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steatosis and liver transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718984/effect-of-pnpla3-i148m-polymorphism-on-histologically-proven-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#1
Hyeyoung Kim, Kwang-Woong Lee, Kyoungbun Lee, Sooin Seo, Min-Young Park, Sung Woo Ahn, Suk Kyun Hong, Kyung Chul Yoon, Hyo-Sin Kim, YoungRok Choi, Hae Won Lee, Nam-Joon Yi, Kyung-Suk Suh
AIM: PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism (rs738409 C>G) is the most important and the best known polymorphism for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the effect of this polymorphism on NAFLD after liver transplantation (LT). We aimed to evaluate the association between this polymorphism and post-LT NAFLD. METHODS: We designed a prospective case-control study. Among adult recipients who underwent LT between April 2014 and October 2015, those whose whole blood were preoperatively collected for genotyping in both recipients and coupled donors and those who have undergone protocol biopsy at post-LT 1 year were enrolled...
July 18, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712339/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Daniel Shouhed, Justin Steggerda, Miguel Burch, Mazen Noureddin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects between 25% and 33% of the population, is more common in obese individuals, and is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. However, despite rising prevalence, effective treatments remain limited. Areas covered: We performed a literature search across multiple databases (Pubmed, Medline, etc.) to identify significant original research and review articles to provide an up-to-date and concise overview of disease pathogenesis and diagnostic evaluation and to expand on available treatment options with a specific focus on the potential role of bariatric surgery...
July 21, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704337/alleviation-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-liver-steatosis-by-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-alr-is-attributed-to-antioxidation-and-preservation-of-mitochondria
#3
Junhua Weng, Wen Li, Xiaowei Jia, Wei An
BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is 1 of the major impediments to liver surgery and liver transplantation because steatotic hepatocytes are more susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, the effects of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) on hepatic IRI in steatotic mice were investigated. METHODS: In vivo, liver steatosis of mice was induced by feeding a methionine-choline deficient diet for 2 weeks. Three days prior to hepatic partial warm IRI, mice were transfected with the ALR-containing adenovirus...
July 13, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657945/expanding-the-margins-high-volume-utilization-of-marginal-liver-grafts-among-2000-liver-transplants-at-a-single-institution
#4
Karim J Halazun, Ralph C Quillin, Russel Rosenblatt, Advaith Bongu, Adam D Griesemer, Tomoaki Kato, Craig Smith, Fabrizio Michelassi, James V Guarrera, Benjamin Samstein, Robert S Brown, Jean C Emond
OBJECTIVE: Marginal livers (ML) have been used to expand the donor pool. National utilization of MLs is variable, and in some centers, they are never used. We examined the outcomes of MLs in the largest single center series of MLs used to date and compared outcomes to standard (SL) and living donor (LD) livers. METHODS: Analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all liver transplants performed at our institution from 1998 to 2016. ML grafts were defined as livers from donors >70, livers discarded regionally and shared nationally, livers with cold ischemic time >12 hours, livers from hepatitis C virus positive donors, livers from donation after cardiac death donors, livers with >30% steatosis, and livers split between 2 recipients...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655714/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-restoration-rescues-the-fatty-liver-regeneration-in-mice
#5
Teresa A Zimmers, Xiaoling Jin, Zongxiu Zhang, Yanlin Jiang, Leonidas G Koniaris
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a common histological finding in obese patients. Even mild steatosis is associated with delayed hepatic regeneration and poor outcomes following liver resection or transplantation. We sought to identify and target molecular pathways that mediate this dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lean mice and mice made obese through feeding of a high fat, hyper-caloric diet underwent 70% or 80% hepatectomy. RESULTS: After 70% resection, obese mice demonstrated 100% survival but experienced increased liver injury, reduced energy stores, reduced mitoses, increased necroapoptosis and delayed recovery of liver mass...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652891/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-expanded-review
#6
REVIEW
Mark Benedict, Xuchen Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624109/the-use-of-old-donors-in-liver-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Bobby V M Dasari, Andrea Schlegel, Hynek Mergental, M Thamara P R Perera
The process of ageing has an impact on the entire human body including the organ systems. In transplantation, professionals are daily faced with risk assessment of suitable donor offers , whether to accept a liver graft for a specific recipient. In this context, livers from elderly donors are more frequently accepted for transplantation, to increase the donor pool and compensate the high waiting list mortality. In the current practice it is not unusual to accept 60-year old donor livers for transplantation, as the donor demographics have significantly changed over the years...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589849/portal-vein-thrombosis-and-nephrotic-syndrome-after-liver-transplant
#8
Jérôme Dumortier, Antoine Sicard, Olivier Guillaud, Pierre-Jean Valette, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Olivier Boillot
Despite systemic thromboembolic complications being frequent, portal vein thrombosis is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome. We report here a liver transplant recipient who presented a late extensive portal vein thrombosis related to nephrotic syndrome. During regular follow-up after liver transplant, the patient presented with diabetes, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and progressive renal dysfunction. In addition, urine analysis showed isolated proteinuria, and the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome was made 36 months after liver transplant...
