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Noise induced

Rebecca Carroll, Verena Uslar, Thomas Brand, Esther Ruigendijk
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to determine whether hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension beyond phoneme or word recognition (i.e., on the sentence level), and to distinguish grammatically induced processing difficulties in structurally complex sentences from perceptual difficulties associated with listening to degraded speech. Effects of hearing impairment or speech in noise were expected to reflect hearer-specific speech recognition difficulties. Any additional processing time caused by the sustained perceptual challenges across the sentence may either be independent of or interact with top-down processing mechanisms associated with grammatical sentence structure...
September 28, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Tengku Siti Hajar Haryuna, Wibi Riawan, Ardyansyah Nasution, Suprapto Ma'at, Juliandi Harahap, Indri Adriztina
Introduction The structural changes underlying permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) include loss of the sensory hair cells, damage to their stereocilia, and supporting tissues within the cochlear lateral wall. Objective The objective of this study is to demonstrate curcumin as a safe and effective therapeutic agent in the prevention and treatment for fibroblasts damage within the cochlear supporting tissues and lateral wall through cell death pathway. Methods We divided 24 Rattus norvegicus into 4 groups, Group 1: control; Group 2: noise (+); Group 3: noise (+), 50 mg/day curcumin (+); Group 4: noise (+), 100 mg/day curcumin (+)...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Ana'am Alkharabsheh, Fen Xiong, Senthilvelan Manohar, Guangdi Chen, Richard Salvi, Wei Sun
The neural mechanisms that give rise to hyperacusis, a reduction in loudness tolerance, are largely unknown. Some reports suggest that hyperacusis is linked to childhood hearing loss. However, the evidence for this is largely circumstantial. In order to rigorously test this hypothesis, we studied loudness changes in rats caused by intense noise exposure (12 kHz narrow band noise, 115 dB SPL, 4 h) at postnatal 16 days. Rats without noise exposure were used as controls. The exposed noise group (n = 7) showed a mean 40-50 dB hearing loss compared to the control group (n = 8) at high frequencies (>= 8 kHz) and less hearing loss at lower frequencies...
October 13, 2016: Hearing Research
Shuo Wang, Sujin Kim, Kelly P Cosgrove, Evan D Morris
The "linear parametric neurotransmitter PET" (lp-ntPET) model was introduced to capture the time course of transient endogenous neurotransmitter response to drug stimulus from dynamic PET data. We previously used this novel analysis tool to probe the short-lived dopamine (DA) response induced by cigarette smoking in the PET scanner. It allowed us to find a sex difference in the DA signature of cigarette smoking. To make best use of this tool to characterize neurotransmitter response to drug stimulus, the sensitivity of lp-ntPET to detect such responses must be maximized...
October 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Yonatan Kahn, Benjamin R Safdi, Jesse Thaler
When ultralight axion dark matter encounters a static magnetic field, it sources an effective electric current that follows the magnetic field lines and oscillates at the axion Compton frequency. We propose a new experiment to detect this axion effective current. In the presence of axion dark matter, a large toroidal magnet will act like an oscillating current ring, whose induced magnetic flux can be measured by an external pickup loop inductively coupled to a SQUID magnetometer. We consider both resonant and broadband readout circuits and show that a broadband approach has advantages at small axion masses...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
C Wan, M Scala, G W Morley, Atm A Rahman, H Ulbricht, J Bateman, P F Barker, S Bose, M S Kim
We propose an interferometric scheme based on an untrapped nano-object subjected to gravity. The motion of the center of mass (c.m.) of the free object is coupled to its internal spin system magnetically, and a free flight scheme is developed based on coherent spin control. The wave packet of the test object, under a spin-dependent force, may then be delocalized to a macroscopic scale. A gravity induced dynamical phase (accrued solely on the spin state, and measured through a Ramsey scheme) is used to reveal the above spatially delocalized superposition of the spin-nano-object composite system that arises during our scheme...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Evgeniy Khain, Leonard M Sander
The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jonah A Eaton, Brian Moths, Thomas A Witten
