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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132522/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Patrick H Sweet, Teresa Khoo, Steven Nguyen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a condition of hepatic steatosis with or without hepatic injury. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence worldwide and presents a public health burden. Most patients are asymptomatic, although some present with fatigue and right upper quadrant pain. NAFLD is discovered incidentally when patients have elevated liver enzymes or fatty liver is seen on imaging modalities. Imaging studies can confirm fatty deposits in the liver, but needle biopsy is needed to determine degree of inflammation...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128058/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-liver-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Danielle Carter, Douglas T Dieterich, Charissa Chang
The number of transplants caused by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been progressively increasing and this is expected to become the most common indication for liver transplant in the United States. Patients with NASH show many features of the metabolic syndrome and, as a result, are at higher risk for postoperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite this, patients with NASH have long-term graft and patient survival rates comparable with other causes of chronic liver disease...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127685/the-first-case-of-ischemia-free-organ-transplantation-in-humans-a-proof-of-concept
#3
Xiaoshun He, Zhiyong Guo, Qiang Zhao, Weiqiang Ju, Dongping Wang, Linwei Wu, Lu Yang, Fei Ji, Yunhua Tang, Zhiheng Zhang, Shanzhou Huang, Linhe Wang, Zebin Zhu, Kunpeng Liu, Yanling Zhu, Yifang Gao, Wei Xiong, Ming Han, Bing Liao, Maogen Chen, Yi Ma, Xiaofeng Zhu, Wenqi Huang, Changjie Cai, Xiangdong Guan, Xian Chang Li, Jiefu Huang
Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable event in conventional organ transplant procedure and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity post-transplantation. We hypothesize that IRI is avoidable if the blood supply for the organ is not stopped, thus resulting in optimal transplant outcomes. Here we described the first case of a novel procedure called ischemia-free organ transplantation (IFOT) for patients with end-stage liver disease. The liver graft with severe macrovesicular steatosis was donated from a 25-year-old man...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121675/astaxanthin-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-the-steatotic-liver-in-mice
#4
Shaowei Li, Terumi Takahara, Masayuki Fujino, Yasuyuki Fukuhara, Toshiro Sugiyama, Xiao-Kang Li, Shiro Takahara
Steatosis has a low tolerance against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). To prevent IRI in the steatotic liver, we attempted to elucidate the protective effect of astaxanthin (ASTX) in the steatotic liver model by giving mice a methionine and choline-deficient high fat (MCDHF) diet. Levels of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, in the liver were assessed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related proteins and members of the signaling pathway were also examined in isolated Kupffer cells and/or hepatocytes from the steatotic liver...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096719/subunit-composition-of-respiratory-chain-complex-1-and-its-responses-to-oxygen-in-mitochondria-from-human-donor-livers
#5
S E Khorsandi, J W Taanman, N Heaton
OBJECTIVE: Donor liver function in transplantation is defined by mitochondrial function and the ability of mitochondria to recover from the sequence of warm and/or cold ischemia. Mitochondrial resilience maybe related to assembly and- subunit composition of Complex 1. The aim of this study was to determine if Complex 1 subunit composition was different in donor livers of varying quality and whether oxygen exposure had any effect. RESULTS: Five human livers not suitable for transplant were split...
November 2, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083037/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
C A Woodhouse, V C Patel, A Singanayagam, D L Shawcross
BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. AIM: To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988570/alcoholic-liver-disease-pathogenesis-and-current-management
#7
Natalia A Osna, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum K Kharbanda
Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem. The liver sustains the greatest degree of tissue injury by heavy drinking because it is the primary site of ethanol metabolism. Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption produces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions, the most characteristic of which are steatosis, hepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Steatosis is the earliest response to heavy drinking and is characterized by the deposition of fat in hepatocytes. Steatosis can progress to steatohepatitis, which is a more severe, inflammatory type of liver injury...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987256/liver-disease-in-patients-on-total-parenteral-nutrition
#8
REVIEW
Arnab Mitra, Joseph Ahn
Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) spectrum ranges from liver enzyme abnormalities to steatosis to fibrosis, and, eventually, cirrhosis from total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The pathophysiology is postulated to be multifactorial. Diagnosis in adults is primarily by exclusion, eliminating other causes of chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, and other factors seen in critically ill or postoperative patients on TPN. Principal treatment is avoiding TPN. If this is not feasible, research supports fish oil-based lipid emulsions in TPN formulations to reduce risk and progression of PNALD...
