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Visceral obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821853/visceral-adiposity-index-is-strongly-associated-with-hyperuricemia-independently-of-metabolic-health-and-obesity-phenotypes
#1
Huimin Dong, Yang Xu, Xiuzhi Zhang, Simiao Tian
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel sex-specific index for visceral adipose function; however the association between VAI and hyperuricemia in China is unknown. We aimed to investigate this association, also whether it was independent of metabolic health and obesity phenotypes. 7632 adult subjects from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009 were retained. Subjects were categorized into four obesity phenotypes based on a cross-classification of BMI and metabolic health status by two representative criteria...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820393/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-omentin-1-hepatic-mrna-expression-and-serum-levels-in-morbidly-obese-women-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
M Waluga, M Kukla, M Zorniak, M Kajor, L Liszka, M Dyaczynski, G Kowalski, D Zadlo, E Waluga, P Olczyk, R J Buldak, A Berdowska, M Hartleb
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and omentin-1 have been recognized as potent antidiabetic agents with potential hepatoprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression as well as their serum levels as predictive markers of liver injury and insulin resistance in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 56 severely obese women who underwent intraoperative wedge liver biopsy during the bariatric surgery. Hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while their serum concentrations were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819236/impact-of-sex-fat-distribution-and-initial-body-weight-on-oxytocin-s-body-weight-regulation
#3
Yuko Maejima, Masato Aoyama, Kazuho Sakamoto, Teruo Jojima, Yoshimasa Aso, Katsuya Takasu, Seiichi Takenosihita, Kenju Shimomura
Obesity is considered as a worldwide problem in both males and females. Although many studies have demonstrated the efficiency of oxytocin (Oxt) as an anti-obesity peptide, there is no comparative study of its effect in males and females. This study aims to determine factors (sex, initial body weight, and fat distribution) that may affect the ability of Oxt to regulate body weight (BW). With regard to sex, Oxt reduced BW similarly in males and females under both high fat diet (HFD) and standard chow-fed condition...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817729/comparison-of-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-and-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography-for-total-fat-volume-measurement-in-mice
#4
Gaelle Aubertin, Amira Sayeh, Jean-Philippe Dillenseger, Estelle Ayme-Dietrich, Philippe Choquet, Nathalie Niederhoffer
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are two pathologies whose prevalence are in a constant increase. Evaluation of the total fat mass but also of the distribution between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are important factors while assessing the pathophysiology of these two pathologies. Computed tomography (CT) and bioimpedance (BIS) are the translational methods the most frequently used in human beings as well as in rodent models in longitudinal studies on adiposity and obesity. Surprisingly, no direct comparison of micro-CT and BIS was reported yet in mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814950/morinda-citrifolia-l-leaf-extract-prevent-weight-gain-in-sprague-dawley-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Najla Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Fawzi Mahomoodally, Nazamid Saari, Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz, Azizah Abdul Hamid
Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814394/dynamics-of-intrapericardial-and-extrapericardial-fat-tissues-during-long-term-dietary-induced-moderate-weight-loss
#6
Gal Tsaban, Arik Wolak, Hila Avni-Hassid, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka-Meir, Oded Komy, Avital Bilitzky, Yoash Chassidim, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Dror Dicker, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811790/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-its-association-with-adiposity-indices-in-young-adults
#7
Mozaffer Rahim Hingorjo, Sitwat Zehra, Zainab Hasan, Masood Anwar Qureshi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and adiposity in young adults. METHODS: Data was collected from 133 students of a medical college of Pakistan. The study was conducted on young adults, aged 17-24 years, recruited from Jinnah Medical & Dental College, Karachi, between Aug-Dec, 2015. Queen's College Step Test was conducted to measure CRF and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) evaluated. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index, body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference) were taken to assess adiposity...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809783/role-of-omentin-vaspin-cardiotrophin-1-tweak-and-nov-ccn3-in-obesity-and-diabetes-development
#8
REVIEW
Xavier Escoté, Saioa Gómez-Zorita, Miguel López-Yoldi, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga, María P Portillo
