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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223921/metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-of-alantolactone-and-isoalantolactone-in-rats-thiol-conjugation-as-a-potential-metabolic-pathway
#1
Bailun Zhou, Ji Ye, Niao Yang, Liping Chen, Zhiguo Zhuo, Ling Mao, Qun Liu, Gongcai Lan, Jing Ning, Guangbo Ge, Ling Yang, Yunheng Shen, Shumei Wang, Weidong Zhang
Alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), two major active sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Radix Inulae extract, have a wide range of pharmacological activities. The predominant metabolic pathway of AL and IAL observed was glutathione (GSH) conjugation in vitro, which could occur in the absence of metabolic enzymes. Non-enzymatic conjugation with cysteine (Cys) couldalso be observed. Four metabolites (AL-GSH, AL-Cys, IAL-GSH, IAL-Cys) were subsequently isolated and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223730/characterization-of-a-new-decellularized-bovine-pericardial-biological-mesh-structural-and-mechanical-properties
#2
Alessandra Bielli, Roberta Bernardini, Dimitrios Varvaras, Piero Rossi, Giancarlo Di Blasi, Giuseppe Petrella, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Maurizio Mattei, Augusto Orlandi
Implants made from naturally-derived biomaterials, also called biological meshes or biomeshes, typically derive from decellularized extracellular matrix of either animal or human tissue. Biomeshes have many biomedical applications such as ligament repair, bone and cartilage regeneration and soft tissue replacement. Bovine collagen is one of the most widely used and abundantly available xenogenic materials. In particular, bovine pericardium is widely used as extracellular matrix bioprosthetic tissue. The efficiency of a pericardial mesh to function as scaffold depends on the quality of the decellularization protocol used...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223704/decellularized-heart-ecm-hydrogel-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improved-angiogenesis
#3
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223492/young-children-s-family-history-of-stuttering-and-their-articulation-language-and-attentional-abilities-an-exploratory-study
#4
Dahye Choi, Edward G Conture, Victoria Tumanova, Chagit E Clark, Tedra A Walden, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering differ in articulation, language and attentional abilities and family histories of articulation, language and attention related disorders. METHOD: Participants were 25 young CWS and 50 young CWNS. All 75 participants' caregivers consistently reported a positive or negative family history of stuttering across three consecutive time points that were about 8 months apart for a total of approximately 16 months...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223073/evidence-for-pain-attenuation-by-the-motor-system-based-judgment-of-agency
#5
N Karsh, O Goldstein, B Eitam
Pain is an integral part of our lives. Although the effect of 'control' on sensed pain has been extensively studied and discussed, recent findings seem to be at odds with the substantial evidence for a robust motor-based sensory attenuation effect - an indirect marker for one's sense of agency. The goal of the current study was to re-examine whether there is evidence for such an effect in the context of pain. In three experiments, human participants were aversively stimulated and the sensitivity of self-reported pain to factors previously shown to modulate the sensory attenuation effect was tested (control over parameters of the stimulation; temporal contiguity and predictability, and stimulation intensity)...
December 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222833/association-between-measures-of-treatment-quality-and-disease-progression-in-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy-an-exploratory-analysis-from-the-trog-03-04-radar-trial
#6
Marco Marcello, Martin A Ebert, Annette Haworth, Allison Steigler, Angel Kennedy, Max Bulsara, Rachel Kearvell, David J Joseph, James W Denham
INTRODUCTION: Quality assurance methods are incorporated into multicentre radiotherapy clinical trials for ensuring consistent application of trial protocol and quantifying treatment uncertainties. The study's purpose was to determine whether post-treatment disease progression is associated with measures of the quality of radiotherapy treatment. METHODS: The TROG 03.04 RADAR trial tested the impact of androgen deprivation on prostate cancer patients receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222462/a-translational-model-to-determine-rodent-s-age-from-human-foetal-age
#7
Yoshiyuki Ohmura, Yasuo Kuniyoshi
To understand the prenatal origin of developmental and psychiatric disorders, studies in laboratory animals are imperative. However, the developmental pace differs between humans and animals; hence, corresponding human ages must be estimated to infer the most vulnerable developmental timings in humans. Because rats and mice are extensively used as models in developmental research, a correspondence between human foetal ages and rodents' ages must be precisely determined; thus, developing a translational model is of utmost importance...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222054/caramel-color-safety-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Thomas A Vollmuth
Caramel color has been used in foods and beverages for over 150 years and is globally regulated as a color additive. The four distinct classes of caramel color (Plain Caramel, Sulfite Caramel, Ammonia Caramel, and Sulfite Ammonia Caramel) are well characterized and each have specifications that take into account processing variables including reactants that can give rise to low molecular weight constituents (e.g., 4-MeI and THI) that may have toxicological significance for evaluating safety. Extensive safety testing has been conducted with the different classes of caramel color and its constituents, including toxicokinetics, genotoxicity, subchronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity studies...
