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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719837/prescription-trends-and-the-selection-of-initial-oral-antidiabetic-agents-for-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-a-nationwide-study
#1
C-H Liu, S-T Chen, C-H Chang, L-M Chuang, M-S Lai
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of patients, physicians, and medical facilities, and their association with prescriptions that do not include metformin as the initial oral antidiabetic agent. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Patients with incident type 2 diabetes between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified from the Taiwan National Insurance Research Database...
July 15, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719728/robust-acenaphthoimidazolylidene-palladacycles-highly-efficient-catalysts-for-the-amination-of-n-heteroaryl-chlorides
#2
Tao Tu, Qinyue Deng, Yang Zhang, Haibo Zhu
A series of robust N-heterocyclic carbene palladacycles have been successfully developed, which exhibited high catalytic activity and selectivity toward the challenging amination of N-heteroaryl chlorides. Diverse primary and secondary amines are fully compatible with our new developed catalytic system. Remarkably, no double amination products could be detected when primary amines were utilized in our catalytic transformation. Furthermore, the protocol has been successfully extended to synthesize Rosiglitazone, a clinical drug for diabetes mellitus, highlighting its potential pharmaceutical feasibility...
July 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719008/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-gemigliptin-versus-linagliptin-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-renal-impairment-a-40-week-extension-of-the-guard-randomized-study
#3
Sang Youb Han, Sun Ae Yoon, Byoung Geun Han, Sung Gyun Kim, Young-Il Jo, Kyung Hwan Jeong, Kook-Hwan Oh, Hyeong Cheon Park, Sun-Hee Park, Shin-Wook Kang, Ki-Ryang Na, Sun Woo Kang, Nam-Ho Kim, Younghwan Jang, Bogyeong Kim, Seonghye Shin, Dae Ryong Cha
AIMS: The present extension study evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of gemigliptin during a 40-week follow-up period after a 12-week study. METHODS: The main study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, phase IIIb study in which 50 mg of gemigliptin (N = 66) or placebo (N = 66) was administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with moderate or severe renal impairment over a 12-week period. Patients with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7-11% and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-59 mL/min/1...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718324/physical-health-and-drug-safety-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#4
Tamara Pringsheim, Martina Kelly, Doug Urness, Michael Teehan, Zahinoor Ismail, David Gardner
BACKGROUND: While antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of therapy for individuals with schizophrenia and psychotic disorders, their use is associated with adverse effects on physical health that require the attention and care of prescribers. METHODS: We used the ADAPTE process to adapt existing guideline recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines on the dosing of antipsychotics and antipsychotic polypharmacy, screening for adverse effects of antipsychotics, and management of metabolic and extrapyramidal side effects to the Canadian context...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718238/bacteriology-of-diabetic-foot-in-tertiary-care-hospital-frequency-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-risk-factors
#5
Syeda Sadia Amjad, Jamal Zafar, Nadia Shams
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717973/design-and-development-of-repaglinide-microemulsion-gel-for-transdermal-delivery
#6
Ujwala A Shinde, Sheela H Modani, Kavita H Singh
Microemulsion formulation of repaglinide, a BCS class II hypoglycemic agent with limited oral bioavailability, was developed considering its solubility in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for microemulsion regions were constructed by water titration method at K m 1:1 and characterized for optical birefringence, percentage transmittance, pH, refractive index, globule size, zeta potential, viscosity, drug content, and thermodynamic stability. To enhance the drug permeation and residence time, the optimized microemulsions having mean globule size of 36...
July 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717862/practical-considerations-for-the-use-of-subcutaneous-treatment-in-the-management-of-dyslipidaemia
#7
REVIEW
Franck Boccara, Ricardo Dent, Luis Ruilope, Paul Valensi
Suboptimal drug adherence represents a major challenge to effective primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While adherence is influenced by multiple considerations, polypharmacy and dosing frequency appear to be rate-limiting factors in patient satisfaction and subsequent adherence. The cardiovascular and metabolic therapeutic areas have recently benefited from a number of advances in drug therapy, in particular protease proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and incretin-based therapies, respectively...
