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Diabetes, drugs

Pradeep Phadnis, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Mithun Singh Rajput
BACKGROUND: Initial evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus occurs concomitantly with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. Serotonergic psychiatric therapy posits that serotonin is a central character in the management of OCD. Hence, it is worth investigating novel chemical entities affecting the serotonergic system for targeting OCD. An isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, genistein, has been recognized as of great pharmacological value especially for protecting neurodegeneration, depression (serotonin regulation), and diabetes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Frank Palella, Xiuhong Li, Samir K Gupta, Michelle M Estrella, John P Phair, Joseph B Margolick, Roger Detels, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa P Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Factors affecting kidney function and proteinuria among HIV+ and HIV- persons need better characterization. METHODS: We evaluated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m) changes, proteinuria prevalence (a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio [UPCr] of ≥0.2 at two consecutive visits) and associated factors among HIV+ and HIV- men. RESULTS: There were 917 HIV+ men receiving HAART, 159 HIV+ men not receiving HAART, and 1305 HIV- men seen from 10/2003 to 9/2014...
March 20, 2018: AIDS
Sara Conti, Norberto Perico, Rubina Novelli, Camillo Carrara, Ariela Benigni, Giuseppe Remuzzi
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), the single strongest predictor of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes, is characterized by initial glomerular hyperfiltration with subsequent progressive renal function loss with or without albuminuria, greatly accelerated with the onset of overt proteinuria. Experimental and clinical studies have convincingly shown that early interventions retard disease progression, while treatment if started late in the disease course seldom modifies the slope of GFR decline. Here we assessed whether the negligible renoprotection afforded by drugs in patients with proteinuric DN could be due to loss of glomerular structural integrity, explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
In diabetic patients undergoing surgery, we recommend assessing glycaemic control preoperatively by assessing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and recent capillary blood sugar (glucose) levels, and to adjust any treatments accordingly before surgery, paying particular attention to specific complications of diabetes. Gastroparesis creates a risk of stasis and aspiration of gastric content at induction of anaesthesia requiring the use of a rapid sequence induction technique. Cardiac involvement can be divided into several types...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Emilie Bahne, Andreas Brønden, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip Krag Knop
Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycaemic drug used as first-line treatment of Type 2 diabetes. It is more effective when administered orally than when administered intravenously, and metformin formulations, which prolong the time residing in the gut are the most potent. This indicates that the intestine plays an essential role in metformin's mode of action. Metformin also increases plasma concentrations of the glucose-lowering gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This metformin-induced GLP-1 increment may constitute an important link between the gut and the glucose-lowering effect of metformin...
March 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Phetcharat Boonruamkaew, Wanida Sukketsiri, Pilaiwanwadee Hutamekalin, Morakot Sroyraya
BACKGROUND: Apium graveolens L. is a traditional Chinese medicine prescribed as a treatment for hypertension, gout, and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the neuroprotective effects of A. graveolens extract against a Parkinson's disease (PD) model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice treated with MPTP were orally dosed with A. graveolens extract daily for 21 days. Behavioral tests, including a rotarod apparatus, a narrow beam test, a drag test, a grid walk test, a swimming test, and a resting tremor evaluation, were performed...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Kunal N Karmali, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Joep van der Leeuw, David C Goff, Salim Yusuf, Alberto Zanchetti, Paul Glasziou, Rodney Jackson, Mark Woodward, Anthony Rodgers, Bruce C Neal, Eivind Berge, Koon Teo, Barry R Davis, John Chalmers, Carl Pepine, Kazem Rahimi, Johan Sundström
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC) from 1995 to 2013...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Yan Wang, Shun Qiao, De-Wu Han, Xin-Ren Rong, Yi-Xiao Wang, Jing-Jing Xue, Jing Yang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and other obesity-related diseases are characterized by insulin resistance (IR) as a common pathophysiological change and are closely related to cardiovascular disease, which seriously threaten human health. Telmisartan belongs to a group of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and it can partially activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Animal experiments have confirmed that telmisartan can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve IR...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Stefan Bröer
Amino acids perform a variety of functions in cells and organisms, particularly in the synthesis of proteins, as energy metabolites, neurotransmitters, and precursors for many other molecules. Amino acid transport plays a key role in all these functions. Inhibition of amino acid transport is pursued as a therapeutic strategy in several areas, such as diabetes and related metabolic disorders, neurological disorders, cancer, and stem cell biology. The role of amino acid transporters in these disorders and processes is well established, but the implementation of amino acid transporters as drug targets is still in its infancy...
April 2018: SLAS Discovery
Raffaele Altara, Fouad A Zouein, Rita Dias Brandão, Saeed N Bajestani, Alessandro Cataliotti, George W Booz
Standard therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been unsuccessful, demonstrating that the contribution of the underlying diastolic dysfunction pathophysiology differs from that of systolic dysfunction in heart failure and currently is far from being understood. Complicating the investigation of HFpEF is the contribution of several comorbidities. Here, we selected three established rat models of diastolic dysfunction defined by three major risk factors associated with HFpEF and researched their commonalities and differences...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Xiaowei Dong
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been a great hurdle for brain drug delivery. The BBB in healthy brain is a diffusion barrier essential for protecting normal brain function by impeding most compounds from transiting from the blood to the brain; only small molecules can cross the BBB. Under certain pathological conditions of diseases such as stroke, diabetes, seizures, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease, the BBB is disrupted. The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview on current strategies for brain drug delivery and related subjects from the past five years...
