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Visceral obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527122/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-during-suckling-on-food-intake-fat-mass-hormones-and-biochemical-profile-of-young-and-adult-female-rats
#1
Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Patricia Novaes Soares, Thamara Cherem Peixoto, Janaine Cavalcanti Carvalho, Camila Calvino, Vanessa Silva Tavares Rodrigues, Dayse Nascimento Bernardino, Viviane Younes-Rapozo, Alex Christian Manhães, Elaine de Oliveira, Egberto Gaspar de Moura
PURPOSE: Children from smoking mothers have a higher risk of developing obesity and associated comorbidities later in life. Different experimental models have been used to assess the mechanisms involved with this increased risk. Using a rat model of neonatal nicotine exposure via implantation of osmotic minipumps in lactating dams, we have previously shown marked sexual dimorphisms regarding metabolic and endocrine outcomes in the adult progeny. Considering that more than four thousand substances are found in tobacco smoke besides nicotine, we then studied a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure: adult male offspring had hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, secondary hyperthyroidism and lower adrenal hormones...
May 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522656/comparison-between-different-measures-of-body-fat-with-kidney-function-decline-and-incident-ckd
#2
Magdalena Madero, Ronit Katz, Rachel Murphy, Anne Newman, Kushang Patel, Joachim Ix, Carmen Peralta, Suzanne Satterfield, Linda Fried, Michael Shlipak, Mark Sarnak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although anthropometric measures of body fat are associated with development of CKD, they may not be able to distinguish between various forms of fat and therefore may be less accurate than computed tomography (CT) measures. We compared the association of CT and anthropometric measures of obesity with kidney outcomes in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Participants were recruited from March of 1997 through July of 1998...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521866/neovascular-deterioration-impaired-nadph-oxidase-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-adipose-derived-multipotent-cells-from-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Said Lhamyani, Leticia Coín-Aragüez, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Juan Alcaide-Torres, Elena María Yubero-Serrano, Rajaa El Bekay, Francisco José Tinahones
OBJECTIVE: Expansion of adipose tissue depends on the growth of its vascular network and it has been shown that adipose tissue dysfunction in obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. In this study we examined the neovascular properties, expression levels of proteins involved in cellular redox balance and inflammatory cytokines in adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells (ASCs) of subjects with different metabolic profiles...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514832/anti-obesity-effects-of-tea-from-mangifera-indica-l-leaves-of-the-ub%C3%A3-variety-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#4
Natalia Medina Ramírez, Renata C Lopes Toledo, Maria E Castro Moreira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Laércio Dos Anjos Benjamin, José H de Queiroz, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro
Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, herbal teas are being investigated as adjuvant in chronic disease management. Studies have shown that mango leaf tea contain mangiferin, total phenolics and antioxidants, compounds with many functional properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves, Ubá variety (TML), in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). For this, adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8): the control group (fed AIN-93 diet), obese group (fed a HFD) and treated group (fed a HFD and supplemented with TML for 8 weeks)...
May 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514663/fatty-acid-oxidation-in-zebrafish-adipose-tissue-is-promoted-by-1%C3%AE-25-oh-2d3
#5
Xuyan Peng, Guohui Shang, Wenqing Wang, Xiaowen Chen, Qiyong Lou, Gang Zhai, Dongliang Li, Zhenyu Du, Yali Ye, Xia Jin, Jiangyan He, Yi Zhang, Zhan Yin
1α,25(OH)2D3 (vitamin D3) is crucial for mineral homeostasis in mammals, but the precise effects of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in adipose tissue remain to be clarified in vivo. The initial 25-hydroxylation is catalyzed by liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2R1 (CYP2R1), which is conserved in vertebrates. To probe the physiological function(s) of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in teleosts, we generated two independent cyp2r1-deficient zebrafish lines. These mutants exhibit retarded growth and increased obesity, especially in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT)...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511168/-the-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-influence-on-the-course-and-progression-of-ischemic-heart-disease
#6
Ігор М Скрипник, Ольга В Щербак, Ганна С Маслова
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be considered a risk factor of progression of diseases associated with atherosclerosis, especially ischemic heart disease (IHD) with a high probability of early myocardial infarction (MI). AIM: To study the peculiarities and nature of ischemic heart disease clinical picture in patients with concomitant NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 58 patients with ischemic heart disease...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509766/brown-adipose-tissue-detected-by-pet-ct-imaging-is-associated-with-less-central-obesity
#7
Aileen L Green, Ulas Bagci, Sarfaraz Hussein, Patrick V Kelly, Razi Muzaffar, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Medhat M Osman
PURPOSE: This retrospective review was performed to determine whether patients with brown adipose tissue (BAT) detected by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging have less central obesity than BMI-matched control patients without detectable BAT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven adult oncology patients with F-FDG BAT uptake were retrospectively identified from PET/CT studies from 2011 to 2013. The control cohort consisted of 74 adult oncology patients without detectable F-FDG BAT uptake matched for BMI/sex/season...
