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Fluency and executive function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213496/effects-of-a-cognitive-training-program-and-sleep-hygiene-for-executive-functions-and-sleep-quality-in-healthy-elderly
#1
Katie Moraes de Almondes, Maria Emanuela Matos Leonardo, Ana Maria Souza Moreira
Introduction: The aging process causes changes in the sleep-wake cycle and cognition, especially executive functions. Interventions are required to minimize the impact of the losses caused by the aging process. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a cognitive training program and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene techniques for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly. Methods: The participants were 41 healthy elderly randomized into four groups ([CG] control group, cognitive training group [CTG], sleep hygiene group [SHG] and cognitive training and hygiene group [THG])...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213495/impact-of-sociodemographic-variables-on-executive-functions
#2
Kenia Repiso Campanholo, Izadora Nogueira Fonte Boa, Flávia Cristina da Silva Araujo Hodroj, Glaucia Rosana Benute Guerra, Eliane Correa Miotto, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia
Executive functions (EFs) regulate human behavior and allow individuals to interact and act in the world. EFs are sensitive to sociodemographic variables such as age, which promotes their decline, and to others that can exert a neuroprotective effect. Objective: To assess the predictive role of education, occupation and family income on decline in executive functions among a sample with a wide age range. Methods: A total of 925 participants aged 18-89 years with 1-28 years' education were submitted to assessment of executive functions using the Card Sorting Test (CST), Phonemic Verbal Fluency (FAS) Task and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Task...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209183/cognitive-flexibility-training-a-large-scale-multimodal-adaptive-active-control-intervention-study-in-healthy-older-adults
#3
Jessika I V Buitenweg, Renate M van de Ven, Sam Prinssen, Jaap M J Murre, K Richard Ridderinkhof
As aging is associated with cognitive decline, particularly in the executive functions, it is essential to effectively improve cognition in older adults. Online cognitive training is currently a popular, though controversial method. Although some changes seem possible in older adults through training, far transfer, and longitudinal maintenance are rarely seen. Based on previous literature we created a unique, state-of-the-art intervention study by incorporating frequent sessions and flexible, novel, adaptive training tasks, along with an active control group...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206893/the-cerebellar-cognitive-affective-schmahmann-syndrome-scale
#4
Franziska Hoche, Xavier Guell, Mark G Vangel, Janet C Sherman, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome) is characterized by deficits in executive function, linguistic processing, spatial cognition, and affect regulation. Diagnosis currently relies on detailed neuropsychological testing. The aim of this study was to develop an office or bedside cognitive screen to help identify CCAS in cerebellar patients. Secondary objectives were to evaluate whether available brief tests of mental function detect cognitive impairment in cerebellar patients, whether cognitive performance is different in patients with isolated cerebellar lesions versus complex cerebrocerebellar pathology, and whether there are cognitive deficits that should raise red flags about extra-cerebellar pathology...
