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Visceral obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428714/predictors-for-difficult-cecal-insertion-in-colonoscopy-the-impact-of-obesity-indices
#1
Soo Yun Moon, Byung Chang Kim, Dae Kyung Sohn, Kyung Su Han, Bun Kim, Chang Won Hong, Bum Joon Park, Kum Hei Ryu, Ji Hyung Nam
AIM: To identify the factors influencing cecal insertion time (CIT) and to evaluate the effect of obesity indices on CIT. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data for participants who received both colonoscopy and abdominal computed tomography (CT) from February 2008 to May 2008 as part of a comprehensive health screening program. Age, gender, obesity indices [body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume on abdominal CT], history of prior abdominal surgery, constipation, experience of the colonoscopist, quality of bowel preparation, diverticulosis and time required to reach the cecum were analyzed...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428538/hyperuricemia-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-diseases-clustering-among-very-elderly-women-a-community-based-study-in-chengdu-china
#2
Gang Huang, Jun-Bo Xu, Ting-Jie Zhang, Xiao-Li Nie, Qiu Li, Ya Liu, Yan Lv, Rui-Lian Wen, Lei Yang, Bao-Yu Zhao
Cardiovascular epidemiological features among very elderly Chinese are still uncertain. This study aimed to describe the distribution of cardiovascular diseases and sex difference, and investigate potential risk factors for diseases clustering among very elderly Chinese. From May 2013 to May 2015, a total of 1056 very elderly were sampled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic characteristics collection, physical examination and biochemical analysis were performed. Totally, 1038 participants (men: 49.8%) with a median age of 83...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428227/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-the-multiple-facets-of-gh-lessons-from-lifetime-untreated-isolated-gh-deficiency-due-to-ghrh-receptor-mutation
#3
Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira, Anita Ho Souza, Carla R Oliveira, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira-Neto, Roberto Salvatori
Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. The most striking physical findings of these IGHD individuals are the proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitched voice, and visceral obesity with reduced fat free mass...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428027/fructose-intervention-for-12-weeks-does-not-impair-glycemic-control-or-incretin-hormone-responses-during-oral-glucose-or-mixed-meal-tests-in-obese-men
#4
N Matikainen, S Söderlund, E Björnson, L H Bogl, K H Pietiläinen, A Hakkarainen, N Lundbom, B Eliasson, S M Räsänen, A Rivellese, L Patti, A Prinster, G Riccardi, J-P Després, N Alméras, J J Holst, C F Deacon, J Borén, M-R Taskinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle...
March 18, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425849/age-dependent-obesity-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#5
Qilong Oscar Yang Li, Ines Soro-Arnaiz, Julián Aragonés
Aging is associated with progressive visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion both in human and mouse. Importantly, WAT enlargement is initiated early in life, suggesting that molecular mechanisms underlying age-dependent obesity are activated at early stages of lifetime. Our recent study found that age-dependent obesity was associated with a specific decline in mitochondrial complex IV activity, which leads to reduced fatty acid oxidation and subsequent adipocyte hypertrophy. At the molecular level, global mitochondrial complex IV inhibition was driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)-mediated repression of some of its key subunits, including cytochrome c oxidase 5b (Cox5b)...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424360/intermittent-hypoxia-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-mediates-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#6
Aoife M Murphy, Amandine Thomas, Sophie J Crinion, Brian D Kent, Murtaza M Tambuwala, Aurelie Fabre, Jean-Louis Pepin, Helen M Roche, Claire Arnaud, Silke Ryan
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly associated with insulin resistance. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear but intermittent hypoxia (IH)-mediated inflammation and subsequent dysfunction of the adipose tissue has been hypothesised to play a key role.We tested this hypothesis employing a comprehensive translational approach using a murine IH model of lean and diet-induced obese mice, an innovative IH system for cell cultures and a tightly controlled patient cohort.IH led to the development of insulin resistance in mice, corrected for the degree of obesity, and reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, associated with inhibition of the insulin-signalling pathway and downregulation of insulin-receptor substrate-1 mRNA...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423008/perirenal-fat-thickness-measured-with-computed-tomography-is-a-reliable-estimate-of-perirenal-fat-mass
#7
Guillaume Favre, Caroline Grangeon-Chapon, Charles Raffaelli, Florence François-Chalmin, Antonio Iannelli, Vincent Esnault
Deposition of perirenal adipose tissue has been associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular events. We compared various methods to measure perirenal adipose tissue using computerized tomography (CT)-scan and performed correlations with anthropometric measures associated with renal and cardiovascular events. Voluntary overweight and obese subjects undergoing a CT-scan for diagnostic purposes were included in the study. Perirenal adipose tissue volume, adipose tissue area of the renal sinus and perirenal fat thickness were manually measured bilaterally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422186/high-fat-diet-induces-systemic-b-cell-repertoire-changes-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#8
T D Pham, M H Y Chng, K M Roskin, K J L Jackson, K D Nguyen, J Glanville, J-Y Lee, E G Engleman, S D Boyd
The development of obesity-associated insulin resistance is associated with B-lymphocyte accumulation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and is prevented by B-cell ablation. To characterize potentially pathogenic B-cell repertoires in this disorder, we performed high-throughput immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing from multiple tissues of mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) and regular diet (RD). HFD significantly changed the biochemical properties of Ig heavy-chain complementarity-determining region-3 (CDRH3) sequences, selecting for IgA antibodies with shorter and more hydrophobic CDRH3 in multiple tissues...
