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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921436/-diabetes-mellitus-in-older-adults-from-the-point-of-view-of-the-clinical-diabetologist
#1
Alena Šmahelová
Disorders of glucose homeostasis affect quite a large part of the older population and their incidence including manifest diabetes is growing. Diabetes in older adults is associated with an increased risk of geriatric syndrome expressed in various ways (decrease in muscle size, functional disability, frailty) and early mortality. Diabetes care for the elderly requires, also in view of heterogeneity of diabetes itself, an individual specific approach. This involves not only diagnostics and a clinical picture, but also the treatment goals and the therapy of diabetes and complications in itself...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921435/-should-we-consider-a-new-classification-of-diabetes-influenced-by-therapeutic-decisions
#2
Jan Škrha
The growing number of diabetic patients in the whole world causes the problems to allocate some patients into the respective type of diabetes related to the present classification. B cell is considered as the central cause of diabetes and its intracellular impairment is practically the same in both types of diabetes. Diabetic patients will be recognized according to the state of impaired B cell. The antidiabetic drugs will be selected according to their effect protecting the B cells. Some antidiabetic drugs will be used more frequently in type 1 diabetes as well...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921432/-composition-of-macronutrients-in-the-diabetic-diet
#3
Zdeněk Rušavý, Michal Žourek
The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921428/-promising-molecules-for-treatment-of-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Milan Kvapil
New antidiabetic drugs are being developed today that expand the range of pharmacological intervention, in particular for patients with type 2 diabetes (imeglimin, semaglutide, dulaglutide, FGF 21 analogue). At the same time innovations take place that "better" the well-proven molecules, they offer new application forms we have no experience of diabetology (osmotic pump for exenatide, faster acting insulin aspart). New properties are brought by just the change of concentration (insulin glargine in a concentration of 300 U/ml), unexpected positive results are also brought by new fixed-ratio combinations of antidiabetics (fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide, fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine and lixisenatide)...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921426/-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Hana Krejčí
The present generation of women of childbearing age more frequently suffer from overweight, obesity, initial as well as fully established metabolic syndrome, which together with postponing motherhood until the third decade in life plays an important role in the increasing incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) that currently affects about 1/5 of pregnant women. However the causal link between diabetes during pregnancy and metabolic diseases in the whole population is mutual. By way of epigenetic changes, maternal diabetes unfavourably programmes metabolism of the offspring, who tend to transfer the disorder to the next generations...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919957/simultaneous-administration-of-statins-and-pioglitazone-limits-tumor-growth-in-a-rat-model-of-malignant-glioma
#6
Jorge Humberto Tapia-Pérez, Robert Preininger, Elmar Kirches, Annegret Reinhold, Jana Butzmann, Sylvia Prilloff, Christian Mawrin, Thomas Schneider
BACKGROUND/AIM: Statins are cholesterol reducers with considerable dose-dependent effect against glioma cells. The apoptotic effect could be increased by combining statins or by adding pioglitazone (PGZ). The last one is an anti-diabetic drug, an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG). We used an animal model to test the effect of such combination in vivo and we investigated the changes on immunological processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three rats (F344/DuCrl) were anesthetized and glioblastoma (F98) cells were implanted stereotactically...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919874/diltiazem-versus-metoprolol-for-rate-control-in-atrial-fibrillation-with-rapid-ventricular-response-in-the-emergency-department
#7
Michelle C Hines, Brent N Reed, Vijay Ivaturi, Laura J Bontempo, Michael C Bond, Bryan D Hayes
PURPOSE: The impact of patient-specific factors on the choice of β-blocker versus calcium channel blocker therapy for rate control in emergency department (ED) patients treated for atrial fibrillation (AF) was investigated. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the influence of demographics, prior medication use, hemodynamic and clinical characteristics, and other variables on selection of first-line therapy for AF among patients admitted to the ED of an academic medical center over a 22-month period (October 2012-July 2014) who received i...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919711/epigenetic-dysfunctional-diseases-and-therapy-for-infection-and-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Saheli Samanta, Sheeja Rajasingh, Thuy Cao, Buddhadeb Dawn, Johnson Rajasingh