May 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508457/effects-of-canagliflozin-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Matthew J Budoff, John P H Wilding
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The main contributors to cardiovascular risk in T2DM are chronic hyperglycaemia, reduced insulin sensitivity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors include obesity and visceral adiposity, increased arterial stiffness and renal dysfunction. Results from clinical trials, including a long-term cardiovascular outcome study, have shown that sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can provide multiple cardiometabolic benefits beyond glycaemic control including inducing mild osmotic diuresis, natriuresis and weight loss...
May 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501921/cranberry-vaccinium-macrocarpon-extract-treatment-improves-triglyceridemia-liver-cholesterol-liver-steatosis-oxidative-damage-and-corticosteronemia-in-rats-rendered-obese-by-high-fat-diet
#9
Thamara C Peixoto, Egberto G Moura, Elaine de Oliveira, Patrícia N Soares, Deysla S Guarda, Dayse N Bernardino, Xu Xue Ai, Vanessa da S T Rodrigues, Gabriela Rodrigues de Souza, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva, Mariana S Figueiredo, Alex C Manhães, Patrícia C Lisboa
PURPOSE: Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. METHODS: At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501343/changes-of-renal-sinus-fat-and-renal-parenchymal-fat-during-an-18-month-randomized-weight-loss-trial
#10
Hila Zelicha, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Ilan Shelef, Yftach Gepner, Gal Tsaban, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Avital Bilitzky, Oded Komy, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Benjamin Sarusi, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Yosef S Haviv, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. METHODS: We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498891/adipose-tissue-depots-and-inflammation-effects-on-plasticity-and-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function
#11
Lina Badimon, Judit Cubedo
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown and "brite") and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc), AT composition, structure and functionality is highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496985/the-effects-of-dietary-macronutrient-composition-on-lipid-metabolism-associated-factor-gene-expression-in-the-adipose-tissue-of-chickens-are-influenced-by-fasting-and-refeeding
#12
Guoqing Wang, Betty R McConn, Dongmin Liu, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Broiler chickens are compulsive feeders that become obese as juveniles and are thus a unique model for metabolic disorders in humans. However, little is known about the relationship between dietary composition, fasting and refeeding and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. Our objective was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and fasting and refeeding affect chick adipose physiology during the early post-hatch period. METHODS: Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric diets after hatch: high-carbohydrate (HC; control), high-fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high-protein (HP; 25% vs...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496045/cholic-acid-enhances-visceral-adiposity-atherosclerosis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-microminipigs
#13
Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Tomonobu Yamada, Xin Guo, Kei Matsuo, Taiji Hamada, Naoki Miura, Takashi Tasaki, Akihide Tanimoto
AIM: We have recently established a novel swine model for studies of atherosclerosis using Microminipigs(TM) (µMPs) fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HcD). Using this swine model, we re-evaluated the effects of dietary cholic acid (CA) on serum lipid profile, atherosclerosis and hepatic injuries. METHODS: The µMPs were fed HcD supplemented with 0.7% CA (HcD+CA) for eight weeks, and the effect of CA on serum lipoprotein levels, expression of oxidative stress markers, adiposity and lesion formation in the aorta, liver, and other organs was investigated...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493988/prediction-of-whole-body-fat-percentage-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-mass-from-five-anthropometric-variables
#14
Michelle G Swainson, Alan M Batterham, Costas Tsakirides, Zoe H Rutherford, Karen Hind
BACKGROUND: The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI) criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM), and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a) to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b) to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492501/urinary-metabolomics-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nafld-identifies-metabolic-pathways-metabolites-related-to-dietary-habits-and-gut-liver-axis-perturbations
#15
Jacopo Troisi, Luca Pierri, Annamaria Landolfi, Francesca Marciano, Antonella Bisogno, Federica Belmonte, Carmen Palladino, Salvatore Guercio Nuzio, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Vajro
To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years) categorized as normal weight (NW) or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively) ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD)...