April 19, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420164/the-angiogenesis-inhibitor-als-l1023-from-lemon-balm-leaves-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-regulating-the-visceral-adipose-tissue-function
#9
Jeongjun Kim, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jaeho Oh, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413193/effect-of-dietary-purified-xanthohumol-from-hop-humulus-lupulus-l-pomace-on-adipose-tissue-mass-fasting-blood-glucose-level-and-lipid-metabolism-in-kk-ay-mice
#10
Koki Takahashi, Kyoichi Osada
We previously showed that xanthohumol-rich hop extract (XRHE, ~18% xanthohumol) exerts anti-obesity effects in rats fed a high-fat diet through regulation of fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary purified xanthohumol from XRHE (PX, ~91.9% xanthohumol) in KK-Ay mice in order to understand the anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol alone because XRHE contains 82% unknown compounds. Dietary consumption of PX significantly inhibited an increase in the visceral fat weight of mice compared to those fed control diet without PX...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411232/wnt5a-regulates-adipose-tissue-angiogenesis-via-anti-angiogenic-vegfa165b-in-obese-humans
#11
Shakun Karki, Doan Ngo, Melissa G Farb, Song-Young Park, Samantha M Saggese, Naomi M Hamburg, Brian Carmine, Donald T Hess, Kenneth Walsh, Noyan Gokce
Experimental studies suggest that Wingless-related integration site 5a (WNT5A) is a pro-inflammatory secreted protein that is associated with metabolic dysfunction in obesity. Impaired angiogenesis in fat has been implicated in the development of adipose tissue capillary rarefaction, hypoxia, inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. We recently demonstrated that impaired adipose tissue angiogenesis is associated with overexpression of anti-angiogenic factor VEGF-A165b in human fat and the systemic circulation...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407665/enhanced-inflammation-without-impairment-of-insulin-signaling-in-the-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-5%C3%AE-dihydrotestosterone-induced-animal-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Marina Nikolić, Nataša Veličković, Ana Djordjevic, Biljana Bursać, Jelena Nestorov, Ana Teofilović, Ivana Božić Antić, Jelica Bjekić Macut, Abdulbaset Shirif Zidane, Gordana Matić, Djuro Macut
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Since abdominal obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation, the aim of the study was to investigate whether visceral adipose tissue inflammation linked to abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia could lead to impaired insulin sensitivity in the animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome.Female Wistar rats were treated with nonaromatizable 5α-dihydrotestosterone pellets in order to induce reproductive and metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome...