Even though the discovery of the term 'epigenetics' was in the 1940s, it has recently become one of the most promising and expanding fields to unravel the gene expression pattern in several diseases. The most well studied example is cancer, but other diseases like metabolic disorders, autism, or inflammation-associated diseases such as lung injury, autoimmune disease, asthma, and type-2 diabetes display aberrant gene expression and epigenetic regulation during their occurrence. The change in the epigenetic pattern of a gene may also alter gene function because of a change in the DNA status...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919710/the-transcription-factor-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-chrebp-a-possible-link-between-metabolic-disease-and-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) has been identified as a transcription factor that binds to carbohydrate response element in the promoter of pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cells. ChREBP is activated by metabolites derived from glucose and suppressed by adenosine monophosphate (AMP), ketone bodies and cyclic cAMP. ChREBP regulates gene transcription related to glucose and lipid metabolism. Findings from knockout mice and human subjects suggest that ChREBP helps to induce hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919699/identification-of-different-shapes-colors-and-sizes-of-standard-oral-dosage-forms-in-diabetes-type-2-patients-a-pilot-study
#10
Sven Stegemann, Regina Riedl, Harald Sourij
The clear identification of drug products by the patients is essential for a safe and effective medication management. In order to understand the impact of shape, size and color on medication identification a study was performed in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Ten model drugs differentiated by shape, size and color were evaluated using a mixed method of medication schedule preparation by the participants followed by a semi-structured interview. Detection times were fastest for the large round tablet shape and the bi-chromatic forms...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919350/identification-and-characterization-of-severe-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-patients-presenting-for-cardiac-catheterization
#11
Barak Zafrir, Chen Shapira, Gil Lavie, David A Halon, Moshe Y Flugelman
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are often unrecognized despite typical presentation. The introduction of PCSK9 inhibitors opens new therapeutic options and emphasizes the need for identification of severe FH patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective was identification, characterization, and management of severe FH patients by screening of cardiac catheterization (CC) database. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of CC database from 2002 to mid-2015 was performed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL (n = 2383)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917771/socioeconomic-and-modifiable-predictors-of-blood-pressure-control-for-hypertension-in-primary-care-attenders-in-the-western-cape-south-africa
#12
N Folb, M O Bachmann, E D Bateman, K Steyn, N S Levitt, V Timmerman, C Lombard, T A Gaziano, L R Fairall
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status is associated with the risk of hypertension. There are few reports of the effect of socioeconomic and potentially modifiable factors on the control of hypertension in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between patients' socio-economic status and characteristics of primary healthcare facilities, and control and treatment of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We enrolled hypertensive patients attending 38 public sector primary care clinics in the Western Cape, SA, in 2011, and followed them up 14 months later as part of a randomised controlled trial...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917764/diabetic-cachectic-neuropathy-an-uncommon-neurological-complication-of-diabetes
#13
A Iyagba, A Onwuchekwa
A 40-year-old female patient with diabetes of 12 years' duration, with poor drug compliance, presented with a 4-month history of rapid progressive weight loss, burning sensations in the feet, abdominal swelling, and constipation with occasional episodes of epigastric pain. On examination, she was chronically ill-looking with a body mass index of 17.1 kg/m2, grossly distended abdomen (initially mistaken for gravid abdomen). Blood pressure measurements in the supine and standing positions were 200/130 mmHg and 180/100 mmHg, respectively...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917261/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-drugs-and-kidney
#14
REVIEW
Paul Carrier, Marie Essig, Marilyne Debette-Gratien, Denis Sautereau, Annick Rousseau, Pierre Marquet, Jérémie Jacques, Véronique Loustaud-Ratti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly targets the liver but can also induce extrahepatic manifestations. The kidney may be impacted via an immune mediated mechanism or a cytopathic effect. HCV patients are clearly at a greater risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than uninfected patients are, and the presence of CKD increases mortality. Interferon-based therapies and ribavirin are difficult to manage and are poorly effective in end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. These patients should be given priority treatment with new direct anti-viral agents (DAAs) while avoiding peginterferon and ribavirin...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917122/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analog-liraglutide-delays-onset-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis-in-lewis-rats
