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Visceral obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690638/neurotensin-is-a-lipid-induced-gastrointestinal-peptide-associated-with-visceral-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obesity
#1
Ilaria Barchetta, Flavia Agata Cimini, Danila Capoccia, Laura Bertoccini, Valentina Ceccarelli, Caterina Chiappetta, Frida Leonetti, Claudio Di Cristofano, Gianfranco Silecchia, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander, Maria Gisella Cavallo
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and the development of insulin-resistance. In humans, higher plasma levels of pro-NT, which is the stable circulating precursor of NT, predict obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. In obesity, the presence of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation leads to unfavorable metabolic outcomes and is associated with the development of T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
April 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688793/lactobacillus-gasseri-bnr17-supplementation-reduces-the-visceral-fat-accumulation-and-waist-circumference-in-obese-adults-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Joohee Kim, Jae Moon Yun, Mi Kyung Kim, Oran Kwon, Belong Cho
Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 is a probiotic strain isolated from human breast milk. Animal studies reported that BNR17 inhibited increases in body weight and adipose tissue weights. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiobesity effects of BNR17 in humans. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 90 volunteers aged 20-75 years with body mass index (BMI) from 25 to 35 kg/m2 were randomized to receive a placebo, low-dose BNR (BNR-L, 109 CFU/day), or high-dose BNR (BNR-H, 1010 CFU/day) for 12 weeks...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688621/an-epigenetic-signature-in-adipose-tissue-is-linked-to-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-gene-expression
#3
Ana B Crujeiras, Pavlos Pissios, Jose M Moreno-Navarrete, Angel Diaz-Lagares, Juan Sandoval, Antonio Gomez, Wilfredo Ricart, Manel Esteller, Felipe F Casanueva, Jose M Fernandez-Real
SCOPE: The enzyme nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a major methyltransferase in adipose tissue. We hypothesized an epigenetic signature in association with NNMT gene expression in adipose tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The global human methylome was analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from morbidly obese patients using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (discovery cohort: n  =  11). The findings were confirmed in two additional independent cohorts (Cohort 1: n  =  60; BMI 20-60 kg/m2 and cohort 2: n  =  40; BMI >40 kg/m2 ) and validated after weight loss (using microarray data)...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685454/pathophysiology-of-glucocorticoid-signaling
#4
Géraldine Vitellius, Séverine Trabado, Jérôme Bouligand, Brigitte Delemer, Marc Lombès
Glucocorticoids (GC), such as cortisol or dexamethasone, control various physiological functions, notably those involved in development, metabolism, inflammatory processes and stress, and exert most of their effects upon binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by NR3C1 gene). GC signaling follows several consecutive steps leading to target gene transactivation, including ligand binding, nuclear translocation of ligand-activated GR complexes, DNA binding, coactivator interaction and recruitment of functional transcriptional machinery...
April 20, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683919/hiit-in-the-real-world-outcomes-from-a-12-month-intervention-in-overweight-adults
#5
Melyssa Roy, Sheila M Williams, Rachel C Brown, Kim A Meredith-Jones, Hamish Osborne, Michelle Jospe, Rachael W Taylor
PURPOSE: Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise have comparable health outcomes in the laboratory setting, effectiveness studies in real-world environments are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an unsupervised HIIT programme in overweight/obese adults over 12 months. METHODS: 250 overweight/obese adults could choose HIIT or current exercise guidelines of 30 minutes/day moderate-intensity exercise...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682734/the-role-of-pericardial-adipose-tissue-in-the-heart-of-obese-minipigs
#6
Chia-Yu Wang, Sin-Jin Li, Twin-Way Wu, Han-Jen Lin, Jyun-Wei Chen, Harry J Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding, Ching-Yi Chen
BACKGROUND: Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) volume is highly associated with the presence and severity of cardiometabolic diseases, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We previously demonstrated that a high-fat diet (HFD) induced metabolic dysregulation, cardiac fibrosis, and accumulation of more PAT in minipigs. This study used our obese minipig model to investigate the characteristics of PAT and omental visceral fat (VAT) induced by a HFD, and the potential link between PAT and HFD-related myocardial fibrosis...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682733/upper-body-fat-predicts-metabolic-syndrome-similarly-in-men-and-women
#7
Scott M Grundy, Corbin Williams, Gloria L Vega