June 5, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574625/patatin-like-phospholipase-domain-containing-3-gene-as-a-liver-steatosis-risk-factor-following-living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-hepatitis-c
#10
Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Satoshi Miuma, Naota Taura, Hidetaka Shibata, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
Liver steatosis frequently occurs following liver transplantation (LT) and can affect patient outcome. Here, we aimed to clarify the steatosis and steatohepatitis risk factors that apply after living-donor LT for chronic hepatitis C.We retrospectively examined 43 transplant recipients and donors, and tested for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3). Liver biopsies taken 1 year after transplantation and yearly thereafter, or when abnormal liver enzyme levels were detected, were examined by histopathology...
June 2, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573420/identifying-independent-risk-factors-for-graft-loss-after-primary-liver-transplantation
#11
Jill Gwiasda, Harald Schrem, Jürgen Klempnauer, Alexander Kaltenborn
PURPOSE: The aim of the study is the identification of independent risk factors for re-transplantation after primary liver transplantation beyond the occurrence of hepatic artery thrombosis. METHODS: Eight hundred thirty-four adult patients undergoing primary liver transplantation were analyzed. A propensity score was developed using multivariable binary logistic regression with hepatic artery thrombosis as the dependent variable. The logit link function of the propensity score was included into multivariable Cox regression analysis for graft survival to adjust the study population...
August 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528267/using-mri-to-non-invasively-and-accurately-quantify-preoperative-hepatic-steatosis
#12
Callisia N Clarke, Haesun Choi, Ping Hou, Catherine H Davis, Jingfei Ma, Asif Rashid, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Thomas A Aloia
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic has significantly increased the incidence and severity of hepatic steatosis in liver surgery patients and liver donors, potentially impacting postoperative liver regeneration and function. Development of a non-invasive means to quantify hepatic steatosis would facilitate selection of candidates for liver resection and transplant donation. METHODS: An IRB-approved protocol prospectively enrolled 28 patients with liver tumors requiring hepatic resection...
May 17, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517493/accuracy-of-computed-tomography-for-detecting-hepatic-steatosis-in-donors-for-liver-transplantation-a-meta-analysis
#13
Danping Zheng, Wenshuo Tian, Zhouying Zheng, Jincui Gu, Zhiyong Guo, Xiaoshun He
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of computed tomography (CT) for detecting donor hepatic steatosis (HS) before liver transplantation is not well established. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of CT for HS detection in liver donor candidates. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves, and the area under the curve (AUC) were estimated using HSROC and bivariate random-effects models...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517024/treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-past-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
Nicolas Lanthier, Peter Stärkel
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) manifests as a clinical syndrome characterized by recent jaundice and liver function deterioration in an actively drinking patient. The principal cause of AH is alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) defined histologically by the coexistence of steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and satellitosis. While nonsevere AH usually responds to alcohol abstinence, severe AH, identified by Maddrey scoring ≥ 32, has a bad prognosis and is traditionally treated by a 28-day course of prednisone therapy...
