after an ischemic supratentorial stroke. All patients were examined for the FIM trade mark score and dynamic cardiophysiologic variables...
August 2002: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Patricia Gerber, Christian R Schnell, Gustl Anzenberger
Under captive conditions common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show socially monogamous propensities. Male and female form a social bond as characterized by signs of behavioral arousal during separation of the pairmates, high levels of affiliative interactions between pairmates and agonistic responses towards strange conspecifics. In the present study behavioral and cardiophysiological responses of mated individuals of common marmosets were recorded while the animals were in an unfamiliar environment (1) alone, (2) with the pairmate, or (3) with an opposite-sexed stranger...
July 2002: Primates; Journal of Primatology
P Michels, J Tarnow
A milestone was reached in cardiophysiology when in 1981 DeBold demonstrated that the heart functions as an endocrine gland by injecting an extract of atrial muscle into rats, resulting in an induction of natriuresis and a drop in blood pressure. This observation then led to the discovery of a family of related peptides with slightly different amino acid compositions working in concert to achieve the maintenance of sodium and volume homeostasis. The natriuretic peptide family consists of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and Urodilatin (URO) with their tissue-specific distribution including the heart (ANP, BNP), brain (ANP, BNP, CNP), endothelial cells (CNP), and kidney (URO)...
July 2001: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
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