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors including dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, hypertension, a pro-inflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. All of these factors are accentuated by obesity. However, obesity can be defined by body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, or by body fat distribution. The latter consists of upper body fat (subcutaneous and visceral fat) and lower body fat (gluteofemoral fat). Waist circumference is a common surrogate marker for upper body fat. In this study, data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999 - 2006 was examined for associations of metabolic risk factors with percent body fat, waist circumference, and BMI...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682581/diet-induced-abdominal-obesity-metabolic-changes-and-atherosclerosis-in-hypercholesterolemic-minipigs
#8
Ahmed Ludvigsen Al-Mashhadi, Christian Bo Poulsen, Karin von Wachenfeldt, Anna-Karin Robertson, Jacob Fog Bentzon, Lars Bo Nielsen, Jesper Thygesen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Jens Rolighed Larsen, Søren Kragh Moestrup, Björn Frendéus, Brynjulf Mortensen, Ludovic Drouet, Rozh H Al-Mashhadi, Erling Falk
Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are major risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases; however, a causal link remains elusive. Animal models resembling human MetS and its complications, while important, are scarce. We aimed at developing a porcine model of human MetS. Methods: Forty pigs with familial hypercholesterolemia were fed a high fat + fructose diet for 30 weeks. Metabolic assessments and subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained at 18 and 30 weeks, and fat distribution was assessed by CT-scans...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681862/increased-o-glcnacylation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-compromises-the-anti-contractile-properties-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Rafael M da Costa, Josiane F da Silva, Juliano V Alves, Thiago B Dias, Diane M Rassi, Luis V Garcia, Núbia de Souza Lobato, Rita C Tostes
Under physiological conditions, the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) negatively modulates vascular contractility. This property is lost in experimental and human obesity and in the metabolic syndrome, indicating that changes in PVAT function may contribute to vascular dysfunction associated with increased body weight and hyperglycemia. The O -linked β-N-acetylglucosamine ( O -GlcNAc) modification of proteins ( O -GlcNAcylation) is a unique posttranslational process that integrates glucose metabolism with intracellular protein activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680861/obesity-and-metabolic-features-associated-with-long-term-developing-diastolic-dysfunction-in-an-initially-healthy-population-based-cohort
#10
Kénora Chau, Nicolas Girerd, Martin Magnusson, Zohra Lamiral, Erwan Bozec, Ludovic Merckle, Margret Leosdottir, Erasmus Bachus, Zied Frikha, João Pedro Ferreira, Jean-Pierre Després, Patrick Rossignol, Jean-Marc Boivin, Faiez Zannad
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is increasingly common. However, its metabolic determinants are poorly known. This study aims to determine which metabolic and inflammatory features predict DD in initially healthy adults. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the association between metabolic features and DD in 728 initially healthy adults aged 30-60 from Eastern France enrolled in the STANISLAS population-based cohort. Clinical and biological cardiovascular features were collected at baseline (1994-1995)...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677586/impact-of-sarcopenic-obesity-on-30-day-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-intra-abdominal-sepsis
#11
Yun Ji, Baoli Cheng, Zhipeng Xu, Hui Ye, Weina Lu, Xiaoqian Luo, Shuiqiao Fu, Xiangming Fang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between sarcopenic obesity and 30-day mortality in critically ill patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed 236 surgical ICU patients with sepsis due to intra-abdominal infection who underwent urgent surgical intervention. Sarcopenia, visceral obesity and sarcopenic obesity were analyzed by computed tomography scans using the third lumbar vertebrae skeletal muscle index and visceral adipose tissue area, using previously reported cutoff values...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676049/moderate-weight-loss-improves-body-composition-and-metabolic-function-in-metabolically-unhealthy-lean-subjects
#12
Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, Yijun Lee, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who have "metabolically obese normal weight" (MONW) have an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. Moderate weight loss has multiple benefits in people with obesity, but its effects in lean people are unknown. Thus, the effects of diet-induced 5% weight loss on body composition and metabolic function in MONW subjects were evaluated. METHODS: Total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) volumes, intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid contents, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), glucose tolerance, and postprandial insulin secretion and clearance rates (mixed meal with minimal modeling) were measured before and after 4...