December 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204015/clinical-profile-of-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#5
Sulena, Dipti Gupta, Anjani Kumar Sharma, Naveen Kumar
Background: There are very less data on the comparison between the cognitive profile in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinson's-plus groups, especially in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the cognitive profile across PD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) groups and compare them using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), and verbal fluency tests. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203421/executive-function-performance-in-obesity-and-overweight-individuals-a-meta-analysis-and-review
#6
REVIEW
Yingkai Yang, Grant S Shields, Cheng Guo, Yanling Liu
Prior research has suggested that obesity/overweight may be associated with deficits in executive function. If true, this has important clinical implications. In this review, we synthesize the current literature by conducting a meta-analysis of studies comparing executive functions in overweight/obese individuals to normal weight controls. We identified 72 studies-with 4,904 overweight/obese participants-that met our inclusion criteria. Effect sizes were analyzed using the robust variance estimation random effects meta-regression technique...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197200/conscious-attention-defect-and-inhibitory-control-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-comparison-study-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-multiple-domain
#7
Davide Maria Cammisuli, Marco Timpano Sportiello
BACKGROUND: Frontal/executive dysfunction commonly occurs in Parkinso's disease - Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI patients). However, to date, the number of studies comparing PD-MCI and MCI patients of other etiologies are too small. The present study aims at clarifying the attention/working memory and executive dysfunction of PD-MCI patients in comparison to amnestic MCI multiple domain patients with first extended then abbreviated structural brain changes suggesting preclinical Alzheimer's Disease...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195773/cognitive-deficits-in-bipolar-disorders-implications-for-emotion
#8
REVIEW
Isabela M M Lima, Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Prominent cognitive deficits have been documented in bipolar disorder, and multiple studies suggest that these deficits can be observed among non-affected first-degree relatives of those with bipolar disorder. Although there is variability in the degree of cognitive deficits, these deficits are robustly relevant for functional outcomes. A separate literature documents clear difficulties in emotionality, emotion regulation, and emotion-relevant impulsivity within bipolar disorder, and demonstrates that these emotion-relevant variables are also central to outcome...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194178/relationship-between-neurocognitive-function-and-self-discrepancy-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Elizabeth Jane Beadle, Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, David H K Shum
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often make unfavorable comparisons between their preinjury and postinjury selves. Although it is known that negative "self-discrepancy" is related to poorer emotional adjustment, the impact of neurocognitive function on self-discrepancy is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between current neurocognitive function (attention, memory, executive function, and self-awareness) and self-discrepancy after severe TBI...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192947/-executive-functions-in-frontal-lob-syndrome-a-case-report
#10
Özge Metin, Ali Evren Tufan, Nagihan Cevher Binici, Özge Saraçlı, Adnan Atalay, Ayşegül Yolga Tahiroğlu
Prefrontal cortex in frontal lobe (FL) is the center of executive functions (EF). FL damage can lead to executive dysfunction by influencing frontal-subcortical circuits (dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, ventromedial). Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can lead to deterioration in EF, whereas damage to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can lead to personality changes with the characteristic of disinhibition and irritability. In addition, damage to the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/MPFC) can result in decreased spontaneity...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187334/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#11
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Anne Botzung, Frédéric Blanc
This paper reviews findings on cognition in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The issue of differential diagnosis between DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the one hand, and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the other hand, at prodromal stages of the diseases is discussed. The cognitive profile of prodromal DLB is also evaluated in terms of cognitive deficits and « cognitive weaknesses » (low performances although in normal range). Findings suggest that visuo-constructive tests and verbal fluency are particularly relevant to dfferentiate DLB from AD...
December 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186725/-screening-of-executive-functions-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-using-the-new-rapid-test-pal-5
#12
Jannik Florian Scheffels, Jasmin Elaine Engels, Elke Kalbe, Josef Kessler
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent chronic neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, following Alzheimer's disease. Along with the characteristic motor symptoms of the disorder, especially bradykinesia, cognitive deficits can often be found prior to the onset of the disorder. These mainly concern executive functioning. To detect cognitive deficits at an early stage, initial screening procedures are recommended. The new cognitive rapid test Paarassoziationslernen-5 ("PAL-5") has been developed to detect the most prevalent cognitive symptoms - namely executive impairments - of PD patients...
