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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679946/extensive-depolarization-and-lack-of-recovery-of-leech-retzius-neurons-caused-by-2-4-diaminobutyric-acid
#1
S Spasic, M Stanojevic, J Nesovic Ostojic, S Kovacevic, M Prostran, S Lopicic
In this paper we present, for the first time, a detailed account of electrophysiological effects of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DABA). 2,4-DABA is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced by Cyanobacteria with a possible link to neurodegenerative disorders in animals and humans. Intracellular recordings were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga using glass microelectrodes filled with 3 mol/L KCl. Our results show that 2,4-DABA is an excitatory amino acid, causing membrane depolarization in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679640/cepfostering-efficacy-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-natural-products
#2
REVIEW
Tong Wu, Gui-Yuan Yu, Jia Xiao, Chang Yan, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Kwok-Fai So, Rong-Rong He
Efficacy and safety assessments are essential thresholds for drug candidates from preclinical to clinical research. Conventional mammalian in vivo models cannot offer rapid pharmacological and toxicological screening, whereas cell-based or cell-free in vitro systems often lead to inaccurate results because of the lack of physiological environment. Within the avian species, chick is the first bird to have its genome sequencing. Meantime, chick embryo is an easily operating, relatively transparent and extensively accessible model, whose physiological and pathological alterations can be visualized by egg candler, staining and image technologies...
April 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678920/imidacloprid-decreases-honey-bee-survival-but-does-not-affect-the-gut-microbiome
#3
Kasie Raymann, Erick V S Motta, Catherine Girard, Ian M Riddington, Jordan A Dinser, Nancy A Moran
Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678223/motor-oil-classification-using-color-histograms-and-pattern-recognition-techniques
#4
Shiva Ahmadi, Ahmad Mani-Varnosfaderani, Biuck Habibi
Motor oil classification is important for quality control and the identification of oil adulteration. In thiswork, we propose a simple, rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive approach based on image analysis and pattern recognition techniques for the classification of nine different types of motor oils according to their corresponding color histograms. For this, we applied color histogram in different color spaces such as red green blue (RGB), grayscale, and hue saturation intensity (HSI) in order to extract features that can help with the classification procedure...
April 20, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677541/tert-butyl-4-1-phenyl-1h-pyrazol-4-yl-methyl-piperazine-1-carboxylate-lqfm104-new-piperazine-derivative-with-antianxiety-and-antidepressant-like-effects-putative-role-of-serotonergic-system
#5
Dayane Moreira da Silva, Germán Sanz, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Flávio Silva de Carvalho, Luciano Morais Lião, Danillo Ramos de Oliveira, Lorrane Kelle da Silva Moreira, Carina Sofia Cardoso, Adriane Ferreira de Brito, Daiany Priscilla Bueno da Silva, Fabio Fagundes da Rocha, Ianca Gontijo Cavalcante Santana, Pablinny Moreira Galdino, Elson Alves Costa, Ricardo Menegatti
The piperazine derivatives correspond to an extensive chemical class of compounds with numerous neuropharmacological activities, including antidepressant (e.g., nefazodone, trazodone) and anxiolytic (e.g., buspirone) properties. Therefore, aiming to identify a new antidepressant and antianxiety lead-compound, our group designed, synthesized, and investigated the effects of a new piperazine compound, namely, LQFM104, on the behavior of mice. Male albino Swiss mice were treated with LQFM104 prior to predictive behavioral tests as open field (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swimming (FST), and tail suspension tests (TST)...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676691/defining-the-lateral-limits-of-the-endoscopic-endonasal-transtuberculum-transplanum-approach-anatomical-study-with-pertinent-quantitative-analysis
#6
Alberto Di Somma, Jorge Torales, Luigi Maria Cavallo, Jose Pineda, Domenico Solari, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Federico Frio, Joaquim Enseñat, Alberto Prats-Galino, Paolo Cappabianca
OBJECTIVE The extended endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum transplanum approach is currently used for the surgical treatment of selected midline anterior skull base lesions. Nevertheless, the possibility of accessing the lateral aspects of the planum sphenoidale could represent a limitation for such an approach. To the authors' knowledge, a clear definition of the eventual anatomical boundaries has not been delineated. Hence, the present study aimed to detail and quantify the maximum amount of bone removal over the planum sphenoidale required via the endonasal pathway to achieve the most lateral extension of such a corridor and to evaluate the relative surgical freedom...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676628/increasing-the-resolution-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-definition-lessons-from-a-cohort-with-remote-but-extensive-exposure-to-secondhand-tobacco-smoke
#7
Mehrdad Arjomandi, Siyang Zeng, Paul D Blanc, Warren M Gold
RATIONALE: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria require a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) to forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV1 /FVC) of less than 0.70 for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, whereas other criteria emphasize a lower limit of normal approach. However, the use of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (or lower limit of normal) criteria may result in classification of many smokers with respiratory morbidities as not having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676167/validation-of-a-new-device-for-measuring-isolated-gastrocnemius-contracture-and-evaluation-of-the-reliability-of-the-silfverski%C3%A3-ld-test
#8
Marius Molund, Elisabeth Ellingsen Husebye, Fredrik Nilsen, Jan Hellesnes, Gøran Berdal, Kjetil Harald Hvaal
BACKGROUND: Important aspects on the diagnostics of isolated gastrocnemius contractures (IGCs) have been poorly described. This study was designed to validate a new ankle range of motion (ROM) measuring device for diagnosing an IGC. In addition, we wanted to investigate the reliability of the clinical Silfverskiöld test. METHODS: Twelve health care personnel (24 feet) were examined by 4 testers on 3 different occasions for the reliability testing of the new ankle ROM measuring device...