April 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673239/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-on-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-and-tau-protein-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#13
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to clearly evaluate the effects of obesity on cerebral health. Thus, we induced obesity in rats using a long-term high-fat diet (HFD), then investigated its effects on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. Additionally, we examined the effects of 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (TE) on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. METHODS: Rats were separated into Normal Diet-Control, HFD-Control, and HFD-TE groups. TE loads were gradually increased...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671172/effects-of-whole-grain-wheat-bread-on-visceral-fat-obesity-in-japanese-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#14
Yosuke Kikuchi, Satomi Nozaki, Miki Makita, Shoji Yokozuka, Shin-Ichi Fukudome, Takashi Yanagisawa, Seiichiro Aoe
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m2 ...
April 18, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670915/association-of-markers-of-proinflammatory-phenotype-and-beige-adipogenesis-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-chinese-centrally-obese-adults
#15
Wilson K C Leung, Angus P Yu, Christopher W K Lai, Parco M Siu
Background: Visceral adiposity is associated with higher productions of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inflammation of obese adipose tissues could contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation, especially thermogenic activity of white adipose tissues, namely, beige adipogenesis, characterized by altered irisin expression. Thus, we investigated the roles of inflammation and adipocyte beiging in Chinese centrally obese (CO) adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 CO and 58 non-CO subjects drawn from 1492 Chinese people with age and sex matched during November 2010 and August 2013...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670259/association-between-fat-mass-adipose-tissue-fat-fraction-per-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-risks-a-cross-sectional-study-in-normal-overweight-and-obese-adults
#16
Mark Hübers, Corinna Geisler, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Maryam Pourhassan, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Manfred J Müller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether fat mass (FM) and total adipose tissue (TAT) can be used interchangeably and FM per TAT adds to metabolic risk assessment. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data were assessed in 377 adults (aged 18-60 years; 51.2% women). FM was measured by either 4-compartment (4C) model or quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR); total-, subcutaneous- and visceral adipose tissue (TAT, SAT, VAT), and liver fat by whole-body MRI; leptin, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglycerides; resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient by indirect calorimetry were determined...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668887/changes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-plasma-membrane-lipid-composition-in-old-rats-are-associated-with-adipocyte-hypertrophy-with-aging
#17
Elena Bonzón-Kulichenko, Eduardo Moltó, Cristina Pintado, Alejandro Fernández, Carmen Arribas, Dominik Schwudke, Nilda Gallardo, Andrej Shevchenko, Antonio Andrés
Increased adiposity, through adipocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia, characterizes aging and obesity. Both are leptin-resistant states, associated to disturbed lipid metabolism, reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Nevertheless, fat tissue dysfunction appears earlier in obesity than in normal aging. In contrast, lipodystrophy is accompanied by diabetes, and improving the fat cell capacity to expand rescues the diabetic phenotype. Fat tissue dysfunction is extensively studied in the diet-induced obesity, but remains relatively neglected in the aging-associated obesity...
April 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665813/neck-circumference-as-an-independent-indicator-of-visceral-obesity-in-a-chinese-population
#18
Li Zhao, Guolan Huang, Fangzhen Xia, Qin Li, Bing Han, Yi Chen, Chi Chen, Dongping Lin, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Neck circumference (NC) was reported to be associated with visceral obesity in some specific subjects. However, no studies have reported whether NC could identify visceral obesity in the general population. Here, we mainly aimed to explore whether NC is suitable to identify visceral obesity in the general population. METHODS: Our data were from a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors in East China from 2014 to 2015...
April 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663263/concise-commentary-visceral-obesity-sarcopenia-and-cancer-surgery-increasing-fitness-decreases-risk
#19
EDITORIAL
Oliver A Varban
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662648/visceral-abdominal-fat-measured-by-computer-tomography-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-gynecological-malignancies
#20
Johanna Nattenmüller, Joachim Rom, Tom Buckner, Jalal Arvin, Benedikt Bau, Christof Sohn, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Sarah Schott
Introduction: Obesity is associated with increased incidence of ovarian (OC), cervical (CC) and endometrium cancer (EC). However, the impact of body composition (BC) on overall survival (OS), especially of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not yet understood. Methods: In 189 women with gynecological malignancies (31 OC, 104 CC, 54 EC, mean age 62.9y; mean BMI 26.8 kg/m2 ; median follow-up 30.7months) with routine staging CT-scans at baseline (mean interval: 4.3 months), densitometric quantification of total (TAT), visceral, and subcutaneous-fat-area (SAT), inter-muscular-fat-area (IMFA), and skeletal-muscle-index (SMI) was performed to analyze the impact of BC on survival...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
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