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Visceral obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050981/evolutional-change-in-epicardial-fat-and-its-correlation-with-myocardial-diffuse-fibrosis-in-heart-failure-patients
#1
Cho-Kai Wu, Hao-Yuan Tsai, Mao-Yuan M Su, Yi-Fan Wu, Juey-Jen Hwang, Jiunn-Lee Lin, Lian-Yu Lin, Jien-Jiun Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the characteristics of epicardial fat (EAT) in different stage heart failure (HF) patients and its relationship between cardiac fibrosis. BACKGROUND: EAT is visceral adipose tissue that possesses inflammatory properties. Inflammation and obesity are associated with cardiac fibrosis, but the relationship between cardiac fibrosis and EAT is unknown. METHODS: EAT volume was measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in 180 subjects: 58 patients with systolic HF, 63 patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction, and 59 patients without HF...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045451/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-does-aberrant-interoceptive-processing-contribute-towards-emotional-eating
#2
Hayley A Young, Claire Williams, Aimee E Pink, Gary Freegard, Amy Owens, David Benton
According to estimates from Public Health England, by 2034 70% of adults are expected to be overweight or obese, therefore understanding the underpinning aetiology is a priority. Eating in response to negative affect contributes towards obesity, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Evidence that visceral afferent signals contribute towards the experience of emotion is accumulating rapidly, with the emergence of new influential models of 'active inference'. No longer viewed as a 'bottom up' process, new interoceptive facets based on 'top down' predictions have been proposed, although at present it is unclear which aspects of interoception contribute to aberrant eating behaviour and obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043609/the-fat-of-the-matter-obesity-and-visceral-adiposity-in-treated-hiv-infection
#3
REVIEW
Jordan E Lake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize knowledge of the prevalence, relevant physiology, and consequences of obesity and visceral adiposity in HIV-infected adults, including highlighting gaps in current knowledge and future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Similar to the general population, obesity prevalence is increasing among HIV-infected persons, and obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with numerous metabolic and inflammatory sequelae...
October 18, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043404/epiploic-appendagitis-7-year-experience-and-relationship-with-visceral-obesity
#4
James P Nugent, Hugue A Ouellette, D Peter O'Leary, Faisal Khosa, Savvas Nicolaou, Patrick D McLaughlin
PURPOSE: Location, size, and local inflammatory findings in primary epiploic appendagitis (EA) have not been reported outside of small studies. The association between EA and increased adiposity is controversial. The goals of this project are to compare demographics and imaging-based measurements of adiposity between patients with EA and patients with acute abdomen without EA, and to identify CT features of EA. METHODS: A consecutive sample of acute, primary EA (n = 100), and control (acute abdomen; n = 100) was selected retrospectively...
October 17, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042976/anti-obesity-effect-of-robusta-fermented-with-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#5
Soo-Young Choi, Seung-Hyun Ryu, Jin-Il Park, Eui-Suk Jeong, Jong-Hyung Park, Seung-Hoon Ham, Hee-Yeon Jeon, Jun-Young Kim, Inn-Goo Kyeong, Dong-Goo Kim, Ji-Young Shin, Yang-Kyu Choi
Robusta beans cultivated with Monascus ruber (RMR) were successively fermented with Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM) and the antiobesity effects were examined. To produce an obese mouse model to investigate the hypolipidemic effects, ICR mice were fed the same high-fat diet for 6 weeks. Treatment groups were given 10 or 20% RMR-LM. Body weight changes in the 20% RMR-LM group were lower compared with those in the control group. Visceral adipose tissue weight and adipose size were significantly lower in the 20% RMR-LM group compared with those in the control group...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042391/korean-obesity-surgical-treatment-study-kobess-protocol-of-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study-on-obese-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#6
Young Suk Park, Do Joong Park, Joo Ho Lee, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Tae Kyung Ha, Yong-Jin Kim, Seung-Wan Ryu, Sang-Moon Han, Moon-Won Yoo, Sungsoo Park, Sang-Uk Han, Yoonseok Heo
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery effectively induces long-term weight loss in Western populations. However, its effectiveness in Asians remains to be confirmed objectively. The Korean Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery proposes the first prospective cohort study on Koreans undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Korean OBEsity Surgical treatment Study (KOBESS) is a prospective, multicentre, single-arm, observational, cohort study on morbidly obese patients who undergo primary sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in Korea...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042127/pinitol-alleviates-systemic-inflammatory-cytokines-in-human-obesity-by-a-mechanism-involving-unfolded-protein-response-and-sirtuin-1
