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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679290/the-role-of-sparsely-distributed-representations-in-familiarity-recognition-of-verbal-and-olfactory-materials
#1
Sverker Sikström, Johan Hellman, Mats Dahl, Georg Stenberg, Marcus Johansson
We present the generalized signal detection theory (GSDT), where familiarity is described by a sparse binomial distribution of binary node activity rather than by normal distribution of familiarity. Items are presented in a distributed representation, where each node receives either noise only, or signal and noise. An old response (i.e., a "yes" response) is made if at least one node receives signal plus noise that is larger than the activation threshold, and item variability is determined by the distribution of activated nodes as the threshold is varied...
April 20, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678541/b-1-non-uniformity-correction-of-phased-array-coils-without-measuring-coil-sensitivity
#2
Frederick C Damen, Kejia Caic
Parallel imaging can be used to increase SNR and shorten acquisition times, albeit, at the cost of image non-uniformity. B1 - non-uniformity correction techniques are confounded by signal that varies not only due to coil induced B1 - sensitivity variation, but also the object's own intrinsic signal. Herein, we propose a method that makes minimal assumptions and uses only the coil images themselves to produce a single combined B1 - non-uniformity-corrected complex image with the highest available SNR. A novel background noise classifier is used to select voxels of sufficient quality to avoid the need for regularization...
April 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677689/neural-and-behavioral-changes-after-the-use-of-hearing-aids
#3
Hanin Karawani, Kimberly A Jenkins, Samira Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) can restore some loss of the auditory function with the use of hearing aids (HAs). However, what remains unknown are the physiological mechanisms that underlie how the brain changes with exposure to amplified sounds though the use of HAs. We aimed to examine behavioral and physiological changes induced by HAs. METHODS: Thirty-five older-adults with moderate ARHL with no history of hearing aid use were fit with HAs tested in aided and unaided conditions, and divided into experimental and control groups...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676297/realizing-modeling-and-mapping-tools-to-study-the-upsurge-of-noise-pollution-as-a-result-of-open-cast-mining-and-transportation-activities
#4
Satish K Lokhande, Mohindra C Jain, Satyajeet A Dhawale, Rakesh Gautam, Ghanshyam L Bodhe
Introduction: In open-cast mines, noise pollution has become a serious concern due to the extreme use of heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM). Materials and Methods: This study is focused to measure and assess the effects of the existing noise levels of major operational mines in the Keonjhar, Sundergadh, and Mayurbhanj districts of Odisha, India. The transportation noise levels were also considered in this study, which was predicted using the modified Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) model...
March 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676294/noise-exposure-and-hearing-loss-in-classical-orchestra-musicians-a-five-year-follow-up
#5
Alberto Behar, Marshall Chasin, Steve Mosher, Mohammad Abdoli-Eramaki, Frank A Russo
Introduction: This study is a follow-up to prior research from our group that attempts to relate noise exposure and hearing thresholds in active performing musicians of the National Ballet of Canada Orchestra. Materials and Methods: Exposures obtained in early 2010 were compared to exposures obtained in early 2017 (the present study). In addition, audiometric thresholds obtained in early 2012 were compared to thresholds obtained in early 2017 (the present study)...
