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pharmacology cases

Yin Xiong, Yupiao Hu, Fan Li, Lijuan Chen, Qin Dong, Jiabo Wang, Elizabeth A Gullen, Yung-Chi Cheng, Xiaohe Xiao
BACKGROUND: Multiple constituents have been applied currently as markers to control the quality of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). However, those constituents are isolated from each other, failed to present their contribution differences to the bioeffect of CHM. Besides, a CHM for different clinic uses is often controlled by the same quality marker (Q-marker), which cannot correlate its efficacies differentially. PURPOSE: The study aims to promote the quality standard of CHM by the integrated and efficacy-oriented Q-marker of Effect-constituent Index (ECI)...
March 7, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mery Munoz-Persy, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a unique form of non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration that commonly causes dysphagia and food impaction in children and adolescents. Assessing the efficacy of dietary restrictions or drug therapies to achieve clinical and histologic resolution of EoE through randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has resulted in new evidence-based guidelines. Avoiding food triggers is the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Kresimir Radic, Marko Curkovic, Dario Bagaric, Maja Vilibic, Andrea Tomic, Maja Zivkovic
Patients with schizophrenia, nowadays chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder, get initial treatment after detection of a psychotic episode, seemingly late, potentially preventable stage of illness. As our knowledge about the nature of schizophrenia and other diseases of the spectrum is growing, so are the early interventions becoming more possible, and it is important to conceptualize the clinical, legal and moral issues emerging with new preventive treatments. Every intervention, especially in pre-clinical population, demands a careful risk-benefit assessment and having basic bioethical principles - primacy of patient's welfare, beneficience/non-maleficience, autonomy and justice - in mind...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
L Lafarge, L Bourguignon, N Bernard, T Vial, M-J Dehan-Moya, B De La Gastine, S Goutelle
Beta-blockers are widely prescribed in elderly patients and may induce severe adverse drug reactions. We report a case of bisoprolol-induced bradycardia in an elderly patient with impaired renal function and use of cytochrome P450 inhibitors. A literature review has been performed in order to analyze pharmacokinetic risk factors of beta-blockers overdosing in geriatrics. Various mechanisms can result in decreased elimination of beta-blockers. These mechanisms vary according to the beta-blocker agent and may be combined in some individuals, especially elderly patients...
March 12, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Nitin Agarwal, Georgios A Zenonos, Prateek Agarwal, Frank J Walch, Eileen Roach, Sandra J Stokes, Robert M Friedlander, Peter C Gerszten
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the neurosurgical population is still a matter of debate, as the risk-to-benefit ratio is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate the risk-to-benefit ratio of VTE prophylaxis (VTEP) for all neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: A prospective evaluation was performed after the initiation of a VTEP protocol for 11 436 patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures over 24 mo...
March 9, 2018: Neurosurgery
Eli T Newcomb, Louis P Hagopian
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) present with problem behaviour at rates disproportionately higher than their typically-developing peers. Problem behaviour, such as self-injury, aggression, pica, disruption, and elopement result in a diminished quality-of-life for the individual and family. Applied behaviour analysis has a well-established research base, detailing a number of assessment and treatment methods designed to address behaviour problems in children with ASD and ID...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Raza Aly, Tate Winter, Steve Hall, Tracey Vlahovic
Dermatophytoma is a little-known, difficult to treat fungal infection that complicates onychomycosis. First described by Roberts and Evans in the late 1990's, dermatophytoma presents as a dense concentration of fungal hyphae within or under the nail plate and is generally white or yellow/brown in color, and linear (streaks) or round (patches) in shape; primary etiologic organisms are dermatophytes. Oral antifungals have limited success in treating dermatophytoma owing to difficulties accessing and penetrating what is hypothesized to be a fungal biofilm...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Dolly A Parasrampuria, Leslie Z Benet, Amarnath Sharma
New drug development is both resource and time intensive, where later clinical stages result in significant costs. We analyze recent late-stage failures to identify drugs where failures result from inadequate scientific advances as well as drugs where we believe pitfalls could have been avoided. These can be broadly classified into two categories: 1) where science is mature and the failures can be avoided through rigorous and prospectively determined decision-making criteria, scientific curiosity, and discipline to follow up on emerging findings; and 2) where problems encountered in Phase 3 failures cannot be explained at this time, as the science is not sufficiently advanced and companies/investigators need to recognize the possibility of deficiency of our knowledge...
