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Liver diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545181/hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-comprehensive-review-of-biomarkers-clinical-aspects-and-therapy
#1
Nathalia Martines Tunissiolli, Márcia Maria Urbanin Castanhole-Nunes, Patrícia Matos Biselli-Chicote, Érika Cristina Pavarino, Renato Ferreira da Silva, Rita de Cássia Martins Alves da Silva, Eny Maria Goloni-Bertollo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cause of several deaths related to cancer worldwidely. In early stage, curative treatments such as surgical resection, liver transplant and local ablation can improve the patient ´s survival. However, the disease is detected in advanced stage; moreover some available therapies are restricted to palliative care and local treatment. Early detections of HCC and adequate therapy are crucial to increase survival as well as to improve the patient´s quality of life. Therefore, researchers have been investigating molecular biomarkers with high sensibility and reliability as Golgi 73 protein (GP73), Glypican-3 (GPC3), Osteopontin (OPN), microRNAs and others...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545161/classic-galactosemia-study-on-the-late-prenatal-development-of-galt-specific-activity-in-a-sheep-model
#2
Ana I Coelho, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Lindhout, Jelle Achten, Boris W Kramer, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo
BACKGROUND: Classic galactosemia results from deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), a key enzyme of galactose metabolism. Despite early diagnosis and early postnatal therapeutic intervention, patients still develop neurologic and fertility impairments. Prenatal developmental toxicity has been hypothesized as a determinant factor of disease. In order to shed light on the importance of prenatal GALT activity, several studies have examined GALT activity throughout development...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545160/-99m-tc-labeled-ngr-chlorambucil-conjugate-99m-tc-hynic-clb-c-ngr-for-targeted-chemotherapy-and-molecular-imaging
#3
Kusum Vats, Drishty Satpati, Rohit Sharma, Chandan Kumar, Haladhar D Sarma, Ashutosh Dash
Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drug at the tumor site enhances the efficacy with minimum systemic exposure. Towards this drugs conjugated with peptides having affinity towards a particular molecular target are recognized as affective agents for targeted chemotherapy. Thus in the present study tumor homing NGR peptide ligand was conjugated to DNA alkylating nitrogen mustard, chlorambucil (CLB). The peptide drug conjugate (PDC), CLB-c(NGR) was radiolabeled with (99m) Tc-HYNIC core to trace its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution pattern...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545106/serum-microrna-signatures-as-liquid-biopsies-for-interrogating-hepatotoxic-mechanisms-and-liver-pathogenesis-in-human
#4
Julian Krauskopf, Theo M de Kok, Shelli J Schomaker, Mark Gosink, Deborah A Burt, Patricia Chandler, Roscoe L Warner, Kent J Johnson, Florian Caiment, Jos C Kleinjans, Jiri Aubrecht
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545098/survival-and-prognostic-factors-for-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy
#5
Cheng-Hsiang Lo, Jen-Fu Yang, Ming-Yueh Liu, Yee-Min Jen, Chun-Shu Lin, Hsing-Lung Chao, Wen-Yen Huang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated patients with advanced HCC who underwent SABR between December 2007 and July 2015. All patients had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class A-B function. In-field control (IFC), overall survival (OS), prognostic factors, and toxicity were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545090/neotropical-bats-that-co-habit-with-humans-function-as-dead-end-hosts-for-dengue-virus
#6
Amanda Vicente-Santos, Andres Moreira-Soto, Claudio Soto-Garita, Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Andrea Chaves, Jan Felix Drexler, Juan Alberto Morales, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Bernal Rodríguez-Herrera, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar
Several studies have shown Dengue Virus (DENV) nucleic acids and/or antibodies present in Neotropical wildlife including bats, suggesting that some bat species may be susceptible to DENV infection. Here we aim to elucidate the role of house-roosting bats in the DENV transmission cycle. Bats were sampled in households located in high and low dengue incidence regions during rainy and dry seasons in Costa Rica. We captured 318 bats from 12 different species in 29 households. Necropsies were performed in 205 bats to analyze virus presence in heart, lung, spleen, liver, intestine, kidney, and brain tissue...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545082/clinical-endoscopic-management-and-outcome-of-post-endoscopic-sphincterotomy-bleeding
#7
Wei-Chen Lin, Hsaing-Hung Lin, Chien-Yuan Hung, Shou-Chuan Shih, Cheng-Hsin Chu
Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy, and the incidence varies from 1% to 48%. It can be challenging to localize the bleeder or to administer various interventions through a side-viewing endoscope. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and the outcome of endoscopic intervention therapies. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 513 patients who underwent biliary sphincterotomy in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 2011 and 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545019/circulating-soluble-programmed-death-1-levels-may-differentiate-immune-tolerant-phase-from-other-phases-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-other-clinical-diseases-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#8
Na Li, Zhihua Zhou, Fang Li, Jiao Sang, Qunying Han, Yi Lv, Wenxuan Zhao, Chunyan Li, Zhengwen Liu
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is involved in the immune dysfunction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study analyzed the association of circulating soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) levels with the phases and clinical diseases in chronic HBV infection. Serum sPD-1 levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with different phases and liver diseases of chronic HBV infection. The sPD-1 levels in patients with chronic HBV infection were significantly elevated compared with HBV infection resolvers or healthy controls...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544651/genetic-determination-of-body-fat-distribution-and-the-attributive-influence-on-metabolism
#9
Ellen Fehlert, Róbert Wagner, Caroline Ketterer, Anja Böhm, Jürgen Machann, Louise Fritsche, Fausto Machicao, Fritz Schick, Harald Staiger, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Martin Heni
OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with estimates of body fat distribution. Using predefined risk allele scores, the correlation of these scores with precisely quantified body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and with metabolic traits was investigated. METHODS: Data from 4,944 MR scans from 915 subjects of European ancestry were analyzed. Body fat distribution was determined by MR imaging and liver fat content by (1) H-MR spectroscopy...