December 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221904/tensile-behaviour-of-individual-fibre-bundles-in-the-human-lumbar-anulus-fibrosus
#9
Diana T Pham, Joe G Shapter, John J Costi
Disc degeneration is a common medical affliction whose origins are not fully understood. An improved understanding of its underlying mechanisms could lead to the development of more effective treatments. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of (1) degeneration, (2) circumferential region and (3) strain rate on the microscale mechanical properties (toe region modulus, linear modulus, extensibility, phase angle) of individual fibre bundles in the anulus fibrosus lamellae of the human intervertebral disc...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221625/population-health-for-ckd-and-diabetes-lessons-from%C3%A2-the-indian-health-service
#10
Andrew Narva
Despite extensive clinical guidelines, innovative efforts to improve care, and well-funded efforts to raise awareness, limited progress has been made in reducing the burden of kidney disease in the United States, and the prevalence continues to increase worldwide. The Indian Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently reported a 54% decrease in the incidence of kidney failure among American Indian and Alaska Native people with diabetes. This decrease in end-stage renal disease incidence was associated with a population health approach to diabetes care based in the community and the primary clinical setting...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221181/analysis-of-ctcl-cell-lines-reveals-important-differences-between-mycosis-fungoides-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-vs-htlv-1-leukemic-cell-lines
#11
Elena Netchiporouk, Jennifer Gantchev, Matthew Tsang, Philippe Thibault, Andrew K Watters, John-Douglas Matthew Hughes, Feras M Ghazawi, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Denis Sasseville, Ivan V Litvinov
HTLV-1 is estimated to affect ~20 million people worldwide and in ~5% of carriers it produces Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), which can often masquerade and present with classic erythematous pruritic patches and plaques that are typically seen in Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary Syndrome (SS), the most recognized variants of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL). For many years the role of HTLV-1 in the pathogenesis of MF/SS has been hotly debated. In this study we analyzed CTCL vs. HTLV-1+ leukemic cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220824/extensive-geographical-and-social-structure-in-the-paternal-lineages-of-saudi-arabia-revealed-by-analysis-of-27-y-strs
#12
Yahya M Khubrani, Jon H Wetton, Mark A Jobling
Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74...
