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liver steatosis

S Oliveira, A K Samba, A J Towbin, A Gupta, J I Geller, J D Nathan, R Kohli
: Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign tumours with potential for malignant transformation with no recommendations regarding management in the paediatric population. We report a case of an inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathway in an obese, paediatric patient with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old female presented with a microlobulated liver lesion measuring >5 cm in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathology arising in a background of NASH, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score 5/8...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Louise Barbier, Manuela Cesaretti, Federica Dondero, François Cauchy, Linda Khoy-Ear, Takeshi Aoyagi, Emmanuel Weiss, Olivier Roux, Safi Dokmak, Claire Francoz, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Ailton Sepulveda, Jacques Belghiti, François Durand, Olivier Soubrane
BACKGROUND: Older liver grafts have been considered in the past decade due to organ shortage. The aim was to compare outcomes after liver transplantation with either younger or older donors. METHODS: Patients transplanted in our center between 2004 and 2014 with younger donors (younger than 60 years; n = 253) were compared with older donors (older than 75 years; n = 157). Multiorgan transplantations, split grafts, or non-heart-beating donors were not included. RESULTS: Donors in the older group were mostly women deceased from stroke, and only 3 patients had experienced cardiac arrest...
November 2016: Transplantation
Michael Pavlides, Rajarshi Banerjee, Elizabeth M Tunnicliffe, Catherine Kelly, Jane Collier, Lai Mun Wang, Kenneth A Fleming, Jeremy F Cobbold, Matthew D Robson, Stefan Neubauer, Eleanor Barnes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis staging are central to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) assessment. We evaluated multi-parametric magnetic resonance (MR) in the assessment of NASH and fibrosis using histology as standard in NAFLD. METHODS: Seventy one patients with suspected NAFLD were recruited within one month of liver biopsy. MR data were used to define the liver inflammation and fibrosis score (LIF 0-4)...
October 25, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
S Sookoian, D Flichman, G O Castaño, C J Pirola
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies suggest that patients diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who drink light to moderate amounts of alcohol (up to ~30 g per day) have less severe histological lesions compared with nondrinkers. However, while the cross-sectional nature of current evidence precludes assessment of causality, cumulative lifetime-exposure of moderate alcohol consumption on histological outcomes has never been evaluated. AIM: To overcome these limitations, a Mendelian randomisation study was performed using a validated genetic variant (rs1229984 A;G) in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) gene as a proxy of long-term alcohol exposure...
October 24, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Habeeb Salameh, Muhannad Al Hanayneh, Maen Masadeh, Mohammed Naseemuddin, Tasnia Matin, Angelika Erwin, Ashwani K Singal
Background and Aims:Patatin-like phospholipase domain protein 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms (rs738409 C>G) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms with the spectrum and severity of this disease. Methods: Studies evaluating the association between the PNPLA3 polymorphism spectrum (fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and NAFLD were included. Pooled data are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Lucia Russo, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Qusai Y Al-Share, Zachary N Smiley, Cara Gatto-Weis, Emily L Esakov, Marcia F McInerney, Garrett Heinrich, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Sonia M Najjar
Carcinoembryonic-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance and mediating suppression of fatty acid synthase activity. Feeding C57BL/6J male mice with a high-fat diet for 3-4 weeks triggered a >60% decrease in hepatic CEACAM1 levels to subsequently impair insulin clearance and cause systemic insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. This study aimed at investigating whether lipolysis drives reduction in hepatic CEACAM1 and whether this constitutes a key mechanism leading to diet-induced metabolic abnormalities...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Ryoko Tajima, Takeshi Kimura, Ayaka Enomoto, Kaede Yanoshita, Aki Saito, Satomi Kobayashi, Katsunori Masuda, Kaoruko Iida
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through lifestyle modification is an important public health issue. Carbohydrate intake from soft drinks has received particular interest. Owing to differences in dietary habits, however, major contributors to the intake of dietary carbohydrates, such as rice, bread, and noodles, might have more influence on NAFLD prevalence in East Asian countries than consumption of soft drinks. We examined the relationship of the intake of rice, bread, and noodles, as well as overall carbohydrate intake, with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Marlies Bekaert, D Margriet Ouwens, Tina Hörbelt, Frederique Van de Velde, Pia Fahlbusch, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Patrick Calders, Marleen Praet, Anne Hoorens, Anja Geerts, Xavier Verhelst, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether circulating levels and/or visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expression of recently described adipokines associate with histopathological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), independent of obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: Serum levels of adiponectin, omentin, chemerin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 81 patients with obesity and NAFLD and 18 lean control subjects...