#7
Sandra López-Domènech, Celia Bañuls, Aranzazu M de Marañón, Zaida Abab-Jiménez, Carlos Morillas, Segundo Ángel Gómez-Abril, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Víctor Manuel Víctor, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Milagros Rocha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is known that pinitol acts as a mediator of the insulin-signaling pathway, though little is known about its anti-inflammatory effect in human obesity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of pinitol on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT), focusing on the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). METHODS: In the intervention study, thirteen obese subjects consumed a pinitol-enriched beverage (PEB) for 12 weeks...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039967/central-obesity-and-the-mediterranean-diet-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-trials
#8
C L Bendall, H L Mayr, R S Opie, M Bes-Rastrollo, C Itsiopoulos, C J Thomas
Central obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and is a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean diet pattern has a convincing evidence-base for improving cardiometabolic health. This review investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet interventions on central obesity, specifically. A systematic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Search terms included: 'Mediterranean Diet', 'Mediterranean dietary pattern', 'central obesity' and 'visceral fat'...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039444/vaspin-protects-against-lps%C3%A2-induced-ards-by-inhibiting-inflammation-apoptosis-and-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-via-the-akt-gsk%C3%A2-3%C3%AE-pathway
#9
Di Qi, Daoxin Wang, Chunrong Zhang, Xumao Tang, Jing He, Yan Zhao, Wang Deng, Xinyu Deng
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by uncontrolled extravasation of protein‑rich fluids, which is caused by disruption and dysfunction of the barrier of pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs). Visceral adipose tissue‑derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a novel adipokine with pleiotropic properties, which has been reported to exert beneficial effects against obesity‑associated systemic vascular diseases; however, its effects on ARDS remain unknown. In the present study, mice were subjected to systemic administration of adenoviral vector expressing vaspin (Ad‑vaspin) to examine its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ARDS in vivo...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035677/effectiveness-of-a-smartphone-application-for-the-management-of-metabolic-syndrome-components-focusing-on-weight-loss-a-preliminary-study
#10
Tatiana Toro-Ramos, Dong-Hwa Lee, Youngin Kim, Andreas Michaelides, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim
BACKGROUND: There are inconsistent results for the effectiveness of using smartphone applications (apps) or websites on weight loss. We investigated the efficacy of a smartphone intervention using a designated app that utilizes a lifestyle intervention-focused approach, including a human coaching element, toward weight loss in overweight or obese Korean adults. METHODS: One hundred four adults aged 20-60 years with a body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2), who signed up for a smartphone program for weight loss (using the Noom app), were recruited...
October 16, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034440/risperidone-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-is-attenuated-by-curcuma-longa-extract-administration-in-mice
#11
Florent Auger, Françoise Martin, Olivier Pétrault, Jennifer Samaillie, Thierry Hennebelle, Mohamed-Sami Trabelsi, François Bailleul, Bart Staels, Régis Bordet, Patrick Duriez
Antipsychotics, such as risperidone, increase food intake and induce alteration in glucose and lipid metabolism concomitantly with overweight and body fat increase, these biological abnormalities belong to the metabolic syndrome definition (high visceral adiposity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high blood pressure). Curcumin is a major component of traditional turmeric (Curcuma longa) which has been reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism and to decrease weight in obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032145/genetic-association-analysis-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-obesity-related-phenotypes
#12
Correa-Rodríguez María, Carrillo-Ávila Jose Antonio, Schmidt-RioValle Jacqueline, González-Jiménez Emilio, Vargas Sofia, Martin Javier, Rueda-Medina Blanca
Vitamin D has been established as a key factor in the development of obesity through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the VDR gene to obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. The study population consisted of 701 healthy Spanish young adults (mean age 20.41±2.48). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) were selected as genetic markers. Body composition measurements including weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), percentage of fat mass (PFM), fat-free mass (FFM) and visceral fat level (VFL) were analysed...