April 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676027/phylogenetic-analyses-of-the-genus-aeromonas-based-on-housekeeping-gene-sequencing-and-its-influence-on-systematics
#9
Aaron Navarro, Antonio Martínez-Murcia
The phylogenies derived from housekeeping gene sequence alignments, although mere evolutionary hypotheses, have increased our knowledge about the Aeromonas genetic diversity, providing a robust species delineation framework invaluable for reliable, easy and fast species identification. Previous classifications of Aeromonas, have been fully surpassed by recently developed phylogenetic (natural) classification obtained from the analysis of so-called "molecular chronometers". Despite ribosomal RNAs cannot split all known Aeromonas species, the conserved nature of 16S rRNA offers reliable alignments containing mosaics of sequence signatures which may serve as targets of genus-specific oligonucleotides for subsequent identification/detection tests in samples without culturing...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675944/advanced-mr-diffusion-imaging-and-chemotherapy-related-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter-microstructure-of-survivors-of-childhood-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#10
Charlotte Sleurs, Jurgen Lemiere, Daan Christiaens, Thibo Billiet, Ronald Peeters, Stefan Sunaert, Anne Uyttebroeck, Sabine Deprez
With the increase of survival rates of pediatric cancer patients, the number of children facing potential cognitive sequelae has grown. Previous adult studies suggest that white matter (WM) microstructural changes may contribute to cognitive impairment. This study aims to investigate WM microstructure in childhood bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Differences in (micro-)structure can be investigated using diffusion MRI (dMRI). The typically used diffusion tensor model (DTI) assumes Gaussian diffusion, and lacks information about fiber populations...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675555/reward-history-but-not-search-history-explains-value-driven-attentional-capture
#11
Janina R Marchner, Claudia Preuschhof
In past years, an extensive amount of research has focused on how past experiences guide future attention. Humans automatically attend to stimuli previously associated with reward and stimuli that have been experienced during visual search, even when it is disadvantageous in present situations. Recently, the relationship between "reward history" and "search history" has been discussed critically. We review results from research on value-driven attentional capture (VDAC) with a focus on these two experience-based attentional selection processes and their distinction...
April 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675357/radiological-signs-associated-with-pulmonary-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-an-analysis-of-published-evidences
#12
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Myung Jin Chung, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Michael Tartakovsky
Background: Despite that confirmative diagnosis of pulmonary drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is determined by microbiological testing, early suspicions of MDR-TB by chest imaging are highly desirable in order to guide diagnostic process. We aim to perform an analysis of currently available literatures on radiological signs associated with pulmonary MDR-TB. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed on January 29, 2018...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675310/machine-learning-approach-for-single-molecule-localisation-microscopy
#13
Silvia Colabrese, Marco Castello, Giuseppe Vicidomini, Alessio Del Bue
Single molecule localisation (SML) microscopy is a fundamental tool for biological discoveries; it provides sub-diffraction spatial resolution images by detecting and localizing "all" the fluorescent molecules labeling the structure of interest. For this reason, the effective resolution of SML microscopy strictly depends on the algorithm used to detect and localize the single molecules from the series of microscopy frames. To adapt to the different imaging conditions that can occur in a SML experiment, all current localisation algorithms request, from the microscopy users, the choice of different parameters...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674234/spiking-neural-networks-for-handwritten-digit-recognition-supervised-learning-and-network-optimization
#14
Shruti R Kulkarni, Bipin Rajendran
We demonstrate supervised learning in Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) for the problem of handwritten digit recognition using the spike triggered Normalized Approximate Descent (NormAD) algorithm. Our network that employs neurons operating at sparse biological spike rates below 300Hz achieves a classification accuracy of 98.17% on the MNIST test database with four times fewer parameters compared to the state-of-the-art. We present several insights from extensive numerical experiments regarding optimization of learning parameters and network configuration to improve its accuracy...