November 29, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182762/cognitive-function-among-antiretroviral-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-infected-with-hiv-1-subtype-g-versus-crf02_ag-in-nigeria
#13
Jibreel Jumare, Nicaise Ndembi, Samer S El-Kamary, Laurence Magder, Laura Hungerford, Tricia Burdo, Lindsay M Eyzaguirre, Patrick Dakum, Anya Umlauf, Mariana Cherner, Alash'le Abimiku, Man Charurat, William A Blattner, Walter Royal
Background: HIV-1 subtype has been shown to be associated with disease progression. We compared cognitive function between individuals infected with HIV-1 subtype G and CRF02_AG in Nigeria. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, samples were analyzed from 146 antiretroviral naïve participants. Genotypic analysis of plasma HIV RNA was performed by nested PCR of protease and reverse transcriptase genes, and sequences aligned with curated HIV-1 subtype references...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169581/vitamin-d-status-is-associated-with-executive-function-a-decade-later-data-from-the-women-s-healthy-ageing-project
#14
Alicia M Goodwill, Stephen Campbell, Steven Simpson, Maria Bisignano, Cherie Chiang, Lorraine Dennerstein, Cassandra Szoeke
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing whether this association manifests from midlife. Given the long prodromal stage of dementia, we investigated the association between midlife vitamin D and cognition 10 years later. STUDY DESIGN: 252 participants (aged 55-67 years) from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project had baseline (2002) vitamin D and neuropsychological measures assessed...
January 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159048/resting-state-connectivity-and-executive-functions-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#15
Salome Kornfeld, Rui Yuan, Bharat B Biswal, Sebastian Grunt, Sandeep Kamal, Juan Antonio Delgado Rodríguez, Mária Regényi, Roland Wiest, Christian Weisstanner, Claus Kiefer, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between core executive functions and frontoparietal network connections at rest between children who had suffered an arterial ischemic stroke and typically developing peers. Methods: Children diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke more than two years previously and typically developing controls were included. Executive function (EF) measures comprised inhibition (Go-NoGo task), fluency (category fluency task), processing speed (processing speed tasks), divided attention, working memory (letter-number sequencing), conceptual reasoning (matrices) and EF in everyday life (questionnaire)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149692/acute-stress-affects-prospective-memory-functions-via-associative-memory-processes
#16
Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions...
November 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117799/subclinical-executive-function-impairment-in-children-with-asymptomatic-treated-phenylketonuria-a-comparison-with-children-with-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Patrizia Bisiacchi, Vincenza Tarantino, Giovanni Mento
In this study we compared the neuropsychological profile of phenylketonuria (PKU) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to examine the specificity of the executive function (EF) impairment reported in these two patologies. A total of 55 age-matched children and adolescents were assessed, including 11 patients with PKU, 16 patients with HIV and 28 healthy controls, underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Although neither the PKU nor the HIV group scored below the normative ranges, both groups showed lower scores in neuropsychological tests engaging EFs than controls...
November 9, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116821/memory-and-linguistic-executive-functions-of-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#18
Andrea B Água Dias, Cristina P Albuquerque, Mário R Simões
Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) have received a minimal amount of research attention and have been studied in conjunction with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. The present study intends to broaden the knowledge of BIF, by analyzing domains such as verbal memory and visual memory, as well as tasks that rely simultaneously on memory, executive functions, and language. A cross-sectional, comparison study was carried out between a group of 40 children with BIF (mean age = 10...
November 8, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111357/relevance-of-dorsolateral-and-frontotemporal-cortex-on-the-phonemic-verbal-fluency-a-fnirs-study
#19
Martin J Herrmann, Anna K Horst, Sophia Löble, Mira T Möll, Andrea Katzorke, Thomas Polak
Non-invasive brain stimulation is widely used to investigate and manipulate specific brain functions to broaden knowledge about healthy people, and also to provide for a potential treatment option for people with various psychopathological disorders that do not adequately benefit from traditional treatments. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether we could alter the brain activity during a test for executive functioning...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108470/the-chinese-version-of-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-affective-disorders-normative-data-of-a-mandarin-speaking-population
#20
Chun-Yi Lee, Sheng-Yu Lee, Yu-Chi Huang, Chi-Fa Hung, Yu Lee, Meng-I Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
OBJECTIVE: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A) is administered to assess the cognitive impairments in patients with affective disorders. This study aims to develop the normative data and to explore the factor structure of the Chinese version of the BAC-A in a Mandarin-speaking population. METHOD: This cross-sectional study consisted of 220 healthy participants (age range: 19-79 years; mean age: 51.5 ± 15.9 years, 48.2% male) in communities in Taiwan...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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