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Visceral obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220530/impaired-lipolysis-diminished-fat-oxidation-and-metabolic-inflexibility-in-obese-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, Silva Arslanian
CONTEXT: Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whole-body lipolysis, substrate oxidation and metabolic flexibility in obese PCOS vs. non-PCOS girls. PATIENTS/DESIGN: Twenty-one obese (BMI 32...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216922/lactic-fermented-egg-white-improves-visceral-fat-obesity-in-japanese-subjects-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Ryosuke Matsuoka, Keiko Kamachi, Mika Usuda, Wei Wang, Yasunobu Masuda, Masaaki Kunou, Akira Tanaka, Kazunori Utsunomiya
BACKGROUND: It was reported that egg white protein (EWP) reduced body fat in rats. We developed a lactic-fermented egg white (LE) that facilitates the consumption of egg whites by fermenting them with lactobacillus, and were able to study their intake in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we evaluated the effect of LE on visceral fat area (VFA). METHODS: Participants included 37 adult males and females aged ≥40 years (VFA at navel ≥100 cm2)...
December 8, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213336/adiponectin-resistin-interplay-in-serum-and-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-and-normal-weight-individuals
#3
Marta Izabela Jonas, Alina Kurylowicz, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz, Wojciech Lisik, Maurycy Jonas, Justyna Domienik-Karlowicz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka
Background: The interplay between adiponectin and resistin, the two adipokines of opposite effects, may determine the metabolic profile of obese individuals and development of obesity-related complications. The current study was conducted to assess how adiponectin/resistin interplay in sera and adipose tissues may influence the metabolic profile of obese and normal-weight subjects. Methods: Concentrations of adiponectin and resistin were measured on protein level by immunoassay in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from 50 obese (body mass index > 40 kg/m2) and 28 normal-weight (body mass index 20-24...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#4
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210119/diets-rich-in-saturated-fat-and-fructose-induce-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviours-in-the-rat-is-there-a-role-for-lipid-peroxidation
#5
Silvia Gancheva, Bistra Galunska, Maria Zhelyazkova-Savova
Epidemiological studies reveal associations between obesity/metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. We assessed behavioural changes in rats fed diets enriched in fat and fructose in different proportions and correlated the observed alterations with biochemical changes induced by the diets. Three groups of rats were used as follows: control (C) animals fed regular rat chow, rats fed high-fat diet (HF) and rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFHF). HF and HFHF animals were also given a 10% fructose solution as drinking water...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209439/comparative-study-of-probiotic-effects-of-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacteria-strains-on-cholesterol-levels-liver-morphology-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-mice
#6
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Lidiia P Babenko, Liudmyla M Lazarenko, Viktoria V Mokrozub, Oleksandr A Demchenko, Oleksiy V Nechypurenko, Mykola Ya Spivak
Background: Microbiome-modulating interventions are promising for treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The number of probiotic strains demonstrated ability to decrease cholesterol level in vivo, however, it was poorly confirmed in a clinical setting. The aim was to study the effects of L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, L. casei IMV B-7280, B. animalіs VKL and B. animalіs VKB separately and in various compositions on the level of serum cholesterol, gut microbiota contents and liver morphology on a high-calorie-induced obesity model in BALB/c mice...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206648/relationship-between-plasma-protein-s-levels-and-apolipoprotein-c-ii-in-japanese-middle-aged-obese-women-and-young-nonobese-women
#7
Yukiko Otsuka, Maiko Ueda, Eri Nakazono, Tomohide Tsuda, Xiuri Jin, Kenta Noguchi, Shihoko Sata, Hitomi Miyazaki, Shimako Abe, Katsumi Imai, Masako Iwamoto, Takashi Masuda, Ririko Moriguchi, Shuji Nakano, Hiroko Tsuda
: Protein S, a nonenzymatic cofactor to activated protein C, presents in two forms in plasma, free form and in a complex with C4b-binding protein. The aim of this study was to determine the association of plasma protein S levels with the variables related to cardiovascular disease risk. The relationships between plasma protein S levels with lipids, inflammation markers, and adiposity were first examined on middle-aged obese women (n = 62), then on young nonobese women (n = 160) to verify the findings in the obese women...