March 13, 2018: AAPS Journal
Peter Göttle, Anastasia Manousi, David Kremer, Laura Reiche, Hans-Peter Hartung, Patrick Küry
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which in most cases initially presents with episodes of transient functional deficits (relapsing-remitting MS; RRMS) and eventually develops into a secondary progressive form (SPMS). Aside from neuroimmunological activities, MS is also characterized by neurodegenerative and regenerative processes. The latter involve the restoration of myelin sheaths-electrically insulating structures which are the primary targets of autoimmune attacks...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yen-Feng Lee
OBJECTIVES: Pisa syndrome is characterized by lateral trunk flexion. It is an uncommon adverse drug reaction in patients on antipsychotic medication. Although Pisa syndrome has been reported in patients on antipsychotic treatment, previous studies have not discussed the prognosis of patients with Pisa syndrome. We studied psychiatric patients with Pisa syndrome following antipsychotic treatment for a 2-year period. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2014, 13 inpatients with Pisa syndrome following antipsychotic treatment were identified at our institution, from a prospectively collected database...
March 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Bo Zhang, Uyen Tran, Oliver Wessely
The development of the kidney relies on the establishment and maintenance of a precise tubular diameter of its functional units, the nephrons. This process is disrupted in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) resulting in dilations of the nephron and renal cyst formation. In the course of exploring G-protein coupled signaling in the Xenopus pronephric kidney we discovered that loss of the G-protein alpha subunit Gnas results in a PKD phenotype. Polycystin-1, one of the genes mutated in human PKD, encodes for a protein resembling a G-protein coupled receptor...
March 12, 2018: Development
D A Milder, T Y Milder, P C A Kam
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are an emerging class of oral hypoglycaemic agents with therapeutic benefits beyond better glycaemic control. A major concern of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors is their propensity to cause euglycaemic ketoacidosis in the peri-operative period and the potential for this critical diagnosis to be delayed or missed entirely. This review attempts to collate the case reports of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor ketoacidosis associated with surgery to highlight and put a perspective on this peri-operative issue...
March 12, 2018: Anaesthesia
Toy Lee, Derrick Sanderson, Paula Doyle, Gunhilde Buchsbaum
BACKGROUND: Rates of administration of intravenous sodium fluorescein during cystoscopy have increased since indigotindisulfonate sodium was removed from the market in 2014. Although sodium fluorescein has been extensively evaluated and found to be safe, side effects including anaphylaxis have been observed, with an incidence between 0.05% and 1.0%. CASE: We present a case of anaphylactic shock after administration of intravenous sodium fluorescein for the assessment of ureteral efflux in a patient with a history of frequent severe allergic reactions undergoing urethral lysis and cystoscopy for urinary retention...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Georgia Brown, Tilman Humpl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) complicates the course of many cardiovascular, pulmonary and other systemic diseases in children. The physiological sequelae (pulmonary hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance) can overwhelm the right ventricle and lead to circulatory collapse. Despite the common end-point, the preceding pathophysiology is complex and variable and requires a tailored approach to diagnosis and management. In this article, we will review the most recent evidence and explore an approach to current controversies in the diagnosis and management of common or challenging patient subgroups...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Manuel E Machado-Duque, Juan Pablo Castaño-Montoya, Diego A Medina-Morales, Alejandro Castro-Rodríguez, Alexandra González-Montoya, Jorge E Machado-Alba
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the use of anticholinergic drugs and the risk of falls with hip fracture in a population older than 60 years. METHODS: A case-control study in patients older than 60 years with a diagnosis of hip fracture. All drugs dispensed during the previous 30 days were identified. Sociodemographic, clinical, pharmacological (drugs according to the Anticholinergic Risk Scale [ARS]), and polypharmacy variables were analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Solina Tith, Garinder Bining, Laurent Bollag
Background : Opioid use during pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Buprenorphine has been recommended by "The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology" as an alternative to methadone to decrease risks associated with the use of illicit opioids during pregnancy. The partial μ-opioid agonists' unique pharmacology, including its long half time and high affinity to the μ-opioid receptor, complicates patient management in a highly kinetic, and often urgent field like obstetric anesthesia...
2018: F1000Research
Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Seow-Mun Hue, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus , is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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