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Methadone and haloperidol

Magnus Saed Restan, Henrik Jensen, Xiantao Shen, Chuixiu Huang, Ørjan Grøttem Martinsen, Pavel Kubáň, Astrid Gjelstad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Different phosphate-, acetate- and formate buffers in the pH range 2.0-6.8 were tested for electromembrane extraction (EME) in a 96-well system. The five basic drugs haloperidol, loperamide, methadone, nortriptyline, and pethidine were selected as model analytes. The EME performance was tested with respect to extraction recovery, extraction current and pH-stability. The analytes were extracted from 200 μL buffer, through a 100 μm thick supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) immobilized in the pores of filters in a 96-well plate, and into 100 μL buffer acceptor phase...
September 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
John R Richards, Brent K Gordon, Aaron R Danielson, Aimee K Moulin
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis use. CHS is often resistant to standard antiemetics. The objective of this study is to review the current evidence for pharmacologic treatment of CHS. Medline, PsycINFO, DARE, OpenGrey, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to February 2017. Articles were selected and reviewed independently. Evidence was graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. The search resulted in 1262 articles with 63 of them eligible for inclusion (205 human subjects)...
June 2017: Pharmacotherapy
S Handley, M X Patel, R J Flanagan
CONTEXT: Use of second generation antipsychotics in England and Wales has increased in recent years whilst prescription of first generation antipsychotics has decreased. METHODS: To evaluate the impact of this change and of the withdrawal of thioridazine in 2000 on antipsychotic-related fatal poisoning, we reviewed all such deaths in England and Wales 1993-2013 recorded on the Office for National Statistics drug poisoning deaths database. We also reviewed antipsychotic prescribing in the community, England and Wales, 2001-2013...
July 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Enrique J Cobos, José M Baeyens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Yanyan Qiu, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
Although imidazoline I2 receptor ligands have been used as discriminative stimuli, the role of efficacy of I2 receptor ligands as a critical determinant in drug discrimination has not been explored. This study characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of selective imidazoline I2 receptor ligands BU224 (a low-efficacy I2 receptor ligand) and phenyzoline (a higher efficacy I2 receptor ligand) in rats. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 5.6mg/kg BU224 or 32mg/kg phenyzoline (i...
February 15, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
Shelley R Salpeter, Jacob S Buckley, Nicholas S Buckley, Eduardo Bruera
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the use of very-low-dose methadone with haloperidol in the acute-care setting. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 735 hospitalized patients receiving a palliative care consultation between 2011 and 2014. All patients with pain on opiates were offered conversion to methadone, 2.5 mg/day to 15 mg/day, in conjunction with scheduled haloperidol. Additional doses of haloperidol or short-acting opiates were given as needed for pain...
February 2015: Journal of Palliative Medicine
François R Girardin, Marianne Gex-Fabry, Patricia Berney, Dipen Shah, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Pierre Dayer
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to determine the prevalence of drug-induced long QT at admission to a public psychiatric hospital and to document the associated factors using a cross-sectional approach. METHOD: All ECG recordings over a 5-year period were reviewed for drug-induced long QT (heart-rate corrected QT ≥500 ms and certain or probable drug imputability) and associated conditions. Patients with drug-induced long QT (N=62) were compared with a sample of patients with normal ECG (N=143)...
December 2013: American Journal of Psychiatry
Knut Fredrik Seip, Moheba Faizi, Cristina Vergel, Astrid Gjelstad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
The current work presents a large systematic screening of 61 possible organic solvents used as supported liquid membranes (SLM) in electromembrane extraction (EME). For each organic solvent, recovery, current across the SLM, and stability considerations have been investigated and correlated to relevant solvent properties through partial least square regression analysis. The five unpolar basic drugs pethidine, haloperidol, methadone, nortriptyline, and loperamide were used as model analytes. Efficient EME solvents were found to have a low water solubility (<0...
March 2014: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Knut Fredrik Seip, Astrid Gjelstad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed from aqueous samples and from aqueous samples containing methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile. The basic drugs pethidine, haloperidol, nortriptyline, methadone and loperamide were used as model analytes. Reversed phase (C18) HPLC with UV (235 nm) and MS detection was used for analysis of the samples. With no organic solvent in the sample, maximum recoveries were obtained after 5-10 min. The maximum recoveries ranged between 83 and 95%. With 50% (v/v) methanol, ethanol, or dimethyl sulfoxide in the sample, recoveries were comparable to those from an aqueous sample, but the time required reaching maximum recovery increased to 15-25 min...
September 20, 2013: Journal of Chromatography. A
Astrid Gjelstad, Knut Einar Rasmussen, Marthe Petrine Parmer, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
BACKGROUND: This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format...
June 2013: Bioanalysis
Shelley R Salpeter, Jacob S Buckley, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Opioid dose escalation may cause hyperalgesia, mediated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) pathway. Methadone is an atypical opioid that inhibits hyperalgesia through NMDA-blockade, especially at low doses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of using very-low-dose methadone as the sole long-acting opioid agent in a hospice practice. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational study of the use of methadone, ≤15 mg daily, with as-needed short-acting opiates...
