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Visceral obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722653/directing-visceral-white-adipocyte-precursors-to-a-thermogenic-adipocyte-fate-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#1
Chelsea Hepler, Mengle Shao, Jonathan Y Xia, Alexandra L Ghaben, Mackenzie J Pearson, Lavanya Vishvanath, Ankit X Sharma, Thomas S Morley, William L Holland, Rana K Gupta
Visceral adiposity confers significant risk for developing metabolic disease in obesity whereas preferential expansion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) appears protective. Unlike subcutaneous WAT, visceral WAT is resistant to adopting a protective thermogenic phenotype characterized by the accumulation of Ucp1(+) beige/BRITE adipocytes (termed "browning"). In this study, we investigated the physiological consequences of browning murine visceral WAT by selective genetic ablation of Zfp423, a transcriptional suppressor of the adipocyte thermogenic program...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721147/the-importance-of-two-metabolic-syndrome-diagnostic-criteria-and-body-fat-distribution-in-predicting-clinical-severity-and-prognosis-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Marko Mornar Jelavic, Zdravko Babic, Hrvoje Pintaric
INTRODUCTION: The interrelation between metabolic syndrome (MetS) (the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF)) and obesity indices in predicting clinical severity and prognosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is insufficiently known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study included 250 acute STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719363/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-adipose-tissue-could-it-explain-low-vitamin-d-status-in-obesity
#3
Adryana Cordeiro, Alejandro Santos, Miguel Bernardes, Andrea Ramalho, Maria João Martins
Obesity and a low vitamin D (VD) status, as well as a positive association between them, are prevalent worldwide. Additionally, a low VD status has been positively correlated with metabolic dysfunction (although not so convincingly as for obesity). The VD receptor (VDR) mediates VD biological actions in adipose tissue (AT), where VD can be activated or inactivated/degraded through specific hydroxylation steps. Additionally, AT can also store and release VD when needed. A lower VD activation/VD inactivation ratio and an impaired VDR signaling in AT could contribute to metabolic dysfunction besides the aforementioned association between obesity and VD status...
July 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718838/phyllanthus-niruri-standardized-extract-alleviates-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-decreases-atherosclerotic-risk-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Gurjeet Kaur, Mohammed Ali Ahmed Saeed, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Nasiba Salisu Usman, Dhamraa W Al-Dulaimi, Mun Fei Yam
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715064/new-indexes-of-body-fat-distribution-vai-bai-whtr-and-metabolic-disturbances-in-obese
#5
Beata Jabłonowska-Lietz, Małgorzata Wrzosek, Marta Włodarczyk, Grażyna Nowicka
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between new obesity-related indexes, anthropometric and biochemical parameters and body composition in individuals with obesity. METHODS: The study group consisted of 72 women and 34 men aged 39.0 ± 5.9 years with a mean BMI of 32.6 ± 2.4 kg / m2, admitted for body weight reduction. In all participants body weight (BW), height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were assessed...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713332/childhood-maltreatment-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-prediabetic-disturbances-in-glucose-regulation
#6
Li Li, W Timothy Garvey, Barbara A Gower
AIMS: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is shown to be associated with obesity and depression. However, the relationship of CM to prediabetic state is much less studied. We tested the hypothesis that CM increases the risk for prediabetic state due to glucose intolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity, and beta cell function. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived metabolic parameters of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and beta cell function were measured in 121 participants aged 19-60 years...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707000/inducing-maternal-inflammation-promotes-leptin-production-in-offspring-but-does-not-improve-allergic-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-rhinitis
#7
Atsuko Imai, Keiko Satoi, Eka Fujimoto, Kazuto Sato
AIMS: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706576/adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-and-circulating-levels-of-sirtuin-4-in-obese-patients-a-novel-association
#8
Luigi Barrea, Giovanni Tarantino, Carolina Di Somma, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Paolo Emidio Macchia, Andrea Falco, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
