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Fluency and executive function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683777/relationship-between-posturography-clinical-balance-and-executive-function-in-parkinson%C3%A2-s-disease
#1
Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Mariana Callil Voos, Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Janini Chen, Debora Cristina Valente Francato, Matija Milosevic, Milos Popovic, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Hsin Fen Chien, Egberto Reis Barbosa
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between posturography, clinical balance, and executive function tests in Parkinson´s disease (PD). Seventy-one people participated in the study. Static posturography evaluated the center of pressure fluctuations in quiet standing and dynamic posturography assessed sit-to-stand, tandem walk, and step over an obstacle. Functional balance was evaluated by Berg Balance Scale, MiniBESTest, and Timed Up and Go test. Executive function was assessed by Trail Making Test (TMT) and semantic verbal fluency test...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683193/trajectories-of-cognitive-development-during-adolescence-among-youth-at-risk-for-schizophrenia
#2
Hannah Dickson, Alexis E Cullen, Rebecca Jones, Abraham Reichenberg, Ruth E Roberts, Sheilagh Hodgins, Robin G Morris, Kristin R Laurens
BACKGROUND: Among adults with schizophrenia, evidence suggests that premorbid deficits in different cognitive domains follow distinct developmental courses during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study was to delineate trajectories of adolescent cognitive functions prospectively among different groups of youth at-risk for schizophrenia, relative to their typically developing (TD) peers. METHOD: Using linear mixed models adjusted for sex, ethnicity, parental occupation and practice effects, cognitive development between ages 9 and 16 years was compared for youth characterised by a triad of well-replicated developmental antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz; N = 32) and youth with a least one affected relative with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (FHx; N = 29), relative to TD youth (N = 45)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682233/personality-factors-and-cognitive-functioning-in-elderly-with-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Neusa Maria de Oliveira Chardosim, Camila Rosa Oliveira, Manuela Polidoro Lima, Marianne Farina, Valéria Gonzatti, Dalton Breno Costa, Aline Sória Pereira, Luis Henrique Paloski, Tatiana Quarti Irigaray, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurological disease, resulting from cell degeneration in the substantia nigra, responsible for the production of dopamine. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the cognitive functioning, personality factors and prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, this study sought to analyze whether personality factors were predictors of cognitive functioning. Methods: The sample consisted of 30 elderly with PD...
January 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679991/empirical-evidence-for-discrete-neurocognitive-subgroups-in-patients-with-non-psychotic-major-depressive-disorder-clinical-implications
#4
Shenghong Pu, Takamasa Noda, Shiori Setoyama, Kazuyuki Nakagome
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological deficits are present across various cognitive domains in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, a consistent and specific profile of neuropsychological abnormalities has not yet been established. METHODS: We assessed cognition in 170 patients with non-psychotic MDD using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and the scores were compared with those of 42 patients with schizophrenia as a reference for severity of cognitive impairment...
April 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674987/the-complex-interplay-between-depression-anxiety-and-executive-functioning-insights-from-the-ecas-in-a-large-als-population
#5
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Fabiana Madotto, Annalisa Lafronza, Alessia Monti, Stefano Zago, Alberto Doretti, Andrea Ciammola, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Introduction: The observed association between depressive symptoms and cognitive performances has not been previously clarified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pALS). In fact, the use of cognitive measures often not accommodating for motor disability has led to heterogeneous and not conclusive findings about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and depressive/anxiety symptoms by means of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS), a brief assessment specifically designed for pALS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665519/associations-between-cognitive-functioning-mood-symptoms-and-coping-styles-in-older-age-bipolar-disorder
#6
Nadine P G Paans, Annemiek Dols, Hannie C Comijs, Max L Stek, Sigfried N T M Schouws
BACKGROUND: Older age patients with bipolar disorder (OABD) have often passive coping styles, generally considered as detrimental for functioning. The aim of the current study is to identify the contribution of cognitive functioning, subjective cognitive complaints and mood symptoms to passive and active coping styles in older age BD. METHODS: In 90 euthymic patients (age > 60) with BD I or II, we examined coping, neuropsychological profile including memory, attention, executive function and fluency, subjective cognitive complaints and mood symptoms...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665124/how-does-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-start-prodromal-cognitive-changes-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#7