2018: Theranostics
Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, Valeria Sordi
The experience in the field of islet transplantation shows that it is possible to replace β cells in a patient with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but this cell therapy is limited by the scarcity of organ donors and by the danger associated to the immunosuppressive drugs. Stem cell therapy is becoming a concrete opportunity to treat various diseases. In particular, for a disease like T1D, caused by the loss of a single specific cell type that does not need to be transplanted back in its originating site to perform its function, a stem cell-based cell replacement therapy seems to be the ideal cure...
March 2018: Endocrine Connections
Ravi Gupta, Thomas J Bollyky, Matthew Cohen, Joseph S Ross, Aaron S Kesselheim
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether off-patent prescription drugs at risk of sudden price increases or shortages in the United States are available from independent manufacturers approved in other well regulated settings around the world. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Off-patent drugs in the USA and approved by the Food and Drug Administration, up to 10 April 2017. STUDY COHORT: Novel tablet or capsule prescription drugs approved by the FDA since 1939 that were no longer protected by patents or other market exclusivity and had up to three generic versions...
March 19, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Cheisson Gaëlle, Jacqueminet Sophie, Cosson Emmanuel, Ichai Carole, Leguerrier Anne-Marie, Nicolescu-Catargi Bogdan, Ouattara Alexandre, Tauveron Igor, Valensi Paul, Benhamou Dan
Perioperative hyperglycaemia (>1.80g/L or 10 mmol/L) increases morbidity (particularly due to infection) and mortality. Hypoglycaemia can be managed in the perioperative period by decreasing blood sugar levels with insulin between 0.90 and 1.80g/l but it may occur more frequently when the goal is strict normoglycaemia. We propose continuous administration of insulin therapy via an electronic syringe (IVES) in type-1 diabetes (T1D) and type-2 diabetes (T2D) patients if required or in cases of stress hyperglycaemia...
March 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
R Arunadevi, R Susila, S Murugammal, S Divya
BACKGROUND: Increasing popularity of Mathan Tailam (mattan tailam, pachai ennai) for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer necessitated standardization and quality control of this medicated oil both in large scale production and quality check in marketed drug. OBJECTIVE: Present study aims to develop standard operating procedure for the preparation of Mathan Tailam as per Siddha Formulary of India and its standardization using suitable analytical techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mathan Tailam was prepared as per Siddha Formulary of India...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Yan Wang, Wenbin Xu, Zixun Yan, Weili Zhao, Jianqing Mi, Junmin Li, Hua Yan
BACKGROUND: Metformin is a commonly used drug for the treatment of diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggests that it exerts anti-tumor effects in many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. METHODS: The anti-myeloma effects of metformin were evaluated using human MM cell lines (RPMI8226 and U266) in vitro and in vivo NOD-SCID murine xenograft MM model. Cell viability was assessed with CCK8 and cell proliferation was measured by EdU incorporation assay...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Raja Muhammad Rashid, Zahid Nabi, Ahmad Zaki Ansari, Quratul-Ain Qaiser
BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is primarily characterized by immune-mediated destruction of platelets in circulation. Major treatment options range from careful observation, steroids, immunosuppressive medications, immunoglobulins to splenectomy. Interestingly and rarely, ITP has also been reported after solid organ transplantation in patients receiving immunosuppressive medications. While the incidence of new onset ITP after solid organ transplant is comparatively well documented, new onset ITP after renal transplant has only been reported in two patients...
March 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Rowena M Briones, Ajit K Sarmah
Detection of metformin, an antidiabetic drug and its transformation product guanylurea in various environmental matrices such as surface water and groundwater, coupled with their effects on aquatic organisms warrant an understanding of the compounds fate and behaviour in the environment. Batch studies were conducted with the aim of evaluating the sorption of these two emerging contaminants in six New Zealand agricultural soils of contrasting physico-chemical properties. Kinetic studies revealed that metformin and guanylurea sorption in Te Kowhai soil was very rapid initially achieving 90% sorption within the first 4 and 13h, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Li-Tzy Wu, Udi E Ghitza, He Zhu, Susan Spratt, Marvin Swartz, Paolo Mannelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of the U.S. healthcare resources are utilized by a small population characterized as high-risk, high-need persons with complex care needs (e.g., adults with multiple chronic conditions). Substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health disorders (MHDs) are a driver of poor health and additional healthcare costs, but they are understudied among high-need patients. OBJECTIVE: We examine the prevalence and correlates of SUDs and MHDs among adults with high-risk diabetes, who are patients at the top 10% risk score for developing poor outcomes (hospital admission or death)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
David P Perrault, Athanasios Bramos, Xingtian Xu, Songtao Shi, Alex K Wong
Impaired healing of the skin is a notable cause of patient morbidity and mortality. In diabetic individuals, dysregulated inflammation contributes to delayed wound healing. Specific immunomodulatory agents may have a role in the treatment of diabetic wounds. One of these molecules is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.). Although interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, little is known about the local use this drug in cutaneous wound healing...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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