Colloidal bodies of irregular shape rotate as they descend under gravity in solution. This rotational response provides a means of bringing a dispersion of identical bodies into a synchronized rotation with the same orientation using programed forcing. We use the notion of statistical entropy to derive bounds on the rate of synchronization. These bounds apply generally to dynamical systems with stable periodic motion with a phase ϕ(t), when subjected to an impulsive perturbation. The impulse causes a change of phase expressible as a phase map ψ(ϕ)...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
José A Reinoso, M C Torrent, Cristina Masoller
In sensory neurons the presence of noise can facilitate the detection of weak information-carrying signals, which are encoded and transmitted via correlated sequences of spikes. Here we investigate the relative temporal order in spike sequences induced by a subthreshold periodic input in the presence of white Gaussian noise. To simulate the spikes, we use the FitzHugh-Nagumo model and to investigate the output sequence of interspike intervals (ISIs), we use the symbolic method of ordinal analysis. We find different types of relative temporal order in the form of preferred ordinal patterns that depend on both the strength of the noise and the period of the input signal...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Yoji Kawamura, Hiroya Nakao
We investigate common-noise-induced synchronization between two identical networks of coupled phase oscillators exhibiting fully locked collective oscillations. Using the collective phase description method for fully locked oscillators, we demonstrate that two noninteracting networks of coupled phase oscillators can exhibit in-phase synchronization between the networks when driven by weak common noise. We derive the Lyapunov exponent characterizing the relaxation time for synchronization and develop a method of obtaining the optimal input pattern of common noise to achieve fast synchronization...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
A B Duncan, S Kalliadasis, G A Pavliotis, M Pradas
We consider the problem of an overdamped Brownian particle moving in multiscale potential with N+1 characteristic length scales: the macroscale and N separated microscales. We show that the coarse-grained dynamics is given by an overdamped Langevin equation with respect to the free energy and with a space-dependent diffusion tensor, the calculation of which requires the solution of N fully coupled Poisson equations. We study in detail the structure of the bifurcation diagram for one-dimensional problems, and we show that the multiscale structure in the potential leads to hysteresis effects and to noise-induced transitions...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Lijuan Shi, Ying Chang, Xiaowei Li, Steve Aiken, Lijie Liu, Jian Wang
Recent studies on animal models have shown that noise exposure that does not lead to permanent threshold shift (PTS) can cause considerable damage around the synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and type-I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). Disruption of these synapses not only disables the innervated ANFs but also results in the slow degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons if the synapses are not reestablished. Such a loss of ANFs should result in signal coding deficits, which are exacerbated by the bias of the damage toward synapses connecting low-spontaneous-rate (SR) ANFs, which are known to be vital for signal coding in noisy background...
2016: Neural Plasticity
O'neil W Guthrie
An understanding of the molecular pathology that underlies noise induced neurotoxicity is a prerequisite to the design of targeted therapies. The objective of the current experiment was to determine whether or not DNA damage is part of the pathophysiologic sequela of noise induced neurotoxicity. The experiment consisted of 41 hooded Long-Evans rats (2 month old males) that were randomized into control and noise exposed groups. Both the control and the noise group followed the same time schedule and therefore started and ended the experiment together...
October 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Sumi Sinha, Elliott D Kozin, Matthew R Naunheim, Samuel R Barber, Kevin Wong, Leanna W Katz, Tiffany M N Otero, Ishmael J M Stefanov-Wagner, Aaron K Remenschneider
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: 1) Determine feasibility of smartphone-based mobile technology to measure noise exposure; and 2) measure noise exposure in exercise spin classes. STUDY DESIGN: Observational Study. METHODS: The SoundMeter Pro app (Faber Acoustical, Salt Lake City, UT) was installed and calibrated on iPhone and iPod devices in an audiology chamber using an external sound level meter to within 2 dBA of accuracy. Recording devices were placed in the bike cupholders of participants attending spin classes in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 17) and used to measure sound level (A-weighted) and noise dosimetry during exercise according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) guidelines...