October 21, 2016: Obesity
Kwang-Youn Kim, Hyun-Jun Jang, Yong Ryul Yang, Kwang-Il Park, JeongKon Seo, Il-Woo Shin, Tae-Il Jeon, Soon-Cheol Ahn, Pann-Ghill Suh, Timothy F Osborne, Young-Kyo Seo
Dysregulated autophagy is associated with steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however the mechanisms connecting them remain poorly understand. Here, we show that co-administration of lovastatin and ezetimibe (L/E) significantly reverses hepatic triglyceride accumulation concomitant with an increase in SREBP-2 driven autophagy in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We further show that the statin mediated increase in SREBP-2 directly activates expression of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing enzyme 8 (PNPLA8) gene, and PNPLA8 associates with autophagosomes and is associated with a decrease in cellular triglyceride...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Isabel Huang-Doran, Patsy Tomlinson, Felicity Payne, Alexandra Gast, Alison Sleigh, William Bottomley, Julie Harris, Allan Daly, Nuno Rocha, Simon Rudge, Jonathan Clark, Albert Kwok, Stefano Romeo, Emma McCann, Barbara Müksch, Mehul Dattani, Stefano Zucchini, Michael Wakelam, Lazaros C Foukas, David B Savage, Rinki Murphy, Stephen O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Robert K Semple
Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Han-Sol Park, Jung Eun Jang, Myoung Seok Ko, Sung Hoon Woo, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Sik Kim, Hye Sun Park, In-Sun Park, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Zi Lin, Zheng-Feng Wu, Cui-Hua Jiang, Qing-Wen Zhang, Sheng Ouyang, Chun-Tao Che, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis (HS) is the early stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which is caused by impaired hepatic lipid homeostasis. Cyclocarya paliurus, an herbal tea consumed in China, has been demonstrated to ameliorate abnormal lipid metabolism for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the regulative effect of chloroform extract from Cyclocarya paliurus (ChE) on treatment of HS, as well as key factors involved in hepatic lipid metabolism...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Su Jin Lee, Jeong Han Kang, Da Eun Lee, Min Jeong Nam, Hyun-Shik Lee, Oh-Shin Kwon
Chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic steatosis, which is characterized by a considerable increase in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride levels. To identify the possible proteins involved in the progression to alcoholic hepatosteatosis, we performed proteomic analysis on livers of mice exposed to alcohol. 2D-based proteomic analysis revealed that EtOH exposure in mice changed the expression of 43 proteins compared with that in mice fed a normal diet (ND). The most notable protein changes were proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in alcohol-exposed animals...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Ryan D Sheldon, Kayla M Kanosky, Kevin D Wells, Lili Miles, James W Perfield, Stavra Xanthakos, Thomas H Inge, R Scott Rector
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms responsible for progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to steatohepatitis (NASH) remain poorly defined. METHODS: To examine the potential contribution of adipose tissue to NAFLD progression, we performed a complete transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAT) from severely obese adolescents (Mage 16.9±0.4 yrs; BMI z-score 2.7±0.1) undergoing bariatric surgery and liver biopsy categorized into 3 groups; No steatosis (Normal, n=8), steatosis only (n=13), or NASH (n=10) by liver histology...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Yadira Ansoar-Rodríguez, Cintya A Christofoletti, Jorge E Correia, Raphael B de Souza, Cristina Moreira-de-Sousa, Ana Claudia de Castro Marcato, Odair C Bueno, Osmar Malaspina, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Carmem S Fontanetti
Liver is very sensitive to environmental contaminants such as pesticides, it being the first target of toxicity of a substance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effects of the insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) on the liver of Oreochromis niloticus according concentrations used for growing sugarcane. A semi-quantitative analysis of histopathological alterations of IMI on liver was performed by light microscopy and cellular labeling of heat shock proteins (HSP70) by immunohistochemistry...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Bonglee Kim, Moon-Jea Woo, Chul-Soo Park, Sang-Hun Lee, Jin-Soo Kim, Boim Kim, Seho An, Sung-Hoon Kim
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (HDT) was known to have anti-fatigue, anti-diabetes, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-fatty liver mechanism of HDT was elucidated in oleic acid (OA)-treated Hep G2 cells and acute hyperlipidemia mouse model using Triton WR-1339. Here, HDT activated p-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), proliferator activated receptor-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase and also inhibited the expression of lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis proteins, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, SREBP-2, and fatty acid synthase in OA-treated Hep G2 cells...
October 20, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Suganya Venkateshan, Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Velmurugan Chinnasamy, Sarath Chandiran
OBJECTIVE: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Shahab-Aldin Akbarian, Sedigheh Asgary, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj, Gholamreza Askari
BACKGROUND: Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. METHODS: All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
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