April 6, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674006/spontaneous-common-bile-duct-perforation-a-rare-clinical-entity
#15
Melissa Amberger, Noelle Burton, Gayanthia Tissera, Gerard Baltazar, Shani Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous common bile duct perforation is an uncommon clinical entity in both adults and children. Few case reports have been published since the first clinical description in 1882. Our work has been reported in line with SCARE criteria. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Herein, we describe the case of a 28 year-old female who suffered spontaneous common bile duct perforation while admitted for choledocholithiasis. DISCUSSION: The perforation occurred while in-hospital, and extensive imaging and laboratory tests characterized the disease in detail...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673940/minimum-datasets-to-establish-a-car-mediated-mode-of-action-for-rodent-liver-tumors
#16
Richard Peffer, Matthew LeBaron, Michael Battalora, Werner Bomann, Christoph Werner, Manoj Aggarwal, Rocky Rowe, Helen Tinwell
Methods for investigating the Mode of Action (MoA) for rodent liver tumors via constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation are outlined here, based on current scientific knowledge about CAR and feedback from regulatory agencies globally. The key events (i.e., CAR activation, altered gene expression, cell proliferation, altered foci and increased adenomas/carcinomas) can be demonstrated by measuring a combination of key events and associative events that are markers for the key events. For crop protection products, a primary dataset typically should include a short-term study in the species/strain that showed the tumor response at dose levels that bracket the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic dose levels...
April 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673202/assembly-and-functional-analysis-of-an-s-mar-based-episome-with-the-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-gene
#17
Davide De Rocco, Barbara Pompili, Stefano Castellani, Elena Morini, Luca Cavinato, Giuseppe Cimino, Maria A Mariggiò, Simone Guarnieri, Massimo Conese, Paola Del Porto, Fiorentina Ascenzioni
Improving the efficacy of gene therapy vectors is still an important goal toward the development of safe and efficient gene therapy treatments. S/MAR (scaffold/matrix attached region)-based vectors are maintained extra-chromosomally in numerous cell types, which is similar to viral-based vectors. Additionally, when established as an episome, they show a very high mitotic stability. In the present study we tested the idea that addition of an S/MAR element to a CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression vector, may allow the establishment of a CFTR episome in bronchial epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672665/evolutionary-and-functional-potential-of-ploidy-increase-within-individual-plants-somatic-ploidy-mapping-of-the-complex-labellum-of-sexually-deceptive-bee-orchids
#18
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672557/simulating-direct-shear-tests-with-the-bullet-physics-library-a-validation-study
#19
Ehsan Izadi, Adam Bezuijen
This study focuses on the possible uses of physics engines, and more specifically the Bullet physics library, to simulate granular systems. Physics engines are employed extensively in the video gaming, animation and movie industries to create physically plausible scenes. They are designed to deliver a fast, stable, and optimal simulation of certain systems such as rigid bodies, soft bodies and fluids. This study focuses exclusively on simulating granular media in the context of rigid body dynamics with the Bullet physics library...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672539/the-tempo-and-mode-of-the-taxonomic-correction-process-how-taxonomists-have-corrected-and-recorrected-north-american-bird-species-over-the-last-127-years
#20
Gaurav Vaidya, Denis Lepage, Robert Guralnick
While studies of taxonomy usually focus on species description, there is also a taxonomic correction process that retests and updates existing species circumscriptions on the basis of new evidence. These corrections may themselves be subsequently retested and recorrected. We studied this correction process by using the Check-List of North and Middle American Birds, a well-known taxonomic checklist that spans 130 years. We identified 142 lumps and 95 splits across sixty-three versions of the Check-List and found that while lumping rates have markedly decreased since the 1970s, splitting rates are accelerating...
2018: PloS One
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