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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219777/nutrition-metabolism-and-targeting-aging-in-nonhuman-primates
#1
REVIEW
Priya Balasubramanian, Julie A Mattison, Rozalyn M Anderson
This short review focuses on the importance of nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and makes the case that a targeted expansion of the use of this highly translatable model would be advantageous to the biology of aging field. First, we describe the high degree of similarity of the model in terms of aging phenotypes including incidence and prevalence of common human age-related diseases. Second, we discuss the importance of the nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and the extent to which the outcomes of two ongoing long-term studies of caloric restriction are congruent with short-term equivalent studies in humans...
February 17, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217390/management-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Giovanni Grasso, Concetta Alafaci, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 5% of strokes and carries a poor prognosis. It affects around 6 cases per 100,000 patient years occurring at a relatively young age. METHODS: Common risk factors are the same as for stroke, and only in a minority of the cases, genetic factors can be found. The overall mortality ranges from 32% to 67%, with 10-20% of patients with long-term dependence due to brain damage. An explosive headache is the most common reported symptom, although a wide spectrum of clinical disturbances can be the presenting symptoms...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216858/impact-of-scrambler-therapy-on-pain-management-and-quality-of-life-in-cancer-patients-a-study-of-twenty-cases
#3
Komal Kashyap, Saurabh Joshi, Saurabh Vig, Vishwajeet Singh, Sushma Bhatnagar
AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the effect of scrambler therapy on patients with chronic cancer pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study conducted on patients with chronic pain due to malignancy which is not responding to oral analgesics. A total of twenty patients were included in the study (ten males, ten females) with a visual analog scale score of >4 on oral analgesics. Patients aged 18-70 years with a life expectancy of >3 months having bony, neuropathic, or mixed type of pain were included in the study...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215669/new-drug-candidates-for-liposomal-delivery-identified-by-computer-modeling-of-liposomes-remote-loading-and-leakage
#4
Ahuva Cern, David Marcus, Alexander Tropsha, Yechezkel Barenholz, Amiram Goldblum
Remote drug loading into nano-liposomes is in most cases the best method for achieving high concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) per nano-liposome that enable therapeutically viable API-loaded nano-liposomes, referred to as nano-drugs. This approach also enables controlled drug release. Recently, we constructed computational models to identify APIs that can achieve the desired high concentrations in nano-liposomes by remote loading. While those previous models included a broad spectrum of experimental conditions and dealt only with loading, here we reduced the scope to the molecular characteristics alone...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214929/myeloid-cells-as-a-target-for-oligonucleotide-therapeutics-turning-obstacles-into-opportunities
#5
REVIEW
Marcin Kortylewski, Dayson Moreira
Immunotherapies emerged as an alternative for cancer treatment, yet their clinical efficacies are still limited, especially in case of solid tumors. Myeloid immune cells, such as macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), are often hijacked by tumors and become pivotal inhibitors of antitumor immunity. Immunosuppressive functions of tumor-associated myeloid cells result from the activity of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor with well-defined tumorigenic and tolerogenic roles in human cancers...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213480/a-common-genetic-variant-risk-score-is-associated-with-drug-induced-qt-prolongation-and-torsade-de-pointes-risk-a-pilot-study
#6
David G Strauss, Jose Vicente, Lars Johannesen, Ksenia Blinova, Jay W Mason, Peter Weeke, Elijah R Behr, Dan M Roden, Raymond Woosley, Gulum Kosova, Michael A Rosenberg, Christopher Newton-Cheh
Background -Drug-induced QT interval prolongation, a risk factor for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, is a potential side effect of many marketed and withdrawn medications. The contribution of common genetic variants previously associated with baseline QT interval to drug-induced QT prolongation and arrhythmias is not known. Methods -We tested the hypothesis that a weighted combination of common genetic variants contributing to QT interval at baseline, identified through genome-wide association studies, can predict individual response to multiple QT-prolonging drugs...