June 2013: Journal of Palliative Medicine
María D Ramos Payán, Henrik Jensen, Nickolaj Jacob Petersen, Steen Honoré Hansen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
In this work, a microfluidic-chip based system for liquid-phase microextraction (LPME-chip) was developed. Sample solutions were pumped into the LPME-chip with a micro-syringe pump at a flow rate of 3-4 μL min(-1). Inside the LPME chip, the sample was in direct contact with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) composed of 0.2 μL dodecyl acetate immobilized in the pores of a flat membrane of polypropylene (25 μm thickness). On the other side of the SLM, the acceptor phase was present. The acceptor phase was either pumped at 1 μL min(-1) during extraction or kept stagnant (stop-flow)...
July 20, 2012: Analytica Chimica Acta
Nina R O'Connor, Amy M Corcoran
The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase, and dialysis is offered to older and more medically complex patients. Pain is problematic in up to one-half of patients receiving dialysis and may result from renal and nonrenal etiologies. Opioids can be prescribed safely, but the patient's renal function must be considered when selecting a drug and when determining the dosage. Fentanyl and methadone are considered the safest opioids for use in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nonpain symptoms are common and affect quality of life...
April 1, 2012: American Family Physician
Hsin-Ya Lee, Jih-Heng Li, Li-Tzy Wu, Jin-Song Wu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Hsin-Pei Tang
BACKGROUND: Although methadone has been used for the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence for decades, it was not introduced in China or Taiwan until 2000s. Methadone-drug interactions (MDIs) have been shown to cause many adverse effects. However, such effects have not been scrutinized in the ethnic Chinese community. METHODS: The study was performed in two major hospitals in southern Taiwan. A total of 178 non-HIV patients aged ≥ 20 years who had participated in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program (MMTP) ≥ 1 month were recruited...
March 20, 2012: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Massimo Destro, Luca Ottolini, Lorenza Vicentini, Silvia Boschetti
The parenteral administration of combinations of drugs is often necessary in palliative medicine, particularly in the terminal stage of life, when patients are no longer able to take medication orally. The use of infusers to administer continuous subcutaneous infusions is a well-established practice in the palliative care setting and enables several drugs to be given simultaneously, avoiding the need for repeated administrations and the effects of peaks and troughs in the doses of medication. The method is also appreciated by patients and caregivers in the home care setting because the devices and infusion sites are easy to manage...
October 2012: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Nickolaj Jacob Petersen, Sunniva Taule Foss, Henrik Jensen, Steen Honoré Hansen, Christian Skonberg, Detlef Snakenborg, Jörg P Kutter, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Electro membrane extraction was demonstrated in a microfluidic device. The device was composed of a 25 μm thick porous polypropylene membrane bonded between two poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates, each having 50 μm deep channel structures facing the membrane. The supported liquid membrane (SLM) consisted of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) immobilized in the pores of the membrane. The driving force for the extraction was a 15 V direct current (DC) electrical potential applied across the SLM. Samples containing the basic drugs pethidine, nortriptyline, methadone, haloperidol, loperamide, and amitriptyline were used to characterize the system...
January 1, 2011: Analytical Chemistry
Tiina Sikanen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Henrik Jensen, Risto Kostiainen, Knut Einar Rasmussen, Tapio Kotiaho
In the current work, droplet-membrane-droplet liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) under totally stagnant conditions was presented for the first time. Subsequently, implementation of this concept on a microchip was demonstrated as a miniaturized, on-line sample preparation method. The performance level of the lab-on-a-chip system with integrated microextraction, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection in a single miniaturized device was preliminarily investigated and characterized...
January 25, 2010: Analytica Chimica Acta
Shu-Feng Zhou
Part I of this article discussed the potential functional importance of genetic mutations and alleles of the human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene. The impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the clearance of and response to a series of cardiovascular drugs was addressed. Since CYP2D6 plays a major role in the metabolism of a large number of other drugs, Part II of the article highlights the impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the response to other groups of clinically used drugs. Although clinical studies have observed a gene-dose effect for some tricyclic antidepressants, it is difficult to establish clear relationships of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic parameters to genetic variations of CYP2D6; therefore, dosage adjustment based on the CYP2D6 phenotype cannot be recommended at present...
2009: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Francisco López-Muñoz, Cecilio Alamo
The discovery of haloperidol at the end of the 1950s constitutes one of the greatest advances of 20th century psychiatry. This antipsychotic drug has their origin in the research process of central analgesic molecules derived from pethidine and methadone, carried out by the Belgian company Janssen Phamaceutica. After the synthesis of phenoperidine, numerous analogues of this compound were studied, and chemists at Janssen took the decision to substitute the propiophenone group for a butyrophenone group. One of these compounds went the R-1625, a stronger agent with specifically neuroleptic properties but lacking morphine-like activity...
April 29, 2009: Brain Research Bulletin
Nickolaj Jacob Petersen, Henrik Jensen, Steen Honoré Hansen, Knut Einar Rasmussen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Electromembrane extraction (EME) of basic drugs from 10 microL sample volumes was performed through an organic solvent (2-nitrophenyl octyl ether) immobilized as a supported liquid membrane (SLM) in the pores of a flat polypropylene membrane (25 microm thickness), and into 10 microL 10 mM HCl as the acceptor solution. The driving force for the extractions was 3-20 V d.c. potential sustained over the SLM. The influence of the membrane thickness, extraction time, and voltage was investigated, and a theory for the extraction kinetics is proposed...
February 27, 2009: Journal of Chromatography. A
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