March 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675997/hearing-vulnerability-after-noise-exposure-in-a-mouse-model-of-reactive-oxygen-species-overproduction
#6
Shigefumi Morioka, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Taro Yamaguchi, Yuzuru Ninoyu, Hiroaki Mohri, Takashi Nakamura, Yasuo Hisa, Kiyokazu Ogita, Naoaki Saito, Takehiko Ueyama
Previous studies have convincingly argued that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of several major types of sensorineural hearing loss, such as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), drug-induced hearing loss, and age-related hearing loss. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms induced by ROS in these pathologies remain unclear. To resolve this issue, we established an in vivo model of ROS overproduction by generating a transgenic (TG) mouse line expressing the human NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, NOX4-TG mice), which is a constitutively active ROS-producing enzyme that does not require stimulation or an activator...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675307/image-restoration-approach-to-address-reduced-modulation-contrast-in-structured-illumination-microscopy
#7
Nurmohammed Patwary, Ana Doblas, Chrysanthe Preza
The performance of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is hampered in many biological applications due to the inability to modulate the light when imaging deep into the sample. This is in part because sample-induced aberration reduces the modulation contrast of the structured pattern. In this paper, we present an image restoration approach suitable for processing raw incoherent-grid-projection SIM data with a low fringe contrast. Restoration results from simulated and experimental ApoTome SIM data show results with improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and optical sectioning compared to the results obtained from existing methods, such as 2D demodulation and 3D SIM deconvolution...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675210/dynamical-inversion-of-the-energy-landscape-promotes-non-equilibrium-self-assembly-of-binary-mixtures
#8
Luis Ruiz Pestana, Natalie Minnetian, Laura Nielsen Lammers, Teresa Head-Gordon
When driven out of equilibrium, many diverse systems can form complex spatial and dynamical patterns, even in the absence of attractive interactions. Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the phase behavior of a binary system of particles of dissimilar size confined between semiflexible planar surfaces, in which the nanoconfinement introduces a non-local coupling between particles, which we model as an activation energy barrier to diffusion that decreases with the local fraction of the larger particle...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673779/protective-effect-of-gallic-acid-against-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity-in-rats
#9
Korhan Kilic, Muhammed Sedat Sakat, Fazile Nur Ekinci Akdemir, Serkan Yildirim, Yavuz Selim Saglam, Seda Askin
INTRODUCTION: Cisplatin is an antineoplastic agent widely used in the treatment of a variety of cancers. Ototoxicity is one of the main side-effects restricting the use of cisplatin. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective efficacy of gallic acid, in biochemical, functional and histopathological terms, against ototoxicity induced by cisplatin. METHODS: Twenty-eight female Sprague Dawley rats were included. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups of seven animals each...
April 7, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673641/a-novel-nanoparticle-delivery-system-for-targeted-therapy-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#10
Mohammad N Kayyali, Julian R A Wooltorton, Andrew J Ramsey, Mei Lin, Tiffany N Chao, Andrew Tsourkas, Bert W O'Malley, Daqing Li
Hearing loss is the most prevalent sensory disability worldwide and may be caused by age, drugs or exposure to excessive noise. We have previously developed a minimally-invasive nanohydrogel drug delivery system that successfully delivers nanoparticles into the inner ear. We have substantially extended this technique by functionalizing the nanoparticles and introducing a targeting peptide which recognizes prestin, a transmembrane electromotile protein uniquely expressed in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the inner ear...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671821/weak-defect-identification-for-centrifugal-compressor-blade-crack-based-on-pressure-sensors-and-genetic-algorithm
#11
Hongkun Li, Changbo He, Reza Malekian, Zhixiong Li
The Centrifugal compressor is a piece of key equipment for petrochemical factories. As the core component of a compressor, the blades suffer periodic vibration and flow induced excitation mechanism, which will lead to the occurrence of crack defect. Moreover, the induced blade defect usually has a serious impact on the normal operation of compressors and the safety of operators. Therefore, an effective blade crack identification method is particularly important for the reliable operation of compressors. Conventional non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods can detect the blade defect effectively, however, the compressors should shut down during the testing process which is time-consuming and costly...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670508/stochastic-imt-insulator-metal-transition-neurons-an-interplay-of-thermal-and-threshold-noise-at-bifurcation
#12
Abhinav Parihar, Matthew Jerry, Suman Datta, Arijit Raychowdhury
Artificial neural networks can harness stochasticity in multiple ways to enable a vast class of computationally powerful models. Boltzmann machines and other stochastic neural networks have been shown to outperform their deterministic counterparts by allowing dynamical systems to escape local energy minima. Electronic implementation of such stochastic networks is currently limited to addition of algorithmic noise to digital machines which is inherently inefficient; albeit recent efforts to harness physical noise in devices for stochasticity have shown promise...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668848/adult-onset-hearing-impairment-induces-layer-specific-cortical-reorganization-evidence-of-crossmodal-plasticity-and-central-gain-enhancement
#13
Ashley L Schormans, Marei Typlt, Brian L Allman
Adult-onset hearing impairment can lead to hyperactivity in the auditory pathway (i.e., central gain enhancement) as well as increased cortical responsiveness to nonauditory stimuli (i.e., crossmodal plasticity). However, it remained unclear to what extent hearing loss-induced hyperactivity is relayed beyond the auditory cortex, and thus, whether central gain enhancement competes or coexists with crossmodal plasticity throughout the distinct layers of the audiovisual cortex. To that end, we investigated the effects of partial hearing loss on laminar processing in the auditory, visual and audiovisual cortices of adult rats using extracellular electrophysiological recordings performed 2 weeks after loud noise exposure...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665705/topogram-based-tube-current-modulation-of-head-computed-tomography-for-optimizing-image-quality-while-protecting-the-eye-lens-with-shielding
#14
Ming-Fang Lin, Chia-Yuen Chen, Yuan-Hao Lee, Chia-Wei Li, Leo E Gerweck, Hao Wang, Wing P Chan
Background Multiple rounds of head computed tomography (CT) scans increase the risk of radiation-induced lens opacification. Purpose To investigate the effects of CT eye shielding and topogram-based tube current modulation (TCM) on the radiation dose received by the lens and the image quality of nasal and periorbital imaging. Material and Methods An anthropomorphic phantom was CT-scanned using either automatic tube current modulation or a fixed tube current. The lens radiation dose was estimated using cropped Gafchromic films irradiated with or without a shield over the orbit...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664903/on-the-role-of-extrinsic-noise-in-microrna-mediated-bimodal-gene-expression
#15
Marco Del Giudice, Stefano Bo, Silvia Grigolon, Carla Bosia
Several studies highlighted the relevance of extrinsic noise in shaping cell decision making and differentiation in molecular networks. Bimodal distributions of gene expression levels provide experimental evidence of phenotypic differentiation, where the modes of the distribution often correspond to different physiological states of the system. We theoretically address the presence of bimodal phenotypes in the context of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation. MiRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that downregulate the expression of their target mRNAs...