December 4, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203860/adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-capacity-associates-with-long-term-weight-loss-success
#8
R Jokinen, R Rinnankoski-Tuikka, S Kaye, L Saarinen, S Heinonen, M Myöhänen, E Rappou, S Jukarainen, A Rissanen, A Pessia, V Velagapudi, K A Virtanen, E Pirinen, K H Pietiläinen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether (1) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mitochondrial capacity predicts weight loss success and (2) weight loss ameliorates obesity-related SAT mitochondrial abnormalities. METHODS: SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (BMI 34.6±2.7 kg/m2) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 months) and from 19 lean reference subjects (BMI 22.7±1.1 kg/m2) at baseline. Based on one-year weight loss outcome, the subjects were divided into two groups: continuous weight losers (WL, n=6) and weight regainers (WR, n=13)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203751/-metabolic-syndrome-a-new-look-at-a-known-problem
#9
Sylwia Płaczkowska, Lilla Pawlik-Sobecka, Izabela Kokot, Agnieszka Piwowar
Civilization changes over the past decades have been associated with an increase in the incidence of various metabolic disorders, especially in the carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, which are not always associated with obesity. Metabolic syndrome, despite changing criteria of recognition, is a clinically established risk factor for civilization diseases development. On the other side, the incidence of complex metabolic disorders in non-obese people is increasing, which is referred to in the literature as metabolic obesity with normal body mass...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202488/acute-tadalafil-administration-increases-plasma-fatty-acids-without-changes-in-the-inflammatory-response-in-healthy-men
#10
Roberta Ceci, Guglielmo Duranti, Paolo Sgrò, Stefania Sabatini, Luigi Di Luigi
PURPOSE: Tadalafil, the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I), has been shown to reduce visceral adipose tissue in rabbit and to improve lean mass content in non-obese men. In order to clarify this effect in humans, in the present study we determined the impact of an acute oral tadalafil administration on lipolysis by evaluating plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol. FFAs are potential modulator of inflammation response that we evaluated through tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 8 (IL8) and interleukin 10 (IL10) plasma levels...
December 5, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200906/effects-of-intermittent-ladder-climbing-exercise-training-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-of-the-cardiac-muscle-in-obese-middle-aged-rats
#11
Kijin Kim, Nayoung Ahn, Suryun Jung, Solee Park
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training on mitochondrial biogenesis and ER stress of the cardiac muscle in high fat diet-induced obese middle-aged rats. We induced obesity over 6 weeks of period in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats around 50 weeks old, and were randomly divided into four experimental groups: chow, HFD, exercise+HFD, and exercise+chow. The exercising groups underwent high-intensity intermittent training using a ladder-climbing and weight exercise 3 days/week for a total of 8 weeks...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198416/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#12
V Parisi, S Paolillo, G Rengo, R Formisano, L Petraglia, F Grieco, C D'Amore, S Dellegrottaglie, C Marciano, N Ferrara, D Leosco, P P Filardi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), contributes to the progression of cardiac disease, and is associated with adverse prognosis. Previous evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is independently associated with sleep apnea in obese individuals. We explored the relationship between SDB and EAT in HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: EAT thickness was assessed by echocardiography in 66 patients with systolic HF undergoing nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197252/oregano-dietary-supplementation-modifies-the-liver-transcriptome-profile-in-broilers-rnaseq-analysis
#13
Marcella Sabino, Stefano Capomaccio, Katia Cappelli, Andrea Verini-Supplizi, Lorenzo Bomba, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Gabriella Cobellis, Oliviero Olivieri, Camillo Pieramati, Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci
Intensive farming of broilers involves stressful conditions that reduce animal welfare and performance. New dietary strategies to improve performance and meat quality include the administration of plant extracts. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is known for its antimicrobial, anti-fungal, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. However, studies on diet supplementation with oregano are mainly focused on the evaluation of animal performance, while partial information is available on transcriptomics and nutrigenomics and, in particular, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is not widely applied...
November 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196841/implication-of-visceral-obesity-in-patients-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Akihiko Okamura, Masayuki Watanabe, Kotaro Yamashita, Masami Yuda, Masaru Hayami, Yu Imamura, Shinji Mine
PURPOSE: Visceral obesity is considered to be associated not only with chronic systemic inflammation but also with aggressive cancer behavior. However, the implication of visceral obesity in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unclear. METHODS: Computed tomography volumetry was performed in 364 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. We calculated the ratio of the visceral fat area to the subcutaneous fat area (VS ratio), which is a valuable parameter of visceral obesity...