October 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031713/peripheral-cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-restores-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#13
Joseph Tam, Gergő Szanda, Adi Drori, Ziyi Liu, Resat Cinar, Yoshihiro Kashiwaya, Marc L Reitman, George Kunos
OBJECTIVE: In visceral obesity, an overactive endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor (CB1R) system promotes increased caloric intake and decreases energy expenditure, which are mitigated by global or peripheral CB1R blockade. In mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), inhibition of food intake by the peripherally restricted CB1R antagonist JD5037 could be attributed to endogenous leptin due to the rapid reversal of hyperleptinemia that maintains leptin resistance, but the signaling pathway engaged by leptin has remained to be determined...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031395/habitual-dietary-intake-of-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-leptin-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-patients-without-diabetes
#14
Hosein Rostami, Mohammad Samadi, Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Zarkesh, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Afsoon Daneshafrooz, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030493/intrinsic-aerobic-capacity-governs-the-associations-between-gut-microbiota-composition-and-fat-metabolism-age-dependently-in-rat-siblings
#15
Satu Pekkala, Sanna Lensu, Miriam Nokia, Sanja Vanhatalo, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Heikki Kainulainen
Host genetic factors affecting the gut microbiome play an important role in obesity. Yet limited attention has been paid on the host genetic factors linked to physical fitness in modifying the microbiome. This study determined whether sibling-matched pairs of rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity differ in their microbiome age-dependently and which taxa associate with differential in metabolism. Several taxa in young adult rats (hereafter young) linked to inherited aerobic capacity while in older adult (hereafter old) rats most of the differences between the lines associated with body weight...
October 13, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030265/associations-of-active-commuting-with-body-fat-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-in-the-uk
#16
Oliver T Mytton, David Ogilvie, Simon Griffin, Søren Brage, Nick Wareham, Jenna Panter
The promotion of active travel (walking and cycling) is one promising approach to prevent the development of obesity and related cardio-metabolic disease. However the associations between active travel and adiposity remain uncertain. We used the Fenland study (a population based-cohort study; Cambridgeshire, UK, 2005-15) to describe the association of commuting means with DEXA measured body fat and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among commuters (aged 29-65years; n=7680). We stratified our sample into those living near (within five miles) and far (five miles or further) from work, and categorised commuting means differently for each group reflecting their different travel options...
October 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022978/freeze-dried-strawberry-and-blueberry-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-rats-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis
#17
Paula Aranaz, Ana Romo-Hualde, María Zabala, David Navarro-Herrera, Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Ana Gloria Gil, J Alfredo Martinez, Fermín I Milagro, Carlos J González-Navarro
Obesity and type 2-diabetes are becoming a worldwide health problem, reiterating the importance of alternative therapies to tackle their progression. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation of diet with 6% w/w of a freeze-dried strawberry-blueberry (5 : 1) powder (FDSB) could exert beneficial metabolic effects on Wistar rats. FDSB-supplemented animals experienced significantly reduced body weight gain, food efficiency and visceral adiposity accumulation in two independent experiments. FDSB supplementation also contributed to lower area under the curve after an intraperitoneal GTT and reduced serum insulin levels and an insulin resistance index (IR-HOMA) in HFS diet-fed animals, together with reduced plasma MCP-1 inflammation marker concentrations...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018909/the-depth-from-the-skin-to-the-celiac-artery-measured-using-computed-tomography-is-a-simple-predictive-index-for-longer-operation-time-during-laparoscopic-distal-gastrectomy
#18
Hironobu Goto, Shingo Kanaji, Takashi Yasuda, Taro Oshikiri, Masashi Yamamoto, Takeru Matsuda, Tetsu Nakamura, Satoshi Suzuki, Yasuhiro Fujino, Masahiro Tominaga, Yoshihiro Kakeji
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to classify obesity. However, BMI does not always reflect the degree of visceral fat. This study aimed to clarify the usefulness of measuring the depth from the skin to the celiac artery using computed tomography, as a simple predictive index for longer operation time during laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). METHODS: From September 2012 to March 2016, 66 patients who underwent LDG with D1+ lymph node dissection were included...
October 10, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017799/automated-segmentation-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-obese-adolescent-in-mri
#19
Steve C N Hui, Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Chei-Bing Ip, Winnie C W Chu
PURPOSE: To develop a reliable and reproducible automatic technique to segment and measure SAT and VAT based on MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical-shift water-fat MRI were taken on twelve obese adolescents (mean age: 16.1±0.6, BMI: 31.3±2.3) recruited under the health monitoring program. The segmentation applied a spoke template created using Midpoint Circle algorithm followed by Bresenham's Line algorithm to detect narrow connecting regions between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues...
October 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994775/assessment-of-human-adipose-tissue-microvascular-function-using-videomicroscopy
#20
Melissa G Farb, Song-Young Park, Shakun Karki, Noyan Gokce
While obesity is closely linked to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, little is known about mechanisms that govern these processes. It is hypothesized that pro-atherogenic mediators released from fat tissues particularly in association with central/visceral adiposity may promote pathogenic vascular changes locally and systemically, and the notion that cardiovascular disease may be the consequence of adipose tissue dysfunction continues to evolve. Here, we describe a unique method of videomicroscopy that involves analysis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor responses of intact small human arterioles removed from the adipose depot of living human subjects...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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