PURPOSE: This study was aimed at evaluating sirtuin 4 (Sirt4) levels in obese individuals, in relation to their adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), a healthy dietary pattern characterized by high antioxidant capacity, and markers of visceral fat storage. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Forty-three obese patients (44% males; BMI: 36.7-58.8 kg/m(2)) were consecutively included. PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) and the 7-day food records were used to assess the adherence to MD and dietary pattern, respectively...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706239/increased-adipose-tissue-heme-levels-and-exportation-are-associated-with-altered-systemic-glucose-metabolism
#9
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Amaia Rodríguez, Francisco Ortega, Sara Becerril, Mònica Sabater-Masdeu, Jessica Latorre, Wifredo Ricart, Gema Frühbeck, José Manuel Fernández-Real
Iron status is known to be associated with the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). We aimed to investigate AT heme and expression of heme exporter (FLVCR1) in association with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Substantial amounts of FLVCR1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in AT, being significantly increased in subjects with T2D, and positively correlated with fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides and with circulating markers of iron stores (serum ferritin, blood hemoglobin and hematocrit). In both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous AT (SAT), increased heme levels were found in subjects with T2D...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702474/targeting-visceral-fat-by-intraperitoneal-delivery-of-novel-aav-serotype-vector-restricting-off-target-transduction-in-liver
#10
Wei Huang, Xianglan Liu, Nicholas J Queen, Lei Cao
It is challenging to genetically manipulate fat in adults. We demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of an engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype Rec2 leads to high transduction of multiple visceral fat depots at a dose of 1 to 2 orders lower than commonly used doses for systemic gene delivery. To target adipose tissue, we develop a single AAV vector harboring two expression cassettes: one using the CBA promoter to drive transgene expression and one using the liver-specific albumin promoter to drive a microRNA-targeting WPRE sequence that only exists in this AAV vector...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702328/ask1-map3k5-is-transcriptionally-upregulated-by-e2f1-in-adipose-tissue-in-obesity-molecularly-defining-a-human-dys-metabolic-obese-phenotype
#11
Yulia Haim, Matthias Blüher, Daniel Konrad, Nir Goldstein, Nora Klöting, Ilana Harman-Boehm, Boris Kirshtein, Doron Ginsberg, Tanya Tarnovscki, Yftach Gepner, Iris Shai, Assaf Rudich
OBJECTIVE: Obesity variably disrupts human health, but molecular-based patients' health-risk stratification is limited. Adipose tissue (AT) stresses may link obesity with metabolic dysfunction, but how they signal in humans remains poorly-characterized. We hypothesized that a transcriptional AT stress-signaling cascade involving E2F1 and ASK1 (MAP3K5) molecularly defines high-risk obese subtype. METHODS: ASK1 expression in human AT biopsies was determined by real-time PCR analysis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) adopted to AT explants was used to evaluate the binding of E2F1 to the ASK1 promoter...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701657/equation-to-estimate-visceral-adipose-tissue-volume-based-on-anthropometry-for-workplace-health-checkup-in-japanese-abdominally-obese-men
#12
Rina So, Tomoaki Matsuo, Kousaku Saotome, Kiyoji Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to develop a new equation model for predicting abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume using anthropometric values for workplace health checkup and to clarify the association between metabolic risk factors and measured and predicted VAT volumes. Two hundred sixty male workers (200 for derivation group and 60 for validation group) participated in the cross-sectional study. The anthropometric variables and VAT volume were measured with 24 consecutive magnetic resonance images...
July 11, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699484/immune-response-to-native-lipoproteins-induces-visceral-obesity-and-aortic-wall-injury-in-rats-the-role-of-testosterone
#13
Kseniya Fomina, Liubov Beduleva, Igor Menshikov, Marina Marina Anikaeva, Daria Suntsova, Alexandr Sidorov, Elena Stolyarova
OBJECTIVES: The underlying mechanism of atherosclerosis and visceral obesity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that atherosclerosis and visceral obesity are caused by an immune response to native plasma lipoproteins, and the atherogenic and adipogenic effects of the antibodies to native lipoproteins stem from the androgen deficiency that is created. METHODS: Wistar rats were immunized with native human (nh) low-density (LDL) or high-density lipoproteins (HDL)...