July 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511345/ros-homeostasis-a-key-determinant-in-liver-ischemic-preconditioning
#15
Ignacio Prieto, María Monsalve
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are key mediators of ischemia-reperfusion injury but also required for the induction of the stress response that limits tissue injury and underlies the protection provided by ischemic-preconditioning protocols. Liver steatosis is an important risk factor for liver transplant failure. Liver steatosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive mitochondrial ROS production. Studies aiming at decreasing the sensibility of the steatotic liver to ischemia-reperfusion injury using pre-conditioning protocols, have shown that the steatotic liver has a reduced capacity to respond to these protocols...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493820/deoxyguanosine-kinase-deficiency-a-report-of-four-patients
#16
Özlem Ünal, Burcu Hişmi, Mustafa Kılıç, Hayriye Hızarcıoğlu Gülşen, Turgay Coşkun, Serap Hatice Sivri, Ali Dursun, Aysel Yüce, Ayşegül Tokatlı
BACKGROUND: Hepatic involvement is a common feature in childhood mitochondrial disorders. Deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) deficiency is one of the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes associated with hepatocerebral syndrome. Hepatic disease and neurologic dysfunction occurs within weeks after birth. Low birth weight is one of the common features. This study aims to describe the clinical and laboratory features of four infants carrying four different pathogenic variants in the DGUOK gene...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476244/imaging-of-hepatic-toxicity-of-systemic-therapy-in-a-tertiary-cancer-centre-chemotherapy-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-molecular-targeted-therapies-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
F Alessandrino, S H Tirumani, K M Krajewski, A B Shinagare, J P Jagannathan, N H Ramaiya, D N Di Salvo
The purpose of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the spectrum of hepatic toxicity seen in the oncology setting, in view of the different systemic therapies used in cancer patients. Drug-induced liver injury can manifest in various forms, and anti-neoplastic agents are associated with different types of hepatotoxicity. Although chemotherapy-induced liver injury can present as hepatitis, steatosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and chronic parenchymal damages, molecular targeted therapy-associated liver toxicity ranges from mild liver function test elevation to fulminant life-threatening acute liver failure...
July 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436075/does-a-meso-caval-shunt-have-positive-effects-in-a-pig-large-for-size-liver-transplantation-model
#18
Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri, Daniel de Albuquerque Rangel Moreira, Alessandro Belon, Maria Cecília Mendonça Coelho, Josiane Oliveira Gonçalves, Suellen Serafini, Uenis Tannuri
In pediatric liver transplantations with LFS grafts, higher incidences of graft dysfunction probably occur due to IRI. It was postulated that increasing the blood supply to the graft by means of a meso-caval shunt could ameliorate the IRI. Eleven pigs underwent liver transplantation and were divided into two groups: LFS and LFS+SHUNT group. A series of flowmetric, metabolic, histologic, and molecular studies were performed. No significant metabolic differences were observed between the groups. One hour after reperfusion, portal flow was significantly lower in the recipients than in the donors, proving that the graft was maintained in low portal blood flow, although the shunt could promote a transient increase in the portal blood flow and a decrease in the arterial flow...
August 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426902/hepatic-steatosis-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#19
Emily R Perito, Tabitha Vase, Rageshree Ramachandran, Andrew Phelps, Kuang-Yu Jen, Robert H Lustig, Vickie A Feldstein, Philip Rosenthal
Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplantation (LT) in 30% of adults, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in nontransplanted children. However, posttransplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric LT recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n = 318), 31% of those with any posttransplant biopsy (n = 271) had ≥ 1 biopsy with steatosis...
July 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422962/docosahexaenoic-acid-blocks-progression-of-western-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-obese-ldlr-mice
#20
Kelli A Lytle, Carmen P Wong, Donald B Jump
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern in western societies. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of NAFLD, is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. NASH is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is predicted to be the leading cause of liver transplants by 2020. Despite this growing public health concern, there remain no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved NASH treatments...
2017: PloS One
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