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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829237/comparative-ultrastructural-hepatic-alterations-induced-by-free-and-liposome-encapsulated-mefenamic-acid
#1
Qais Bashir Jarrar, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria
Mefenamic acid (MFA) is used as an anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic agent for treatment of a wide range of pathological disorders. While the uncertainty of its safety and the poor oral bioavailability constitute the major limiting factors of its medical use, considerable efforts including liposomal encapsulation are needed to achieve maximum therapeutic advantages. The current work was conducted to investigate the ultrastructural alterations in the liver induced by free MFA and its liposomal preparation...
September 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828711/does-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-reliably-stage-hepatic-fibrosis-steatosis-and-inflammation
#2
Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Paul Territo, Reem M Elkady, Yuning Lin, Pauley Gasparis, Gitasree Borthakur, Chen Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in determining the severity of hepatic fibrosis, steatosis, and inflammation in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: Forty-nine patients who had liver MRI with IVIM sequence and liver biopsy within three months of MRI were enrolled. A reviewer, blinded to histology, placed regions of interest of 1-2 cm(2) in the right liver lobe. In addition, the first twenty patients were assessed with a second reviewer...
August 21, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827783/ccdc3-a-new-p63-target-involved-in-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#3
Wenjuan Liao, Hongbing Liu, Yiwei Zhang, Ji Hoon Jung, Jiaxiang Chen, Xiaohua Su, Yeong C Kim, Elsa R Flores, San Ming Wang, Malwina Czarny-Ratajczak, Wen Li, Shelya X Zeng, Hua Lu
TAp63, a member of the p53 family, has been shown to regulate energy metabolism. Here, we report coiled coil domain-containing 3 (CCDC3) as a new TAp63 target. TAp63, but not ΔNp63, p53 or p73, upregulates CCDC3 expression by directly binding to its enhancer region. The CCDC3 expression is markedly reduced in TAp63-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and brown adipose tissues and by tumor necrosis factor alpha that reduces p63 transcriptional activity, but induced by metformin, an anti-diabetic drug that activates p63...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821635/enzyme-replacement-prevents-neonatal-death-liver-damage-and-osteoporosis-in-murine-homocystinuria
#4
Tomas Majtan, Helena Hůlková, Insun Park, Jakub Krijt, Viktor Kožich, Erez M Bublil, Jan P Kraus
Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is an inborn error of sulfur amino acid metabolism caused by deficient activity of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), resulting in an accumulation of homocysteine and a concomitant decrease of cystathionine and cysteine in blood and tissues. In mice, the complete lack of CBS is neonatal lethal. In this study, newborn CBS knockout (KO) mice were treated with recombinant polyethyleneglycolylated human truncated CBS (PEG-CBS). Full survival of the treated KO mice, along with a positive impact on metabolite levels in plasma, liver, brain, and kidneys, was observed...
August 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821440/apelin-protects-against-liver-x-receptor-mediated-steatosis-through-ampk-and-ppar%C3%AE-in-human-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#5
Jin Huang, Saeromi Kang, Soo-Jin Park, Dong-Soon Im
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis, a condition defined as extensive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, is associated with liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases, such as, obesity and type II diabetes. Apelin is an adipokine that acts on a G protein-coupled receptor named APJ, and has been established to play pivotal roles in various physiological conditions. However, the function of apelin in hepatocytes has not been fully investigated...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821316/obesity-and-fatty-liver-are-prevented-by-inhibition-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-both-female-and-male-mice
#6
Benjamin J Moyer, Itzel Y Rojas, Joanna S Kerley-Hamilton, Krishnamurthy V Nemani, Heidi W Trask, Carol S Ringelberg, Barjor Gimi, Eugene Demidenko, Craig R Tomlinson
Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) prevents Western diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in C57Bl/6J (B6) male mice. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and T-cell differentiation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AHR antagonism would also prevent obesity and fatty liver in female mice and that B6 mice (higher-affinity AHR) and congenic B6.D2 mice (lower-affinity AHR) would differentially respond to AHR inhibition. Female and male adult B6 and B6...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820612/the-potential-of-signal-peptide-peptidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-hepatitis-c
#7
Kohji Moriishi
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver steatosis, cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome with inflammation, and eventually leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV core protein is a well-known capsid protein and pathogenic factor related to lipid accumulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and carcinogenesis. Cleavage of the C-terminal transmembrane region by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is required for maturation of the core protein. Areas covered: Herein, this review details the general aspects of the structure, lifecycle, pathogenesis, and maturation of the HCV core protein, the function of SPP, and clinically available direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820447/comprehensive-study-of-multiple-stages-progressing-to-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-subsequent-fibrosis-in-sd-rats
#8
Lulu Wang, Susu Wu, Minxuan Cai, Ji Ma, Shengcun Li, Maoru Li, Yan Xu, Lixin Wei, Jing Shang
Because of the absence of the time course of histological nonalcoholic fatty hepatitis with subsequent fibrotic progression, the effective approaches available for controlling the onset and progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain limited. Therefore, we detected the serum and liver tissue related lipid metabolism disorder, liver pathology and relative molecular makers alteration dynamically in a high fat-sucrose diet during different time points. High fat-sucrose diet significantly increased the serum lipid level on day 10...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820393/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-omentin-1-hepatic-mrna-expression-and-serum-levels-in-morbidly-obese-women-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
M Waluga, M Kukla, M Zorniak, M Kajor, L Liszka, M Dyaczynski, G Kowalski, D Zadlo, E Waluga, P Olczyk, R J Buldak, A Berdowska, M Hartleb
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and omentin-1 have been recognized as potent antidiabetic agents with potential hepatoprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression as well as their serum levels as predictive markers of liver injury and insulin resistance in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 56 severely obese women who underwent intraoperative wedge liver biopsy during the bariatric surgery. Hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while their serum concentrations were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817690/resveratrol-and-caloric-restriction-prevent-hepatic-steatosis-by-regulating-sirt1-autophagy-pathway-and-alleviating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#10