July 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695902/methods-for-classifying-obesity-in-spinal-cord-injury-a-review
#14
REVIEW
S L Silveira, T A Ledoux, S Robinson-Whelen, R Stough, M A Nosek
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: Review methods used to measure and classify obesity in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Outline the strengths and weaknesses of each method used to measure obesity in individuals with SCI. SETTING: International. METHODS: PubMed was used to identify articles before 2016. Search terms ('obesity' or 'weight status' and 'spinal cord injury'). Filters: adults, English and human...
July 11, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692479/association-of-waist-hip-ratio-to-sudden-cardiac-death-and-severe-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-medicolegal-autopsies
#15
Linda Kocovski, Joshua Dogyeong Lee, Sameer Parpia, John Fernandes, Vidhya Nair
Various modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, are known to affect the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and subsequent sudden cardiac death (SCD). The waist-hip ratio is a surrogate marker of visceral obesity that has been shown in various studies to be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than the body mass index (BMI), a measurement of generalized obesity. Waist-hip ratio was measured prospectively on medicolegal autopsies performed for 1 year, in addition to standard measurements of BMI and heart weight, and histologic determination of severe coronary atherosclerosis (SCA, coronary artery diameter stenosis >75%)...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690544/lotus-leaf-aqueous-extract-reduces-visceral-fat-mass-and-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-in-hfd-induced-obese-rats-by-regulating-ppar%C3%AE-2-expression
#16
Kemin Yan, Huijuan Zhu, Jian Xu, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Meijuan Liu, FengYing Gong
Objectives: Lotus leaf is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to explore the effects of lotus leaf aqueous extract (LLAE) on peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) expression in preadipocytes and adipocytes and further investigate its effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Methods: pGL3-Enhancer-PPARγ2 (625 bp)-Luc plasmid, a luciferase reporter gene expression plasmid containing PPARγ2 promoter, was stably transfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PPARγ2 promoter activities were determined by assaying the luciferase activities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687077/joint-analysis-of-left-ventricular-expression-and-circulating-plasma-levels-of-omentin-after-myocardial-ischemia
#17
Louis A Saddic, Sarah M Nicoloro, Olga T Gupta, Michael P Czech, Joshua Gorham, Stanton K Shernan, Christine E Seidman, Jon G Seidman, Sary F Aranki, Simon C Body, Timothy P Fitzgibbons, Jochen D Muehlschlegel
BACKGROUND: Omentin-1, also known as Intelectin-1 (ITLN1), is an adipokine with plasma levels associated with diabetes, obesity, and coronary artery disease. Recent studies suggest that ITLN1 can mitigate myocardial ischemic injury but the expression of ITLN1 in the heart itself has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study is to discern the relationship between the expression pattern of ITLN1 RNA in the human heart and the level of circulating ITLN1 protein in plasma from the same patients following myocardial ischemia...
July 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683146/visceral-fat-reference-values-derived-from-healthy-european-men-and-women-aged-20-30-years-using-ge-healthcare-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#18
Tomasz Miazgowski, Robert Kucharski, Marta Sołtysiak, Aleksandra Taszarek, Bartosz Miazgowski, Krystyna Widecka
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique used in clinical and research settings to evaluate total and regional fat. Additionally, recently developed software allow to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE Healthcare DXA systems for VAT. The aim of this study was to develop reference values for VAT in healthy European adults aged 20-30 years using a GE Healthcare Prodigy densitometer along with the dedicated CoreScan application...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681646/sleeve-gastrectomy-efficacy-on-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-dysfunction-with-a-focus-on-the-role-of-comorbidities
#19
Maria Anastasia Ricci, Stefano Ministrini, Stefano De Vuono, Matteo Camilli, Alessandra Gentili, Giulia Daviddi, Marcello Boni, Graziana Lupattelli
We evaluated the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on metabolic/cardiovascular parameters according to weight loss, visceral fat area (VFA), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index; we also assessed the influence of SG on comorbidities (diabetes/hypertension). At baseline and 10 to 12 months after SG, we assessed anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bioimpedentiometry, ultrasonographic VFA, liver steatosis, flow-mediated dilation, and echocardiography in 110 patients with obesity...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#20
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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