December 2, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195108/novel-combined-index-of-cardiometabolic-risk-related-to-periarterial-fat-improves-the-clinical-prediction-for-coronary-artery-disease-complexity
#15
Maciej Haberka, Michał Lelek, Tomasz Bochenek, Adam Kowalówka, Rafał Młynarski, Katarzyna Mizia-Stec, Zbigniew Gąsior
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment based on conventional risk factors has a limited performance in the prediction of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, our aim was to provide a complete assessment on the associations between single or combined cardiovascular ultrasound indexes and the complexity of CAD in high and very-high risk patients. METHODS: Two hundred fifteen patients scheduled for elective coronary angiography were enrolled in the study (F/M: 80/135 pts; age: 61...
September 15, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193816/genetic-fine-mapping-and-identification-of-candidate-genes-and-variants-for-adiposity-traits-in-outbred-rats
#16
Gregory R Keele, Jeremy W Prokop, Hong He, Katie Holl, John Littrell, Aaron Deal, Sanja Francic, Leilei Cui, Daniel M Gatti, Karl W Broman, Michael Tschannen, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Maie Zagloul, Yunjung Kim, Brittany Baur, Joseph Fox, Melanie Robinson, Shawn Levy, Michael J Flister, Richard Mott, William Valdar, Leah C Solberg Woods
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major risk factor for multiple diseases and is in part heritable, yet the majority of causative genetic variants that drive excessive adiposity remain unknown. Here, outbred heterogeneous stock (HS) rats were used in controlled environmental conditions to fine-map novel genetic modifiers of adiposity. METHODS: Body weight and visceral fat pad weights were measured in male HS rats that were also genotyped genome-wide. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified by genome-wide association of imputed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes using a linear mixed effect model that accounts for unequal relatedness between the HS rats...
November 28, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190946/%C3%AE-2gpi-exerts-an-anti-obesity-effect-in-female-mice-by-inhibiting-lipogenesis-and-promoting-lipolysis
#17
Shangwen Dong, Miao Qi, Ying Wang, Liming Chen, James Crofton Weaver, Steven Antony Krilis, Bill Giannakopoulos
In humans, males compared to females have increased visceral adipose tissue which contributes to their increased risk of early death. Mice display analogous sexual diamorphism whereby females are protected from weight gain when fed a high fat diet compared to males. A role has recently been reported for β2-glycoprotein I, an abundant plasma protein, in healthy leanness in humans. In this study we investigated the role of β2-glycoprotein I in fat metabolism in male and female mice fed a normal chow or high fat diet...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189132/polyphenols-novel-signaling-pathways
#18
Marie-Louise Ricketts, Bradley S Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death globally. The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of risk factors including hypertension, hyperglycemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increased visceral adiposity, is a significant risk factor for the development of CVD. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), often referred to as the hepatic manifestation of MetS, is a constellation of progressive liver disorders closely linked to obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187361/diet-dependence-of-metabolic-perturbations-mediated-by-the-endocrine-disruptor-tolylfluanid
#19
Shane Regnier, Andrew Kirkley, Daniel Ruiz, Wakanene Kamau, Qian Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Robert Sargis
Emerging evidence implicates environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes; however, the interactions between EDCs and traditional risk factor in disease pathogenesis remain incompletely characterized. The present study interrogates the interaction of the EDC tolylfluanid (TF) and traditional dietary stressors in the promotion of metabolic dysfunction. Eight-week old, male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat-high sucrose diet (HFHSD) or a high sucrose diet (HSD), with or without TF supplementation at 100 μg/g, for 12 weeks...
November 29, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186929/integrated-immunomodulatory-mechanisms-through-which-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-attenuate-obese-adipose-tissue-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Danyelle M Liddle, Amber L Hutchinson, Hannah R Wellings, Krista A Power, Lindsay E Robinson, Jennifer M Monk
Obesity is a global health concern with rising prevalence that increases the risk of developing other chronic diseases. A causal link connecting overnutrition, the development of obesity and obesity-associated co-morbidities is visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, characterized by changes in the cellularity of various immune cell populations, altered production of inflammatory adipokines that sustain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation and, ultimately, dysregulated AT metabolic function. Therefore, dietary intervention strategies aimed to halt the progression of obese AT dysfunction through any of the aforementioned processes represent an important active area of research...
November 27, 2017: Nutrients
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