July 17, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717854/pharmaceutically-treated-anxiety-but-not-depression-prior-to-cancer-diagnosis-predicts-the-onset-of-cardiovascular-disease-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#8
Dounya Schoormans, Lonneke van de Poll-Franse, Pauline Vissers, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Susanne S Pedersen, Nina Rottmann, Trine Horsbøl, Susanne Dalton, Johan Denollet
PURPOSE: To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics in a population-based observational study. METHODS: Adult 1-year breast cancer survivors (n = 7227), diagnosed between 01-01-1999 and 12-31-2010, with no history of CVD, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry...
July 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717146/concise-and-stereodivergent-synthesis-of-carbasugars-reveals-unexpected-structure-activity-relationship-sar-of-sglt2-inhibition
#9
Wai-Lung Ng, Ho-Chuen Li, Kit-Man Lau, Anthony K N Chan, Clara Bik-San Lau, Tony K M Shing
Carbasugar sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are highly promising drug candidates for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the clinical usage of carbasugar SGLT2 inhibitors has been underexplored, due to the lengthy synthetic routes and the lack of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds. Herein, we report a concise and stereodivergent synthetic route towards some novel carbasugar SGLT2 inhibitors, featuring an underexploited, regioselective, and stereospecific palladium-catalyzed allyl-aryl coupling reaction...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717115/coronary-artery-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Ryo Naito, Katsumi Miyauchi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Clinical outcomes in CAD with T2DM are poor despite improvement in medications and intervention devices. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in treating diabetic patients with multivessel coronary artery diseases (MVD). However, selecting a revascularization strategy should depend not only on the lesion complexity but also on the patient's background and comorbidities...
July 14, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716821/abnormalities-in-alternative-splicing-in-diabetes-therapeutic-targets
#11
REVIEW
Zodwa Dlamini, Fortunate Mokoena, Rodney Hull
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable, metabolic disorder that affects 416 million individuals worldwide. Type 2 diabetes contributes to a vast 85-90% of the diabetes incidences while 10-15% of patients suffer from type 1 diabetes. These two predominant forms of DM cause a significant loss of functional pancreatic β-cell mass causing different degrees of insulin deficiency, most likely, due to increased β-cell apoptosis. Treatment options involve the use of insulin sensitisers, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and β-cell secretagogues which are often expensive, limited in efficacy and carry detrimental adverse effects...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716819/effect-of-type-2-diabetes-surgical-incision-and-volatile-anesthesia-on-hemodynamics-in-the-rat
#12
Carol T Bussey, Regis R Lamberts
Diabetic patients have increased cardiac complications during surgery, possibly due to impaired autonomic regulation. Anesthesia lowers blood pressure and heart rate (HR), whereas surgical intervention has opposing effects. The interaction of anesthesia and surgical intervention on hemodynamics in diabetes is unknown, despite being a potential perioperative risk factor. We aimed to determine the effect of diabetes on the integrative interaction between hemodynamics, anesthesia, and surgical incision. Zucker type 2 diabetic rats (DM) and their nondiabetic littermates (ND) were implanted with an intravenous port for drug delivery, and a radiotelemeter to measure mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and derive HR (total n = 50)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716729/study-of-new-interactions-of-glitazone-s-stereoisomers-and-the-endogenous-ligand-15d-pgj2-on-six-different-ppar-gamma-proteins
#13
Samuel Álvarez-Almazán, Martiniano Bello, Feliciano Tamay-Cach, Marlet Martínez-Archundia, Diana Alemán-González-Duhart, José Correa-Basurto, Jessica Elena Mendieta-Wejebe
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Glitazones or thiazolidinediones (TZD) are drugs that act as insulin-sensitizing agents whose molecular target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The euglycemic action of TZD has been linked with the induction of type 4 glucose transporter. However, it has been shown that the effect of TZD depends on the specific stereoisomer that interacts with PPARγ. Therefore, this work is focused on exploring the interactions and geometry adopted by glitazone's stereoisomers and one endogenous ligand on different conformations of the six crystals of the PPARγ protein using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations accompanied by the MMGBSA approach...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716240/a-study-of-neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-patients-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#14
Aniruddha More, Rajesh Verma, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Ravi Uniyal, Shweta Pandey, Madhukar Mittal
BACKGROUND: Endocrine dysfunction is known to occur in various infectious diseases of the brain. The neuroendocrine dysfunction is not well studied in patients of Tuberculous meningitis (TBM). In this study, we aimed at knowing pattern of endocrine dysfunction in newly diagnosed patients of tuberculous meningitis, structural changes occurring in hypothalamic-pituitary region, assessing its predictors and correlative factors related to outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715810/population-pharmacokinetics-of-diazoxide-in-children-with-hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia
#15
Rika Kizu, Kazuko Nishimura, Reiko Sato, Kenjiro Kosaki, Toshiaki Tanaka, Yusuke Tanigawara, Tomonobu Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Diazoxide is the first-line treatment for pediatric hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI). This study aimed to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of diazoxide in children with HI. METHODS: We obtained 81 blood samples from 22 children with HI. Measured serum diazoxide concentrations were used for population pharmacokinetic analysis. Patient factors influencing pharmacokinetics were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects model analysis. Relationships between drug exposure and adverse drug reactions were also investigated...