Daphné Génier Marchand, Ronald B Postuma, Frédérique Escudier, Jessie De Roy, Amélie Pelletier, Jacques Montplaisir, Jean-François Gagnon
Objective We describe the progression of cognitive decline and identify the predictive values of cognitive tests in three groups of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients classified at their last follow-up as having Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or still-idiopathic. Methods Patients (n=109) underwent polysomnographic, neurological, and neuropsychological assessments. We used linear mixed-model analyses to compare the progression of cognitive test performance between the three groups over a three-year prodromal period, and performed linear regressions for a six-year prodromal period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659205/executive-function-predicts-antidepressant-treatment-noncompletion-in-late-life-depression
#8
Pilar Cristancho, Eric J Lenze, David Dixon, J Philip Miller, Benoit H Mulsant, Charles F Reynolds, Meryl A Butters
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether executive function (EF) is associated with nonremission and noncompletion of antidepressant pharmacotherapy in older adults with depression. DESIGN: In this prospective study (July 2009 to May 2014), older adults (aged ≥ 60 years; n = 468) with a DSM-IV-defined major depressive episode diagnosed via structured interview received 12 weeks of venlafaxine extended release with the goal of achieving remission. A hypothesis was made that worse baseline EF would predict both nonremission and noncompletion (primary outcomes)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658744/when-does-cognitive-decline-begin-a-systematic-review-of-change-point-studies-on-accelerated-decline-in-cognitive-and-neurological-outcomes-preceding-mild-cognitive-impairment-dementia-and-death
#9
Justin E Karr, Raquel B Graham, Scott M Hofer, Graciela Muniz-Terrera
Older adults who ultimately develop dementia experience accelerated cognitive decline long before diagnosis. A similar acceleration in cognitive decline occurs in the years before death as well. To evaluate preclinical and terminal cognitive decline, past researchers have incorporated change points in their analyses of longitudinal data, identifying point estimates of how many years prior to diagnosis or death that decline begins to accelerate. The current systematic review aimed to summarize the published literature on preclinical and terminal change points in relation to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and death, identifying the order in which cognitive and neurological outcomes decline and factors that modify the onset and rate of decline...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649949/postprandial-effects-of-breakfast-glycaemic-index-on-cognitive-performance-among-young-healthy-adults-a-crossover-clinical-trial
#10
Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Sara Mora-Simon, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Benigna Sanchez-Salgado, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Luis Garcia-Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycaemic index (GI) breakfasts on cognitive performance in young, healthy adults. METHODS: A crossover clinical trial including 40 young, healthy adults (aged 20-40 years, 50% females) recruited from primary healthcare centres in Salamanca, Spain. Verbal memory, phonological fluency, attention, and executive functions were examined 0, 60, and 120 minutes after consuming a low GI (LGI), high GI (HGI), or water breakfast...
April 12, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643831/altered-intracortical-inhibition-in-chronic-traumatic-diffuse-axonal-injury
#11
Cintya Yukie Hayashi, Iuri Santana Neville, Priscila Aparecida Rodrigues, Ricardo Galhardoni, André Russowsky Brunoni, Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Ana Sofia Cueva, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
Background: Overactivation of NMDA-mediated excitatory processes and excess of GABA-mediated inhibition are attributed to the acute and subacute phases, respectively, after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there are few studies regarding the circuitry during the chronic phase of brain injury. Objective: To evaluate the cortical excitability (CE) during the chronic phase of TBI in victims diagnosed with diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Methods: The 22 adult subjects were evaluated after a minimum of 1 year from the onset of moderate or severe TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627942/orthostatic-hypotension-acutely-impairs-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Michela Sforza, Francesca Assogna, Domiziana Rinaldi, Giuliano Sette, Stefania Tagliente, Francesco E Pontieri
Orthostatic hypotension is a frequent non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, with negative prognostic role on cognitive functions. Here we measured the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on executive functions in Parkinson's disease patients devoid of hypertension, carotid artery stenosis, and significant chronic cerebrovascular pathology. Measurements were carried out during regular visits in outpatient setting. Twenty-eight Parkinson's disease patients were recruited and studied along scheduled outpatient visits...