February 17, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210513/seizure-following-the-use-of-the-cox-2-inhibitor-etoricoxib
#7
Valentina Arnao, Marianna Riolo, Brigida Fierro, Paolo Aridon
We describe a case of epileptic seizures occurring after the use of a COX-2 inhibitor. A 61-year-old man was admitted to our department because of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. EEG showed generalized slowdown of the activity. Neuroimaging and blood samples studies did not evidence alterations, but a careful pharmacological history revealed that the patient had taken the COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib to treat lumbago few days before the onset of clinical symptoms. No seizures were reported after etoricoxib discontinuation and an EEG resulted to be normal two months after this...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210246/prospects-of-in-vivo-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids-for-the-chemical-diversification-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#8
Tobias Baumann, Jessica H Nickling, Maike Bartholomae, Andrius Buivydas, Oscar P Kuipers, Nediljko Budisa
The incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) is an elegant way for the chemical diversification of recombinantly produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Residue- and site-specific installation methods in several bacterial production hosts hold great promise for the generation of new-to-nature AMPs, and can contribute to tackle the ongoing emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Especially from a pharmacological point of view, desirable improvements span pH and protease resistance, solubility, oral availability and circulation half-life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207408/evaluation-of-cannabinoids-concentration-and-stability-in-standardized-preparations-of-cannabis-tea-and-cannabis-oil-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Roberta Pacifici, Emilia Marchei, Francesco Salvatore, Luca Guandalini, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203347/killing-two-birds-with-one-stone-successful-opioid-monotherapy-in-intractable-migraine-triggered-epilepsy-a-case-series
#10
REVIEW
Iraj Derakhshan
The novel concept explored in this case series is the primacy of headaches in generating seizures in those patients who suffer from migraine-triggered epilepsy. In this series, once the migraine headaches were fully suppressed, via daily scheduled opioid therapy, the seizures also stopped. Seizures returned, however, after the patients stopped the opiate regimen for any reason. The above pharmacological scenario is reminiscent of a similar but naturalistic course of events reported on the salutary effects of ketogenic diet, or changes in life style, in similar cases of migraine-triggered epilepsy...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203283/current-and-emergent-pharmacologic-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-evidence-based-treatment-in-practice
#11
REVIEW
Susan Lucak, Lin Chang, Albena Halpert, Lucinda A Harris
Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is a common, chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms that can be distressing for patients and often result in substantially impaired quality of life. This review focuses on providing clinicians with information on practical, evidence-based treatment for IBS-D. Current therapies commonly used for the treatment of IBS-D, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, are briefly reviewed, followed by discussion of the emergent pharmacologic treatments (rifaximin and eluxadoline) and medical foods (IBgard(®) and EnteraGam(®))...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202657/deciphering-the-ras-erk-pathway-in-vivo
#12
REVIEW
Coralie Dorard, Georg Vucak, Manuela Baccarini
The RAS/ERK pathway has been intensely studied for about three decades, not least because of its role in human pathologies. ERK activation is observed in the majority of human cancers; in about one-third of them, it is driven by mutational activation of pathway components. The pathway is arguably one of the best targets for molecule-based pharmacological intervention, and several small-molecule inhibitors are in clinical use. Genetically engineered mouse models have greatly contributed to our understanding of signaling pathways in development, tissue homeostasis, and disease...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201966/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-mutual-prodrugs-of-carboxylic-group-containing-some-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-propyphenazone
#13
Sucheta Ohlan, Meenu Paliwal, Ruchita Ruchita, Shilpa Jain, Monika Monika, Himanshu Himanshu
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); ketorolac (KA), niflumic acid (NA), tolfenamic acid (TA) were conjugated with propyphenazone derivative 3-Hydroxymethyl propyphenazone (HMP) by direct coupling and by using spacer technique with the objective of obtaining gastro-sparing NSAIDs prodrugs devoid of ulcerogenic side effects. Mutual prodrugs were synthesized and their structures were confirmed and characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy and their purity was established by elemental analysis...
February 13, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199917/desomorphine-krokodil-an-overview-of-its-chemistry-pharmacology-metabolism-toxicology-and-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Diego Hernando Ângulo Florez, Ana Maria Dos Santos Moreira, Pedro Rafael da Silva, Ricardo Brandão, Marcella Matos Cordeiro Borges, Fernando José Malagueño de Santana, Keyller Bastos Borges
BACKGROUND: "Krokodil" or "Crocodile" is an illegal homemade desomorphine drug obtained from chemical reactions of commercial codeine drugs with several other powerful and highly toxic chemical agents increasing its addiction and hallucinogenic effects when compared with other morphine analogues. METHODS: This paper summarizes a complete review about an old drug called desomorphine (Krokodil), presenting its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192788/metabolic-gatekeeper-function-of-b-lymphoid-transcription-factors
#15
Lai N Chan, Zhengshan Chen, Daniel Braas, Jae-Woong Lee, Gang Xiao, Huimin Geng, Kadriye Nehir Cosgun, Christian Hurtz, Seyedmehdi Shojaee, Valeria Cazzaniga, Hilde Schjerven, Thomas Ernst, Andreas Hochhaus, Steven M Kornblau, Marina Konopleva, Miles A Pufall, Giovanni Cazzaniga, Grace J Liu, Thomas A Milne, H Phillip Koeffler, Theodora S Ross, Isidro Sánchez-García, Arndt Borkhardt, Keith R Yamamoto, Ross A Dickins, Thomas G Graeber, Markus Müschen
B-lymphoid transcription factors, such as PAX5 and IKZF1, are critical for early B-cell development, yet lesions of the genes encoding these transcription factors occur in over 80% of cases of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The importance of these lesions in ALL has, until now, remained unclear. Here, by combining studies using chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing and RNA sequencing, we identify a novel B-lymphoid program for transcriptional repression of glucose and energy supply...