July 14, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715647/the-role-of-netrin-1-in-angiogenesis-and-diabetic-retinopathy-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy
#16
Wenyi Wu, Hetian Lei, Junhui Shen, Luosheng Tang
Netrin-1 is an axon guidance cue and is necessary for neural and vascular development. It is involved in regulating axon guidance for attraction or repulsion, and it has a dual function in endothelial tip cell migration during angiogenesis. Netrin-1 has been shown to play an important role in angiogenesis, cancer progression, and inflammatory disease. Here we review the role of netrin-1 in retinal and angiogenesis development and the associated signaling pathways in diabetic retinopathy. The currently available data suggest that netrin-1 is a promising target for the development of anti-angiogenesis drugs...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715513/percutaneous-endovascular-treatment-of-infrainguinal-paod-results-of-the-psi-register-study-in-74%C3%A2-german-vascular-centers
#17
C-A Behrendt, F Heidemann, K Haustein, R T Grundmann, E S Debus
BACKGROUND: The percutaneous infrainguinal stent (PSI) register study aimed to collate all percutaneous endovascular procedures for infrainguinal peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) conducted in 74 German vascular centers between September and November 2015 (3 months). In order to obtain representative results all consecutive treatment procedures had to be submitted by the participating trial centers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective, nonrandomized multicenter study design...
2017: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714741/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-adding-either-vildagliptin-or-glimepiride-to-ongoing-metformin-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Gyuri Kim, Sewon Oh, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of either vildagliptin or glimepiride on glycemic variability, oxidative stress, and endothelial parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin alone. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, parallel study, 34 patients with T2DM being treated with metformin having an HbA1c of 7.0-10.0% were allocated into either the vildagliptin or glimepiride group. A mixed-meal tolerance test and 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring were conducted, and urinary 8-iso-prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) and endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment...
July 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714403/gsk3-inhibitors-in-the-therapeutic-development-of-diabetes-cancer-and-neurodegeneration-past-present-and-future
#19
Mudasir Maqbool, Nasimul Hoda
GSK3 has gained a considerable attention of researchers in the late 1970s as an inevitable drug target to treat diabetes. Furthermore, it was found to have a key role in the development of diseases like cancer and neurodegeneration (ND). A broad spectrum of GSK3 inhibitors have been discovered from time to time in order to curb these diseases. Inhibition of GSK3 by insulin boosts the dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase, hence its activation to convert UDP glucose into glycogen. Lack of insulin and insulin-resistance is supposed to be the cause of type 2 diabetes (Diabetes mellitus)...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714394/nanoparticle-mediated-delivery-of-neuroprotective-substances-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#20
Rosario Amato, Massimo Dal Monte, Matteo Lulli, Vittoria Raffa, Giovanni Casini
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of diabetes, characterized by extensive vascular pathology leading to vision loss. Neuronal suffering and death are also present in the diabetic retina as a result of different molecular mechanisms that are compromised or modified in response to high glucose and that mainly include excitotoxicity, advanced glycation, inflammation and oxidative stress. Recent data indicate that the vascular changes may be secondary to damage of retinal neurons and that neurodegeneration is likely to play a primary role in the development of DR...
July 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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