November 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983074/use-of-hepatitis-c-positive-deceased-liver-donors-in-response-to-the-organ-shortage-in-an-endemic-area
#9
Duilio Pagano, Aurelio Seidida, Alessandro Tropea, Giada Pietrosi, Fabrizio di Francesco, Giovanni Battista Vizzini, Angelo Luca, Salvatore Gruttadauria
The region of Sicily, Italy, is witnessing a chronic organ shortage. Thus, to face this critical issue, the use of marginal donors has increased over time. An example of marginal donor expansion is the use of liver donors who are positive for the hepatitis C antibody (HCV+) for HCV+ patients requiring liver transplantation (LT). In view of new advances in HCV therapy, including direct-acting agents (DAAs) to treat HCV in the post-transplant setting, our study focused on a monocentric experience in a series of consecutive LTs performed in adult patients receiving HCV+ liver donor allografts...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970141/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-is-protective-against-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Dustin E Bosch, Matthew M Yeh
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs with higher prevalence in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) relative to the general population, and susceptibility is related to the metabolic syndrome, as well as higher prevalence of bowel resection and gut microbiotal factors. Liver complications, including NAFLD and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) contribute to treatment and prognosis of patients with IBD. However, the potential interplay of NAFLD and PSC is not well understood. We retrospectively assessed severity of steatosis and steatohepatitis in liver specimens from 49 patients with IBD only, 44 with IBD and co-morbid PSC, and 30 with IBD and PSC after liver transplantation...
September 29, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965313/significant-liver-related-morbidity-after-bariatric-surgery-and-its-reversal-a-case-series
#11
Magdalena Eilenberg, Felix B Langer, Andrea Beer, Michael Trauner, Gerhard Prager, Katharina Staufer
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs in up to 80% of patients with obesity. Current data suggest an improvement of NAFLD after established bariatric procedures. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated liver function impairment after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). SETTING: University Hospital, Bariatric Surgery Unit METHODS: In this single-center case series, consecutive in- and outpatients after bariatric surgery who presented with severe liver dysfunction from March 2014 to February 2017 were included and followed until March 2017...
September 30, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935200/benefit-risk-of-intraoperative-liver-biopsy-during-bariatric-surgery-review-and-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Sandrine Barbois, Catherine Arvieux, Vincent Leroy, Fabian Reche, Nathalie Stürm, Anne-Laure Borel
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic complication of obesity that encompasses a spectrum of conditions, including hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease. Screening for NAFLD is important to limit progression, allow early detection of carcinoma, and follow the need for liver transplantation. Although noninvasive markers exist, hepatic histologic evaluation remains the gold standard for diagnosis. To reduce the risk of complications after liver biopsy but increase the accuracy of NAFLD diagnosis, hepatic tissue can be sampled during bariatric surgery...
August 14, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902579/effect-of-liver-histopathology-on-islet-cell-engraftment-in-the-model-mimicking-autologous-islet-cell-transplantation
#13
Chirag S Desai, Khalid M Khan, Xiaobo Ma, Henghong Li, Juan Wang, Lijuan Fan, Guoling Chen, Jill P Smith, Wanxing Cui
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory milieu in the liver as determined by histopathology is different in individual patients undergoing autologous islet cell transplantation. We hypothesized that inflammation related to fatty-liver adversely impacts islet survival. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of fatty-liver to determine the outcome of syngeneic islet transplantation after chemical pancreatectomy. METHODS: Mice (C57BL/6) were fed a high-fat-diet from 6 weeks of age until attaining a weight of ≥28 grams (6-8 weeks) to produce a fatty liver (histologically > 30% fat);steatosis was confirmed with lipidomic profile of liver tissue...