February 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192466/descriptive-study-of-plant-resources-in-the-context-of-the-ethnomedicinal-relevance-of-indigenous-flora-a-case-study-from-toli-peer-national-park-azad-jammu-and-kashmir-pakistan
#16
Muhammad Shoaib Amjad, Mirza Faisal Qaeem, Israr Ahmad, Sami Ullah Khan, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari, Nafeesa Zahid Malik, Humaira Shaheen, Arshad Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of the flora in Toli Peer National Park of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Being a remote area, there is a strong dependence by local people on ethnobotanical practices. Thus, we attempted to record the folk uses of the native plants of the area with a view to acknowledging and documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge. The aims of the study were to compile an inventory of the medicinal plants in the study area and to record the methods by which herbal drugs were prepared and administered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192423/elucidation-of-molecular-kinetic-schemes-from-macroscopic-traces-using-system-identification
#17
Miguel Fribourg, Diomedes E Logothetis, Javier González-Maeso, Stuart C Sealfon, Belén Galocha-Iragüen, Fernando Las-Heras Andrés, Vladimir Brezina
Overall cellular responses to biologically-relevant stimuli are mediated by networks of simpler lower-level processes. Although information about some of these processes can now be obtained by visualizing and recording events at the molecular level, this is still possible only in especially favorable cases. Therefore the development of methods to extract the dynamics and relationships between the different lower-level (microscopic) processes from the overall (macroscopic) response remains a crucial challenge in the understanding of many aspects of physiology...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191476/pharmacological-treatments-of-presbyopia-a-review-of-modern-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Antonio Renna, Jorge Luciano Alió, Luis Felipe Vejarano
INTRODUCTION: Presbyopia affects people from the 4(th) decade of life and is characterized by accommodative loss that leads to negative effects on vision-targeted health-related quality of life. A non-invasive pharmacological treatment providing near-lenses independence would be a truly groundbreaking approach in the treatment of presbyopia. The purpose of this review is to analyze the emerging pharmacological solutions proposed to address presbyopia. RESULTS: Several ophthalmic eye drops compounds solutions have been described in peer-reviewed papers or presented in ophthalmological tabloids and congresses...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190698/therapeutic-effects-of-cannabinoids-in-animal-models-of-seizures-epilepsy-epileptogenesis-and-epilepsy-related-neuroprotection
#19
REVIEW
Evan C Rosenberg, Pabitra H Patra, Benjamin J Whalley
The isolation and identification of the discrete plant cannabinoids in marijuana revived interest in analyzing historical therapeutic claims made for cannabis in clinical case studies and anecdotes. In particular, sources as old as the 11th and 15th centuries claimed efficacy for crude marijuana extracts in the treatment of convulsive disorders, prompting a particularly active area of preclinical research into the therapeutic potential of plant cannabinoids in epilepsy. Since that time, a large body of literature has accumulated describing the effects of several of the >100 individual plant cannabinoids in preclinical models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188165/indomethacin-therapy-effective-in-a-patient-with-depletion-syndrome-from-secretory-villous-adenoma
#20
Matthew David Kagan, Kara Schmidt, Gurtej Sangha
This paper details the case of a 26-year-old woman with depletion syndrome and the effectiveness of her treatment with indomethacin. Villous adenomas are benign neoplasms with a high incidence of becoming malignant. A small percentage of villous adenomas are known to cause depletion syndrome, also referred to as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, a condition characterised by secretory diarrhoea, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalaemia, hypochloraemia, metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Prostaglandin-E2 mediates the hypersecretion mechanism observed in depletion syndrome, and can be inhibited by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors...
February 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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