#15
Brian DellaValle, Gitte S Brix, Birgitte Brock, Michael Gejl, Anne M Landau, Arne Møller, Jørgen Rungby, Agnete Larsen
Introduction: Recent findings indicate that metabolic disturbances are involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and influence the susceptibility to treatment, directing attention toward anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and pioglitazone. Liraglutide, a drug of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) family, is also anti-diabetic and weight-reducing and is, moreover, directly neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in a broad spectrum of experimental models of brain disease. In this study we investigate the potential for this FDA-approved drug, liraglutide, as a treatment for MS by utilizing the experimental model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916653/pericytes-an-overlooked-player-in-vascular-pathobiology
#16
REVIEW
David Ferland-McCollough, Sadie Slater, Jai Richard, Carlotta Reni, Giuseppe Mangialardi
Pericytes are a heterogeneous population of cells located in the blood vessel wall. They were first identified in the 19(th) century by Rouget, however their biological role and potential for drug targeting have taken time to be recognised. Isolation of pericytes from several different tissues has allowed a better phenotypic and functional characterization. These findings revealed a tissue-specific, multi-functional group of cells with multilineage potential. Given this emerging evidence, pericytes have acquired specific roles in pathobiological events in vascular diseases...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916433/assessment-of-cost-sharing-in-the-pima-county-marketplace
#17
Nicholas B Jennings, Howard J Eng
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established health insurance marketplaces to allow consumers to make educated decisions about their health care coverage. During the first open enrollment period in 2013, the federally facilitated marketplace in Pima County, Arizona listed 119 plans, making it one of the most competitive markets in the country. This study compares these plans based on differences in consumer cost sharing, including deductibles, co-pays and premiums. Consumer costs were reviewed using specific cases including a normal delivery pregnancy, the management of Type II Diabetes, and the utilization of specialty drugs to treat Hepatitis C...
November 8, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916432/the-international-generalisability-of-evidence-for-health-policy-a-cross-country-comparison-of-medication-adherence-following-policy-change
#18
Sarah-Jo Sinnott, Helen Whelton, Jessica Myers Franklin, Jennifer Milan Polinski
Copayments for prescriptions may increase morbidity and mortality via reductions in adherence to medications. Relevant data can inform policy to minimise such unintended effects. We explored the generalisability of evidence for copayments by comparing two international copayment polices, one in Massachusetts and one in Ireland, to assess whether effects on medication adherence were comparable. We used national prescription data for public health insurance programmes in Ireland and Medicaid data in the U.S. New users of oral anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidaemic and diabetic drugs were included (total n=14,259 in U...
October 26, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916421/protective-potential-of-averrhoa-bilimbi-fruits-in-ameliorating-the-hepatic-key-enzymes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#19
Surya B Kurup, Mini S
BACK GROUND: Diabetes is a mutifactorial disease which leads to several complications. Currently available drug regimens for management of diabetes have certain drawbacks. Need for safer and effective medicines from natural sources having potent antidiabetic activity. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant and is reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antidiabetic potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916275/artemisinins-target-gabaa-receptor-signaling-and-impair-%C3%AE-cell-identity
#20
Jin Li, Tamara Casteels, Thomas Frogne, Camilla Ingvorsen, Christian Honoré, Monica Courtney, Kilian V M Huber, Nicole Schmitner, Robin A Kimmel, Roman A Romanov, Caterina Sturtzel, Charles-Hugues Lardeau, Johanna Klughammer, Matthias Farlik, Sara Sdelci, Andhira Vieira, Fabio Avolio, François Briand, Igor Baburin, Peter Májek, Florian M Pauler, Thomas Penz, Alexey Stukalov, Manuela Gridling, Katja Parapatics, Charlotte Barbieux, Ekaterine Berishvili, Andreas Spittler, Jacques Colinge, Keiryn L Bennett, Steffen Hering, Thierry Sulpice, Christoph Bock, Martin Distel, Tibor Harkany, Dirk Meyer, Giulio Superti-Furga, Patrick Collombat, Jacob Hecksher-Sørensen, Stefan Kubicek
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells, and generating new insulin-producing cells from other cell types is a major aim of regenerative medicine. One promising approach is transdifferentiation of developmentally related pancreatic cell types, including glucagon-producing α cells. In a genetic model, loss of the master regulatory transcription factor Arx is sufficient to induce the conversion of α cells to functional β-like cells. Here, we identify artemisinins as small molecules that functionally repress Arx by causing its translocation to the cytoplasm...
November 30, 2016: Cell
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