September 13, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901345/-acute-alcoholic-hepatitis
#14
Gianni Testino, Emanuele Scafato, Valentino Patussi
Chronic alcohol related liver disease is characterized by a cascade of events defined as follows: steatosis, steatohepatitis/steatofibrosi, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. On one of these histologic patterns may overlap acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAE) (mild, moderate, severe). Severe AAE can cause a severe clinical picture: jaundice with a duration of less than three months, jaundice in the first decompensation event, serum bilirubin higher than 5 mg/dL, ratio AST/ALT >2:1, AST less than 500 IU/L ALT <300 IU/L, neutrophil leukocytosis and increased GGT...
September 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875438/non-invasive-evaluation-of-nafld-with-indocyanine-green-clearance-test-a-preliminary-study-in-morbidly-obese-patients-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#15
Pierre Eric Danin, Rodolphe Anty, Stephanie Patouraux, Marc Raucoules-Aimé, Jean Gugenheim, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Antonio Iannelli
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity dramatically increased in the last years. Hepatic complication of obesity, integrated in the term of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is a spectrum of abnormality ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), potentially leading to cirrhosis. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard to evaluate the stage of NAFLD; however, the procedure is invasive. The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test is performed since years to assess hepatic function before partial hepatectomy, or after liver transplantation...
September 5, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870982/understanding-the-effect-of-corticosteroid-pretreatment-in-brain-dead-organ-donors-new-mechanistic-insights-for-improvement-of-organ-quality-in-liver-transplantation
#16
Carola Dahrenmöller, Raymond Reding
Transplant surgeons are currently faced with the challenge to accept marginal liver transplants due to steatosis or old age. Improving organ quality by implementing a selective organ protective donor management could be the first step towards a graft of enhanced quality. However, the molecular mechanisms of such treatments are still poorly understood. Glucocorticoid medication in donor medicine has been carried out and discussed for a long time. In a recent study published in Clinical Science, Jiménez-Castro et al...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870676/hypothermic-oxygenated-perfusion-hope-for-fatty-liver-grafts-in-rats-and-humans
#17
Philipp Kron, Andrea Schlegel, Leandro Mancina, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Philipp Dutkowski
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pretreatment of marginal organs by perfusion is a promising opportunity to make more organs available for transplantation. Protection of human donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers by a novel machine perfusion technique, hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE), was recently established. Herein, we tested whether HOPE is also useful for fatty liver grafts, using a rodent transplant model. METHODS: Rats were fed over three weeks with a special methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) to induce severe hepatic macrosteatosis (≥60%)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777879/sarcopenia-in-hiding-the-risk-and-consequence-of-underestimating-muscle-dysfunction-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
Rahima A Bhanji, Praveena Narayanan, Alina M Allen, Harmeet Malhi, Kymberly D Watt
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Up to one third of individuals with NAFLD will develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with progression to cirrhosis and is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function. It is observed in up to 60% of patients with end-stage liver disease and portends a poor prognosis...
August 4, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752920/outcome-of-liver-transplantation-in-patients-with-prior-bariatric-surgery
#20
Mohamed Safwan, Kelly M Collins, Marwan S Abouljoud, Reena Salgia
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming the leading cause of disease resulting in liver transplantation (LT). As a result of this trend, more liver transplant candidates are presenting with prior history of bariatric surgery (BS). Over the last decade, 960 patients underwent LT at our institution; 11 (1.1%) had prior BS. Most common type of BS was Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=9) with 1 sleeve gastrectomy and 1 jejunoileal bypass. Nine patients underwent LT alone and 2 underwent simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation...
July 28, 2017: Liver Transplantation
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