May 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544610/phenol-enriched-olive-oils-modify-paraoxonase-related-variables-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-trial
#10
Sara Fernández-Castillejo, Ana-Isabel García-Heredia, Rosa Solà, Jordi Camps, Maria-Carmen López de la Hazas, Marta Farràs, Anna Pedret, Úrsula Catalan, Laura Rubió, Maria-José Motilva, Olga Castañer, María-Isabel Covas, Rosa-Maria Valls
SCOPE: Low paraoxonase (PON)1 activities, and high PON1 and low PON3 protein levels are characteristic of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess short and long-term effects of virgin olive oils (VOO), enriched with their own phenolic compounds (PC; FVOO) or with them plus complementary PC from thyme (FVOOT), on PON-related variables and the mechanisms involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two randomized, controlled, double-blind, and crossover interventions were conducted...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544608/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-do-guidelines-provide-enough-guidance
#11
REVIEW
B G P Koot, V Nobili
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. AIM: To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. METHOD: Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544258/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-7-year-follow-up-study-among-urban-adult-sri-lankans
#12
Madunil Anuk Niriella, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Shamila Thivanshi De Silva, Anuradhani Kasturiratna, Ruwan Perera, Chamila Erandaka Subasinghe, Kuleesha Kodisinghe, Chathura Piyaratna, Vithiya Rishikesawan, Anuradha Supun Dassanayaka, Arjuna Priyadarshin De Silva, Rajitha Wickramasinghe, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Norihiro Kato, Hithanadura Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: This study investigated incidence and risk factors for NAFLD among an adult cohort with 7-years follow-up. METHODS: The study population (age-stratified random sampling, Ragama MOH area) was screened initially in 2007 (aged 35-64 years) and re-evaluated in 2014 (aged 42-71 years). On both occasions assessed by structured interview, anthropometric measurements, liver ultrasound, biochemical and serological tests. NAFLD was diagnosed on ultrasound criteria, safe alcohol consumption and absence of hepatitis B/C markers...
May 19, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544244/branched-chain-amino-acids-supplementation-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-pathway-and-interleukins-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis
#13
Naglaa F Khedr, Eman G Khedr
The alterations and low levels of circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine, are associated with liver diseases. The study was designed to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of BCAAs on CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis and to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects in rats. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups. Control group (n=10), CCl4 group (n=10); rats were injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg of 0.5:1 v/v injected i.p. twice weekly for 12 weeks). CCl4 +BCAAs group (n=10); rats were injected with similar doses of CCl4 and supplemented with a mixture of 600 mg/kg BCAAs (2: 1: 1...
May 23, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544232/peripartum-cytokine-flares-in-a-multiethnic-cohort-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers-does-not-correlate-with-hepatitis-b-virus-suppression-or-increased-risk-of-liver-disease
#14
Shivali S Joshi, Daniel Wong, Eliana Castillo, Mark G Swain, Carla S Coffin
PROBLEM: In chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carriers, alanine transaminase (ALT) flares are common in the peripartum period. There are limited data on immunological changes of pregnancy in CHB. We hypothesize that in pregnant CHB carriers, the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio is altered resulting in changes in biochemical/virological and liver fibrosis markers. STUDY METHODS: Serum from 38 pregnant/post-partum CHB carriers (median age 32 years, 53% Asian, 8 HBeAg(+) ) was tested for HBV DNA, quantitative HBV surface antigen, ALT and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544208/ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-novel-mechanistic-and-diagnostic-insights-of-energy-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-advanced-fibrosis
#15
Stefan Traussnigg, Christian Kienbacher, Martin Gajdošík, Ladislav Valkovič, Emina Halilbasic, Judith Stift, Christian Rechling, Harald Hofer, Petra Steindl-Munda, Peter Ferenci, Fritz Wrba, Siegfried Trattnig, Martin Krššák, Michael Trauner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: With the rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) non-invasive tools obtaining pathomechanistic insights to improve risk stratification are urgently needed. We therefore explored high- and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to obtain novel mechanistic and diagnostic insights into alterations of hepatic lipid, cell membrane and energy metabolism across the spectrum of NAFLD. METHODS: MRS and liver biopsy were performed in 30 NAFLD patients with NAFL (n=8) or NASH (n=22)...