May 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489425/tissue-specific-effects-of-estrogen-on-glycerol-channel-aquaporin-7-expression-in-an-ovariectomized-mouse-model-of-menopause
#16
B Jin, X Chen, L Xing, W Xu, X Fu, J Zhu, X Mou, Z Wang, J Shu
OBJECTIVE: Elevated fat mass and redistribution of body fat are commonly observed in postmenopausal women. Aquaporin 7 (AQP7), a unique glycerol permeable integral membrane protein, has been associated with the onset of obesity. We hypothesized that estrogen supplementation could counteract this fat accumulation and redistribution through tissue-specific modulation of AQP7. METHODS: We measured fat depot weight, adipocyte size, and the expression of AQP7 and glycerol kinase (GK) in visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues of ovariectomized mice supplemented with or without 17β-estradiol...
May 10, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487570/intranasal-insulin-enhances-brain-functional-connectivity-mediating-the-relationship-between-adiposity-and-subjective-feeling-of-hunger
#17
Stephanie Kullmann, Martin Heni, Ralf Veit, Klaus Scheffler, Jürgen Machann, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Hubert Preissl
Brain insulin sensitivity is an important link between metabolism and cognitive dysfunction. Intranasal insulin is a promising tool to investigate central insulin action in humans. We evaluated the acute effects of 160 U intranasal insulin on resting-state brain functional connectivity in healthy young adults. Twenty-five lean and twenty-two overweight and obese participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, on two separate days, before and after intranasal insulin or placebo application. Insulin compared to placebo administration resulted in increased functional connectivity between the prefrontal regions of the default-mode network and the hippocampus as well as the hypothalamus...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482008/the-microcirculation-a-key-player-in-obesity-associated-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Oana Sorop, T Dylan Olver, Jens van de Wouw, Ilkka Heinonen, Richard W van Duin, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
It is increasingly recognized that obesity is a risk factor for microvascular disease, i.e. results in structural and functional changes in the microvasculature. This review aims to describe how obesity impacts the microvasculature of visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. These changes involve endothelial dysfunction, which in turn impacts control of vascular tone, contributes to development of microvascular insulin resistance, alters secretion of paracrine factors like nitric oxide and endothelin, but also influences vascular structure and perivascular inflammation...
May 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480405/potential-administration-of-lipoic-acid-and-coenzyme-q-against-adipogensis-target-for-weight-reduction
#19
Maryam A Al-Ghamdi, Hani Choudhry, Huda A Al-Doghather, Etimad H Huwait, Taha A Kumosani, Said S Moselhy
BACKGROUND: Body overweight and obesity were considered as a risk factor for many systemic diseases as diabetic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. The lipoic acid and Co Q are considered as coenzymes needed for enhancement metabolic rate. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-obese effect of lipoic acid alone or combined with Co-Q in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety male albino rats (100-150g) were used in this study, divided into six groups (15 each)...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479718/potential-lipid-lowering-effects-of-eleusine-indica-l-gaertn-extract-on-high-fat-diet-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#20
Siew Ling Ong, Koteswara Rao Nalamolu, How Yee Lai
BACKGROUND: To date, anti-obesity agents based on natural products are tested for their potential using lipase inhibition assay through the interference of hydrolysis of fat by lipase resulting in reduced fat absorption without altering the central mechanisms. Previous screening study had indicated strong anti-obesity potential in Eleusine indica (E. indica), but to date, no pharmacologic studies have been reported so far. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the lipid-lowering effects of E...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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