December 2, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220822/fatigue-and-biological-properties-of-ti-6al-4v-eli-cellular-structures-with-variously-arranged-cubic-cells-made-by-selective-laser-melting
#13
M Dallago, V Fontanari, E Torresani, M Leoni, C Pederzolli, C Potrich, M Benedetti
Traditional implants made of bulk titanium are much stiffer than human bone and this mismatch can induce stress shielding. Although more complex to produce and with less predictable properties compared to bulk implants, implants with a highly porous structure can be produced to match the bone stiffness and at the same time favor bone ingrowth and regeneration. This paper presents the results of the mechanical and dimensional characterization of different regular cubic open-cell cellular structures produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of Ti6Al4V alloy, all with the same nominal elastic modulus of 3GPa that matches that of human trabecular bone...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220298/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#14
Margaret von Mehren, Heikki Joensuu
GI stromal tumors (GISTs) are neoplasms with a varying malignancy potential ranging from virtually indolent tumors to rapidly progressing cancers. GISTs occur throughout the intestinal tract, and most harbor an activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor A ( PDGFRA). Diagnosis is made using immunohistochemistry, but molecular testing with mutation analysis is paramount for selection of appropriate therapy. Most small GISTs are cured with surgery. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has led to substantial improvements in survival, both for patients with localized GIST and those with advanced disease...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220109/population-transcriptomics-in-daphnia-the-role-of-thermal-selection
#15
Maike Herrmann, Suda Parimala Ravindran, Klaus Schwenk, Mathilde Cordellier
The complex interplay of forces influencing genetic divergence among populations complicates the discovery of the genetic basis underlying local adaptation. Here, we utilized for the first time a combined reverse ecology and population transcriptomic approach to assess the contribution of thermal selection to population differentiation, thereby considering transcriptome-wide variation in both gene expression profiles and DNA sequences. We compared transcriptomes among four Daphnia galeata populations and identified transcripts potentially responding to local thermal selection based on an extensive literature search for candidate genes possibly under thermal selection in arthropods...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219883/zika-virus-and-the-rio-olympic-games
#16
Bruce Hamilton, Dan Exeter, Sarah Beable, Lynne Coleman, Chris Milne
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Zika virus on preparation and management of the New Zealand (NZ) Olympic team. DESIGN: Descriptive manuscript. SETTING: New Zealand Olympic Health team preparation and management during the Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games, 2016. PATIENTS (OR PARTICIPANTS): New Zealand Olympic Team members. INTERVENTIONS (OR ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS): This manuscript describes the approaches used by the NZ Olympic Health team to the minimization of risk from Zika virus...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219629/pharmacotherapy-options-for-managing-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity
#17
Guido Cavaletti, Paola Marmiroli
Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) are clinically-relevant unmet needs. Despite extensive efforts at the preclinical and clinical levels, no effective pharmacological interventions are available, and this unsatisfactory situation reflects a combination of methodological issues and a lack of effectiveness of the tested drugs. Areas covered: This non-systematic, but unbiased review is based on published papers available in PubMed and screened using the broad search string [chemotherapy (and) neuropathy (and) treatment] to analyze the reported data...
December 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218884/how-powerful-are-summary-based-methods-for-identifying-expression-trait-associations-under-different-genetic-architectures
#18
Yogasudha Veturi, Marylyn D Ritchie
Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have recently been employed as an approach that can draw upon the advantages of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression studies to identify genes associated with complex traits. Unlike standard GWAS, summary level data suffices for TWAS and offers improved statistical power. Two popular TWAS methods include either (a) imputing the cis genetic component of gene expression from smaller sized studies (using multi-SNP prediction or MP) into much larger effective sample sizes afforded by GWAS - TWAS-MP or (b) using summary-based Mendelian randomization - TWAS-SMR...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218882/improving-the-explainability-of-random-forest-classifier-user-centered-approach
#19
Dragutin Petkovic, Russ Altman, Mike Wong, Arthur Vigil
Machine Learning (ML) methods are now influencing major decisions about patient care, new medical methods, drug development and their use and importance are rapidly increasing in all areas. However, these ML methods are inherently complex and often difficult to understand and explain resulting in barriers to their adoption and validation. Our work (RFEX) focuses on enhancing Random Forest (RF) classifier explainability by developing easy to interpret explainability summary reports from trained RF classifiers as a way to improve the explainability for (often non-expert) users...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218747/patient-characteristics-and-outcome-measurement-in-a-low-secure-forensic-hospital
#20
Laura Longdon, Rachel Edworthy, Jeremy Resnick, Adrian Byrne, Martin Clarke, Natalie Cheung, Najat Khalifa
BACKGROUND: Health services are increasingly required to measure outcomes after treatment, which can be reported to the funding body and may be scrutinised by the public. Extensive high-quality measurements are time consuming. Routinely collected clinical data might, if anonymised, provide good enough evidence of useful change consequent on service received. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do the Health of the Nation Scale and the 20-item Historical, Clinical, Risk structured professional judgement tool scores provide evidence of clinical and risk change among low security hospital patients at 6 and 12 months after admission? METHODS: One hundred and eight men were either resident on the unit on 1 January 2011 or new admissions to the census date of 31 May 2013...
December 7, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
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