October 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
Michael Niklas, Mónica Benito, Sigmund Kohler, Gloria Platero
We analyze an AC-driven dimer chain connected to a strongly biased electron source and drain. It turns out that the resulting transport exhibits fingerprints of topology. They are particularly visible in the driving-induced current suppression and the Fano factor. Thus, shot noise measurements provide a topological phase diagram as a function of the driving parameters. The observed phenomena can be explained physically by a mapping to an effective time-independent Hamiltonian and the emergence of edge states...
November 11, 2016: Nanotechnology
Saida Haider, Saiqa Tabassum, Tahira Perveen
Cognitive decline is found to be a common feature of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to recapitulate AD associated cognitive deficits and to plan therapeutic strategies researchers have developed various preclinical dementia models to recapitulate different aspects of cognitive domains affected in AD brain. So, the present study was aimed to compare alterations in previously reported dementia models i.e. pharmacological (Scopolamine-induced and corticosterone-induced), Environmental (Aluminium-induced and noise-stress) and physiological (natural aging) models in rats in a single experimental study across three cognitive domains spatial, recognition, and associative memory and associated alterations in their oxidative status and neurochemical profile to select appropriate dementia model...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Yun Zhang, Xiaoxiang Yang, Xiangkai Liu, Yongbing Zhang, Gangyi Jiang, Sam Kwong
In Three-Dimensional (3D) video systems, imperfect depth images often induce annoying temporal noise, e.g., flickering, to the synthesized video. However, the quality of synthesized view is usually measured with Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) or Mean Squared Error (MSE), which mainly focuses on pixel-wise frame-by-frame distortion regardless of the obvious temporal artifacts. In this paper, a novel full reference Synthesized Video Quality Metric (SVQM) is proposed to measure the perceptual quality of the synthesized video in 3D video systems...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Benhua Xu, Xiaoliang Tang, Ji'an Zhou, Wanmin Chen, Haile Liu, Zhenghua Ju, Weisheng Liu
A functional amide-type pincer ligand was designed and synthesized, which could effectively capture Tb(3+) ions to form a phosphorescence complex-based chemosensor Tb-1. The chemosensor could further coordinate with Pb(2+) ions and display a turn-on phosphorescence response. This sensing process was analyzed in detail by steady-state luminescence spectroscopy, time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, which suggest that the formation of Pb(2+)-induced hydroxide nanoclusters can adjust the optical signal of the external luminescence compound by embedment and fixation of Tb(3+) complexes...
September 16, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xiaobo Zhou, Hua Liang, Pengfei Jiang, Kenneth Yin Zhang, Shujuan Liu, Tianshe Yang, Qiang Zhao, Lijuan Yang, Wen Lv, Qi Yu, Wei Huang
Molecular oxygen (O2) plays a key role in many physiological processes, and becomes a toxicant to kill cells when excited to (1)O2. Intracellular O2 levels, or the degree of hypoxia, are always viewed as an indicator of cancers. Due to the highly efficient cancer therapy ability and low side effect, photodynamic therapy (PDT) becomes one of the most promising treatments for cancers. Herein, an early-stage diagnosis and therapy system is reported based on the phosphorescent conjugated polymer dots (Pdots) containing Pt(II) porphyrin as an oxygen-responsive phosphorescent group and (1)O2 photosensitizer...
February 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
I Recio, J J Torres
We study emerging phenomena in binary neural networks where, with a probability c synaptic intensities are chosen according with a Hebbian prescription, and with probability (1-c) there is an extra random contribution to synaptic weights. This new term, randomly taken from a Gaussian bimodal distribution, balances the synaptic population in the network so that one has 80%-20% relation in E/I population ratio, mimicking the balance observed in mammals cortex. For some regions of the relevant parameters, our system depicts standard memory (at low temperature) and non-memory attractors (at high temperature)...
September 8, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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