April 7, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627938/longitudinal-cognitive-biomarkers-predicting-symptom-onset-in-presymptomatic-frontotemporal-dementia
#13
Lize C Jiskoot, Jessica L Panman, Lauren van Asseldonk, Sanne Franzen, Lieke H H Meeter, Laura Donker Kaat, Emma L van der Ende, Elise G P Dopper, Reinier Timman, Rick van Minkelen, John C van Swieten, Esther van den Berg, Janne M Papma
INTRODUCTION: We performed 4-year follow-up neuropsychological assessment to investigate cognitive decline and the prognostic abilities from presymptomatic to symptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS: Presymptomatic MAPT (n = 15) and GRN mutation carriers (n = 31), and healthy controls (n = 39) underwent neuropsychological assessment every 2 years. Eight mutation carriers (5 MAPT, 3 GRN) became symptomatic. We investigated cognitive decline with multilevel regression modeling; the prognostic performance was assessed with ROC analyses and stepwise logistic regression...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627034/comparison-of-the-abbreviated-minimal-assessment-of-cognitive-function-in-multiple-sclerosis-amacfims-and-the-brief-international-cognitive-assessment-for-multiple-sclerosis-bicams
#14
Elizabeth S Gromisch, Jeffrey G Portnoy, Frederick W Foley
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a prevalent and often intrusive problem among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Valid and reliable assessments, including quick screening measures, are crucial. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) was developed for this reason. While it lends itself to use in locations where formal neuropsychological resources might be limited, it does not include measures of verbal fluency or executive functioning, domains assessed as part of the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615855/null-effects-on-working-memory-and-verbal-fluency-tasks-when-applying-anodal-tdcs-to-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-of-healthy-participants
#15
Samuel J Westwood, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique used to modify cognition by modulating underlying cortical excitability via weak electric current applied through the scalp. Although many studies have reported positive effects with tDCS, a number of recent studies highlight that tDCS effects can be small and difficult to reproduce. This is especially the case when attempting to modulate performance using single applications of tDCS in healthy participants. Possible reasons may be that optimal stimulation parameters have yet to be identified, and that individual variation in cortical activity and/or level of ability confound outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604488/prefrontal-over-activation-during-walking-in-people-with-mobility-deficits-interpretation-and-functional-implications
#16
Kelly A Hawkins, Emily J Fox, Janis J Daly, Dorian K Rose, Evangelos A Christou, Theresa E McGuirk, Dana M Otzel, Katie A Butera, Sudeshna A Chatterjee, David J Clark
BACKGROUND: Control of walking by the central nervous system includes contributions from executive control mechanisms, such as attention and motor planning resources. Executive control of walking can be estimated objectively by recording prefrontal cortical activity using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate group differences in prefrontal/executive control of walking among young adults, older adults, and adults post-stroke...
March 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599390/use-of-neuropsychological-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-dementia-a-survey-of-italian-memory-clinics
#17
Alessandra Di Pucchio, Nicola Vanacore, Fabrizio Marzolini, Eleonora Lacorte, Teresa Di Fiandra, Marina Gasparini
AIM: Providing an overview of the neuropsychological tests used in Italian memory clinics (defined as Centers for Cognitive Disorders and Dementias-CCDD in Italy) for the diagnosis of cognitive disorders and dementias. METHODS: A total of 501 CCDD, out of all 536 active CCDD, were surveyed between February 2014 and August 2015 to verify the characteristics of the centres who performed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment (NPA), defined as the administration of at least one test for verbal and visual episodic memory, attention, constructional praxis, verbal fluency and executive functions (minimum core tests-MCTs), as part of the diagnostic process...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593639/step-by-step-kinematics-of-the-reciprocal-trail-making-task-predict-slowness-of-activities-of-daily-living-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Philipp Gulde, Katharina Leippold, Sarah Kohl, Timo Grimmer, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Alan Armstrong, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Dementia impairs the ability to perform everyday activities. Reduced motor capacity and executive functions as well as loss of memory function and forms of apraxia and action disorganization syndrome can be reasons for such impairments. In this study, an analysis of the hand trajectories during the sequential movements in an adapted version of the trail making task, the reciprocal trail making task (RTMT), was used to predict performance in activities of daily living (ADL) of patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment and dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593633/quantitative-limbic-system-mapping-of-main-cognitive-domains-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Zafer Keser, Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Kyan Younes, Mahsa Khayat-Khoei, Arash Kamali, John A Lincoln, Flavia M Nelson
Background and objective: Cognitive impairment (CI) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but underlying mechanisms and their imaging correlates are not completely understood. The gray and white matter structures of the limbic system (LS) play crucial roles in different aspects of cognition. To investigate their role in MS related CI, and since a detailed evaluations are lacking in the literature, we used a comprehensive neuroimaging approach to evaluate CI's correlations with the main components of the LS...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593624/intraindividual-variability-in-executive-function-performance-in-healthy-adults-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-nab-executive-functions-module
#20
Dorota Buczylowska, Franz Petermann
The current study was aimed at investigating across-tasks intraindividual variability, also termed dispersion, in EF performance. The German adaptation of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) was used as a measure of EFs. Data of 444 participants aged 18-99 from six NAB Executive Functions Module subtests (i.e., Planning, Mazes, Letter Fluency, Judgment, Categories, and Word Generation) along with the NAB Total Index score as a measure of overall cognitive ability were analyzed. Maximum discrepancy (MD) was applied as a measure of dispersion...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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