April 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403191/visceral-adipose-tissue-but-not-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-is-associated-with-urine-and-serum-metabolites
#13
Inga Schlecht, Wolfram Gronwald, Gundula Behrens, Sebastian E Baumeister, Johannes Hertel, Jochen Hochrein, Helena U Zacharias, Beate Fischer, Peter J Oefner, Michael F Leitzmann
Obesity is a complex multifactorial phenotype that influences several metabolic pathways. Yet, few studies have examined the relations of different body fat compartments to urinary and serum metabolites. Anthropometric phenotypes (visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the ratio between VAT and SAT (VSR), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and urinary and serum metabolite concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were measured in a population-based sample of 228 healthy adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400678/key-role-of-stat4-deficiency-in-the-hematopoietic-compartment-in-insulin-resistance-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#14
Anca D Dobrian, Kaiwen Ma, Lindsey M Glenn, Margaret A Hatcher, Bronson A Haynes, Eric J Lehrer, Mark H Kaplan, Jerry L Nadler
Visceral adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is linked to the complications of obesity, including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Recent data from our lab showed that germline deficiency in STAT4 reduces inflammation and improves IR in obese mice. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of selective STAT4 deficiency in subsets of hematopoietic cells to IR and AT inflammation. To determine the contribution of hematopoietic lineage, we sublethally irradiated Stat4(-/-)C57Bl6 mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from Stat4(+/+)C57Bl6 congenic donors...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400411/fatty-acid-uptake-and-blood-flow-in-adipose-tissue-compartments-of-morbidly-obese-subjects-with-or-without-type-2-diabetes-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#15
Prince Dadson, Ele Ferrannini, Linda Landini, Jarna C Hannukainen, Kari K Kalliokoski, Maija Vaittinen, Henri Honka, Henry K Karlsson, Jetro J Tuulari, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Riitta Parkkola, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
Body fat accumulation, distribution and metabolic activity are factors in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated adipose blood flow, fatty acid uptake (FAU), and subcutaneous and visceral fat cellularity in obese patients with or without T2D. A total 23 morbidly obese (BMI 42 kg/m(2)) patients were studied before and 6 months after bariatric surgery; 15 nonobese subjects served as controls. Positron emission tomography was used to measure tissue FAU (with (18)F-FTHA) and blood flow (with H2(15)O); MRI was used for fat distribution, fat biopsy for adipocyte size...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397943/anthropometric-and-central-obesity-indices-as-predictors-of-long-term-cardiometabolic-risk-among-saudi-young-and-middle-aged-men-and-women
#16
Mahmoud M A Abulmeaty, Ali M Almajwal, Najwa K Almadani, Mona S Aldosari, Ahmed A Alnajim, Saeed B Ali, Heba M Hassan, Hany A Elkatawy
To investigate the prediction of long-term cardiometabolic risk using anthropometric and central obesity parameters.  Methods: A total of 390 Saudi subjects (men 42.8%) aged 18-50 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between August 2014 and  January 2016. All   participants were instructed to fast for 12 hours before taking blood samples for glucose and lipid panel analyses. A full anthropometric measurement and bioelectric impedance analysis was performed...
April 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396714/cinnamon-polyphenol-extract-inhibits-hyperlipidemia-and-inflammation-by-modulation-of-transcription-factors-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#17
Zeynep Tuzcu, Cemal Orhan, Nurhan Sahin, Vijaya Juturu, Kazim Sahin
We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR-α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396653/reduced-hepatic-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-level-in-obesity
#18
Garrett Heinrich, Harrison T Muturi, Khadijeh Rezaei, Qusai Y Al-Share, Anthony M DeAngelis, Thomas A Bowman, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Deqiang Zhang, Robert S Garofalo, Lei Yin, Sonia M Najjar
Impairment of insulin clearance is being increasingly recognized as a critical step in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Null deletion or liver-specific inactivation of Ceacam1 in mice causes a defect in insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and visceral obesity. Immunohistological analysis revealed reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obese subjects with fatty liver disease...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394670/effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-visceral-and-hepatic-fat-in-women-with-abdominal-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Hong Lei, Xiao Chen, Shuyun Liu, Zhenyan Chen
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic fat deposition are the most important risk factors for women's health. Acupuncture, including electroacupuncture (EA), is used to treat obesity throughout the world. The effect of EA is evaluated mainly by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Few studies have assessed its effect in reducing VAT volume and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) based on an exact measurement method such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to resolve this issue...
April 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394364/human-adipose-tissue-accumulation-is-associated-with-pro-inflammatory-changes-in-subcutaneous-rather-than-visceral-adipose-tissue
#20
I Kralova Lesna, S Cejkova, A Kralova, J Fronek, M Petras, A Sekerkova, F Thieme, L Janousek, R Poledne
The importance of the involvement of adipose tissue macrophage subpopulations in obesity-related disorders is well known from different animal models, but human data are scarcer. Subcutaneous (n=44) and visceral (n=52) adipose tissues of healthy living kidney donors were obtained during living donor nephrectomy. Stromal vascular fractions were isolated and analysed by flow cytometry using CD14, CD16, CD36 and CD163 antibodies. Total macrophage numbers in subcutaneous adipose tissue increased (P=0.02) with body mass index (BMI), with a similar increase seen in the proportion of phagocytic CD14+CD16+CD36(high) macrophages (P<0...
April 10, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
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