Adipose tissue releases bioactive mediators called adipokines. This review focuses on the effects of omentin, vaspin, cardiotrophin-1, Tumor necrosis factor-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (TWEAK) and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) on obesity and diabetes. Omentin is produced by the stromal-vascular fraction of visceral adipose tissue. Obesity reduces omentin serum concentrations and adipose tissue secretion in adults and adolescents. This adipokine regulates insulin sensitivity, but its clinical relevance has to be confirmed...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802015/identification-and-characterization-of-metformin-on-peptidomic-profiling-in-human-visceral-adipocytes
#9
Yao Gao, XingYun Wang, FangYan Huang, XianWei Cui, Yun Li, Xing Wang, Yan Cao, PengFei Xu, KaiPeng Xie, RanRan Tang, Le Zhang, ChenBo Ji, LiangHui You, XiRong Guo
OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into the effect of metformin on losing weight from peptidomic perspective and to screen potential active peptides for reducing fat lipid deposition. METHODS: After determining the proper concentration of metformin on human primary visceral adipocytes, we constructed a comparative peptidomic profiling between control and metformin treatment group (n = 3) using a stable isobaric labeling strategy involving tandem mass tag reagents, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801180/obesity-as-predictor-of-postoperative-outcomes-in-liver-transplant-candidates-review-of-the-literature-and-future-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Michele Barone, Maria Teresa Viggiani, Alfonso W Avolio, Andrea Iannone, Maria Rendina, Alfredo Di Leo
BACKGROUND: Current American and European guidelines consider a pre-transplant BMI ≥40kg/m(2) as a relative contraindication for liver transplantation but this recommendation is graded as uncertain and requires further research. Moreover, conflicting results are reported on the predictive value of BMI 30-39.9kg/m(2) on post-transplant complication and mortality risk. AIM: This study analyzed the data of the literature on the effect of all three BMI classes of obesity on postoperative outcomes in liver transplantation...
July 22, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801068/lepr-polymorphism-may-affect-energy-balance-during-weight-loss-among-brazilians-obese-adolescents
#11
Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Sandro Soares Almeida, Lian Tock, João Bosco Pesquero, Ronaldo Carvalho Araújo, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Bárbara Dal'Molin Netto, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Joana Pereira de Carvalho Ferreira, Priscila de Lima Sanches, Aline de Piano Ganen, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Lila Missae Oyama, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is an adipokine released mainly by adipose tissue, with many functions including regulation of energy balance. However, little is known about the effect of LEPR polymorphism on orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Thus, the aim of the present study is to verify the influence of LEPR polymorphism (rs2767485) on serum orexigenic (NPY, MCH and AgRP) and anorexigenic (Leptin and α-MSH) neuropeptides levels among obese adolescents submitted to 1year of multicomponent weight loss therapy...
August 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800775/lack-of-high-bmi-related-features-in-adipocytes-and-inflammatory-cells-in-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-ifp
#12
Anja J de Jong, Inge R Klein-Wieringa, Stefan N Andersen, Joanneke C Kwekkeboom, Linda Herb-van Toorn, Badelog J E de Lange-Brokaar, Danny van Delft, John Garcia, Wu Wei, Huub J L van der Heide, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Annemarie M Zuurmond, Vedrana Stojanovic-Susulic, Rob G H H Nelissen, René E M Toes, Margreet Kloppenburg, Andreea Ioan-Facsinay
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) could be involved in this association, due to its intracapsular localization in the knee joint, there is currently little known about the effect of obesity on the IFP. Therefore, we investigated cellular and molecular body mass index (BMI)-related features in the IFP of OA patients. METHODS: Patients with knee OA (N = 155, 68% women, mean age 65 years, mean (SD) BMI 29...
August 11, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799667/coadministration-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-augments-metabolic-health-benefits-of-cinnamaldehyde-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#13
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Pragyanshu Khare, Vandana Bijalwan, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Bacteriostatic properties of a potential anti-obesity agent cinnamaldehyde (CMN) may present untoward effects on the resident gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) with CMN prevents unwanted effects of CMN on gut microbiota and associated metabolic outcomes in HFD-fed mice. Male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10), were fed on normal chow, or HFD (58% fat kcal), HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) and HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) + IMOs (1 g kg(-1) ) for 12 weeks...