April 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544156/m2bpgi-as-a-potential-diagnostic-tool-of-cirrhosis-in-chinese-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#16
Bin Wei, Shu Feng, Enqiang Chen, Dongdong Li, Tingting Wang, Yu Gou, Tingting Yang, Dongmei Zhang, Chuanmin Tao, Hong Tang
BACKGROUND: M2BPGi is a novel serum glycobiomarker of liver fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of M2BPGi for predicting liver fibrosis and disease progression in Chinese hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients. METHODS: We enrolled 228 HBV infected patients with different status of liver fibrosis diagnosed using FibroScan. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of M2BPGi, and compared it with AST-to-platelet ratio (APRI), FIB-4 index, AST to ALT ratio (AAR), and RDW to platelet ratio (RPR)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544091/a-new-predictive-model-for-acute-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-patients-taking-oral-anticoagulants-a-cohort-study
#17
Akira Shimomura, Naoyoshi Nagata, Takuro Shimbo, Toshiyuki Sakurai, Shiori Moriyasu, Hidetaka Okubo, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Chizu Yokoi, Junichi Akiyama, Naomi Uemura
BACKGROUND: We developed a predictive model of long-term gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding risk in patients receiving oral anticoagulants and compared it with the HAS-BLED score. METHODS: We periodically followed a cohort of 508 patients taking oral anticoagulants (66 direct oral anticoagulants users and 442 warfarin users). Absence of GI bleeding at an initial examination, and any subsequent GI bleeding, were confirmed endoscopically. The bleeding model was developed by multivariate survival analysis and evaluated by Harrell's c-index...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543991/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-plasma-alt-alp-and-bile-acids-for-hepatitis-in-labrador-retrievers
#18
K Dirksen, I A Burgener, J Rothuizen, T S G A M van den Ingh, L C Penning, B Spee, H Fieten
BACKGROUND: Biochemical indicators for diagnosing liver disease are plasma alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and bile acid concentration (BA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of ALT, ALP, and BA for detecting primary hepatitis (PH) in clinically healthy Labrador retrievers and investigate whether ALT and ALP can discriminate between dogs with PH and nonspecific reactive hepatitis (RH). ANIMALS: 191 clinically healthy and 51 clinically ill Labrador retrievers with hepatic histopathology...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543911/polymorphism-of-tlr5-rs5744174-is-associated-with-disease-progression-in-chinese-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection
#19
Lina Cao, Tong Zhang, Junping Zhu, Aixin Li, Kai Zheng, Nan Zhang, Bin Su, Wei Xia, Hao Wu, Ning Li, Qiushui He
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity, protecting the host from viral pathogens. Studies have implicated that TLR5 is associated with various diseases such as autoimmune and inflammation related diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TLR5 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We studied the effect of TLR5 gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in Chinese. Blood samples were taken from 636 patients with CHB, HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 273 controls...
May 25, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543567/tgr5-contributes-to-hepatic-cystogenesis-in-rodents-with-polycystic-liver-diseases-via-camp-g%C3%AE-s-signaling
#20
Tatyana V Masyuk, Anatoliy I Masyuk, Maria Lorenzo Pisarello, Brynn N Howard, Bing Q Huang, Pui-Yuen Lee, Xavier Fung, Eduard Sergienko, Robert J Ardesky, Thomas Dy Chung, Anthony B Pinkerton, Nicholas F LaRusso
Hepatic cystogenesis in Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD) is associated with increased levels of cAMP in cholangiocytes lining liver cysts. TGR5, a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, is linked to cAMP and expressed in cholangiocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGR5 might contribute to disease progression. We examined expression of TGR5 and Gα proteins in cultured cholangiocytes and in livers of animal models and humans with PLD. In vitro, we assessed cholangiocyte proliferation, cAMP levels, and cyst growth in response to: (i) TGR5 agonists [taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), oleanolic acid (OA) and two synthetic compounds]; (ii) a novel TGR5 antagonist (SBI-115); and (iii) a combination of SBI-115 and pasireotide, a somatostatin receptor (SSTR) analog...
May 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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