April 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663507/grappa-reconstructed-wave-caipi-mp-rage-at-7-tesla
#16
Jolanda M Schwarz, Eberhard D Pracht, Daniel Brenner, Martin Reuter, Tony Stöcker
PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop a GRAPPA-based reconstruction for wave-CAIPI data. Wave-CAIPI fully exploits the 3D coil sensitivity variations by combining corkscrew k-space trajectories with CAIPIRINHA sampling. It reduces artifacts and limits reconstruction induced spatially varying noise enhancement. The GRAPPA-based wave-CAIPI method is robust and does not depend on the accuracy of coil sensitivity estimations. METHODS: We developed a GRAPPA-based, noniterative wave-CAIPI reconstruction algorithm utilizing multiple GRAPPA kernels...
April 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662441/characterization-of-hair-cell-like-cells-converted-from-supporting-cells-after-notch-inhibition-in-cultures-of-the-organ-of-corti-from-neonatal-gerbils
#17
Yi Li, Shuping Jia, Huizhan Liu, Tomoko Tateya, Weiwei Guo, Shiming Yang, Kirk W Beisel, David Z Z He
The senses of hearing and balance depend upon hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. Hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical activity. Loss of hair cells as a result of aging or exposure to noise and ototoxic drugs is the major cause of noncongenital hearing and balance deficits. In the ear of non-mammals, lost hair cells can spontaneously be replaced by production of new hair cells from conversion of supporting cells. Although supporting cells in adult mammals have lost that capability, neonatal supporting cells are able to convert to hair cells after inhibition of Notch signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660583/aie-based-superwettable-microchips-for-evaporation-and-aggregation-induced-fluorescence-enhancement-biosensing
#18
Yanxia Chen, Xuehong Min, Xiqi Zhang, Feilong Zhang, Simeng Lu, Li-Ping Xu, Xiaoding Lou, Fan Xia, Xueji Zhang, Shutao Wang
Superwettable microchips with superhydrophilic microwells on superhydrophobic substrate have attracted increasing attention in fluorescence-based biological and medical diagnostics. However, traditional fluorophores often suffer from the aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) problem at high concentration or in aggregated state. Here, we developed an AIE-based superwettable microchip by combining the evaporation-induced enrichment of superwettable microchips and the aggregation-induced emission of AIEgens together into one chip...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656473/rapid-electron-transfer-of-stacked-heterodimer-of-perylenediimide-derivatives-in-a-dna-duplex
#19
Tadao Takada, Syunya Ishino, Ami Takata, Mitsunobu Nakamura, Mamoru Fujitsuka, Tetsuro Majima, Kazushige Yamana
We have demonstrated the rapid electron transfer in homo- and hetero-complexes composed of the parent perylenediimide (PDI, PH) and pyrrolidine-substituted PDI (PN) in DNA analyzed by steady-state fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption measurements. The DNA molecules possessing PH and PN were prepared by our recently developed method using the reaction of enzymatically-generated abasic sites, by which the PDI molecules can be incorporated as base surrogates within the DNA base stack. The melting temperature analysis showed that the PH and PN monomer, and their homo- and heterodimers can contribute to the stabilization of the DNA duplex...
April 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652088/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-techniques-for-chronic-pain
#20
REVIEW
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
April 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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