August 11, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797077/gender-difference-in-nash-susceptibility-roles-of-hepatocyte-ikk%C3%AE-and-sult1e1
#14
Noriko Matsushita, Mohamed T Hassanein, Marcos Martinez-Clemente, Raul Lazaro, Samuel W French, Wen Xie, Keane Lai, Michael Karin, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Myeloid cell and hepatocyte IKKβ may mediate the genesis of obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high fat diet. However, their gender-specific roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not known. Here we demonstrate myeloid IKKβ deficiency prevents Western diet-induced obesity and visceral adiposity in females but not in males, and attenuates hyperglycemia, global IR, and NASH in both genders. In contrast, all metabolic sequela including NASH are aggravated by hepatocyte IKKβ deficiency (IkbkbΔhep) in male but not female mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794431/macrophage-jak2-deficiency-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-inflammation
#15
Harsh R Desai, Tharini Sivasubramaniyam, Xavier S Revelo, Stephanie A Schroer, Cynthia T Luk, Prashanth R Rikkala, Adam H Metherel, David W Dodington, Yoo Jin Park, Min Jeong Kim, Joshua A Rapps, Rickvinder Besla, Clinton S Robbins, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Richard P Bazinet, Daniel A Winer, Minna Woo
During obesity, macrophages can infiltrate metabolic tissues, and contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation, and mediate insulin resistance and diabetes. Recent studies have elucidated the metabolic role of JAK2, a key mediator downstream of various cytokines and growth factors. Our study addresses the essential role of macrophage JAK2 in the pathogenesis to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. During high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, macrophage-specific JAK2 knockout (M-JAK2(-/-)) mice gained less body weight compared to wildtype littermate control (M-JAK2(+/+)) mice and were protected from HFD-induced systemic insulin resistance...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791501/skeletal-muscle-mass-to-visceral-fat-area-ratio-is-an-important-determinant-affecting-hepatic-conditions-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Takashi Shida, Kentaro Akiyama, Sechang Oh, Akemi Sawai, Tomonori Isobe, Yoshikazu Okamoto, Kazunori Ishige, Yuji Mizokami, Kenji Yamagata, Kojiro Onizawa, Hironori Tanaka, Hiroko Iijima, Junichi Shoda
BACKGROUND: Not only obesity but also sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD. The influence of altered body composition on the pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine whether skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) affects NAFLD pathophysiology. METHODS: A total of 472 subjects were enrolled. The association between SV ratio and NAFLD pathophysiological factors was assessed in a cross-sectional nature by stratification analysis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790027/increased-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-adipocytes-underlies-mitochondrial-alterations-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#17
Lauren E Wright, Denis Vecellio Reane, Gabriella Milan, Anna Terrin, Giorgia di Bello, Anna Belligoli, Marta Sanna, Mirto Foletto, Francesca Favaretto, Anna Raffaello, Cristina Mammucari, Donato Nitti, Roberto Vettor, Rosario Rizzuto
Intracellular calcium influences an array of pathways and affects cellular processes. With the rapidly progressing research investigating the molecular identity and the physiological roles of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU) complex, we now have the tools to understand the functions of mitochondrial Ca(2+) in the regulation of pathophysiological processes. Herein, we describe the role of key MCU complex components in insulin resistance in mouse and human adipose tissue. Adipose tissue gene expression was analysed from several models of obese and diabetic rodents and in obese patients, as well as in vitro insulin-resistant adipocytes...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789943/reciprocal-inflammatory-signaling-between-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-adipocytes-in-the-absence-of-immune-cells
#18
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Visceral fat accumulation as observed in Crohn's disease and obesity is linked to chronic gut inflammation, suggesting that accumulation of gut adipocytes can trigger local inflammatory signaling. However, direct interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adipocytes have not been investigated, in part because IEC physiology is difficult to replicate in culture. In this study, we originally prepared intact, polarized, and cytokine responsive IEC monolayers from primary or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids by simple and repeatable methods...
August 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783178/fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-is-a-mechanistic-link-between-visceral-adiposity-and-cancer
#19
D Chakraborty, V Benham, B Bullard, T Kearney, H C Hsia, D Gibbon, E Y Demireva, S Y Lunt, J J Bernard
Epidemiological evidence implicates excess adipose tissue in increasing cancer risk. Despite a steeply rising global prevalence of obesity, how adiposity contributes to transformation (stage a non-tumorigenic cell undergoes to become malignant) is unknown. To determine the factors in adipose tissue that stimulate transformation, we used a novel ex vivo system of visceral adipose tissue (VAT)-condition medium-stimulated epithelial cell growth in soft agar. To extend this system in vivo, we used a murine lipectomy model of ultraviolet light B-induced, VAT-promoted skin tumor formation...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780990/folate-and-vitamin-b12-status-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-morbid-obesity
#20
Zhen Li, Rosa-Maria Gueant-Rodriguez, Didier Quilliot, Marie-Aude Sirveaux, David Meyre, Jean-Louis Gueant, Laurent Brunaud
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin B12 and high folate during pregnancy are associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in offspring. In the general population, high folate exacerbates the increase of methylmalonic acid, a marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, the influence of vitamin B12 and folate and their related markers on insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome remains unknown in severe obesity. AIM: To evaluate the influence of vitamin B12 and folate on HOMA-IR and components of metabolic syndrome in severe obesity...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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