Shibin Ding, Jinjin Jiang, Guofu Zhang, Yongjun Bu, Guanghui Zhang, Xiangmei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814531/patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-have-a-low-response-rate-to-vitamin-d-supplementation
#11
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Rony Varghese, Abram Feldman, Amer Khiyami, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation are conflicting.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D.Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <30 ng/mL)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813448/a-prospective-comparative-assessment-of-the-accuracy-of-the-fibroscan-in-evaluating-liver-steatosis
#12
Baek Gyu Jun, Won Young Park, Eui Ju Park, Jae Young Jang, Soung Won Jeong, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Sang-Woo Cha, Young Seok Kim, Young Deok Cho, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim, So Young Jin, Suyeon Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of the FibroScan® device in diagnosing liver steatosis, but its usefulness has not been thoroughly appraised. We investigated the usefulness of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in detecting and quantifying liver steatosis. METHODS: A prospective analysis was applied to 79 chronic liver disease patients who underwent a liver biopsy, a FibroScan investigation, ultrasonography, and hepatic steatosis index (HSI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812326/effect-of-dietary-components-from-antarctic-krill-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#13
Cinzia Parolini, Bodil Bjorndal, Marco Busnelli, Stefano Manzini, Giulia S Ganzetti, Federica Dellera, Marie Ramsvik, Inge Bruheim, Rolf Kristian Berge, Giulia Chiesa
SCOPE: Antarctic krill is a great source of n-3 fatty acids and high-quality proteins. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Antarctic krill components on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty apoEKO mice were divided into four groups and fed Western diet (CONTROL) or Western-like diets, differing for protein or fat content. Specifically, casein or fat in CONTROL was partially replaced by krill proteins (PRO), krill oil (KRILL OIL), or both (KRILL OIL+PRO)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811860/the-apelin-receptor-apj-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-progenitor-cells-in-the-early-stage-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Wataru Ando, Hiroaki Yokomori, Katsuya Otori, Masaya Oda
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation with or without fibrosis. The apelin receptor (APJ) is related to angiotensin-like-receptor 1 (AGTRL1). The present study aimed to evaluate APJ as an indicator of the pathophysiology of early-stage NASH. METHODS: APJ expression was evaluated in six tissue samples with histologically proven early-stage NASH using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811651/inkt-cells-prevent-obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-in-a-c-c-chemokine-receptor-7-dependent-manner
#15
H M Kim, R Lee, E S Lee, M H Kwon, J H Huh, B-E Kwon, E-K Park, S-Y Chang, M-N Kweon, P-H Kim, H-J Ko, C H Chung
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride content with infiltration of immune cells, which can cause steatohepatitis and hepatic insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is primarily expressed in immune cells, and CCR7 deficiency leads to the development of multi-organ autoimmunity, chronic renal disease, and autoimmune diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of CCR7 on hepatic steatosis in a mouse model and its underlying mechanism...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#16
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811292/dapagliflozin-slows-the-progression-of-the-renal-and-liver-fibrosis-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Li Tang, Yuanyuan Wu, Mi Tian, C David Sjostrom, Ulrika Johansson, Xiao-Rong Peng, David M Smith, Yufeng Huang
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic oral agents indicating promising effects on cardiovascular and renal end points. However, the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are not fully understood. Also, metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibition on other organ systems such as effects on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. This study sought to address these questions by treating 18week-old uninephrectomized db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811064/evaluation-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-elastography-in-rat-models
#18
Yanrong Guo, Changfeng Dong, Haoming Lin, Xinyu Zhang, Huiying Wen, Yuanyuan Shen, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Yingxia Liu, Xin Chen
The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for assessing hepatic fibrosis stage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, as well as the relationship among hepatic histologic changes using shear wave velocity (SWV). Animal models with various degrees of NAFLD were established in 110 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution (porcine skin). Liver mechanics were measured using SWV induced by acoustic radiation force...
August 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809727/models-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-potential-translational-value-the-effects-of-3-5-l-diiodothyronine
#19
Elena Grasselli, Laura Canesi, Piero Portincasa, Adriana Voci, Laura Vergani, Ilaria Demori
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in industrialized countries and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic diseases. Molecular mechanisms on the root of the disrupted lipid homeostasis in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies can benefit of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of fatty liver. Here, we describe the high fat diet (HFD)-fed rat in vivo model, and two in vitro models, the primary cultured rat fatty hepatocytes or the FaO rat hepatoma fatty cells, mimicking human NAFLD...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808064/obesity-and-aging-diminish-sirt1-mediated-deacetylation-of-sirt3-leading-to-hyperacetylation-and-decreased-activity-and-stability-of-sirt3
#20
Sanghoon Kwon, Sunmi Seok, Peter Yau, Xiaoling Li, Byron Kemper, Jongsook Kim Kemper
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) deacetylates and regulates many mitochondrial proteins to maintain health, but its functions are depressed in aging and obesity. The best-studied sirtuin, SIRT1, counteracts aging- and obesity-related diseases by deacetylating many proteins, but whether SIRT1 has a role in deacetylating and altering the function of SIRT3 is unknown. Here we show that SIRT3 is reversibly acetylated in the mitochondria and unexpectedly is a target of SIRT1 deacetylation. SIRT3 is hyperacetylated in aged and obese mice, in which SIRT1 activity is low, and SIRT3 acetylation at K57 inhibits its deacetylase activity and promotes protein degradation...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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