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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933759/lactic-acid-bacteria-and-their-bacteriocins-classification-biosynthesis-and-applications-against-uropathogens-a-mini-review
#1
REVIEW
Mduduzi Paul Mokoena
Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from the Lactobacillus genera have been applied in food preservation, partly due to their antimicrobial properties. Their application in the control of human pathogens holds promise provided appropriate strains are scientifically chosen and a suitable mode of delivery is utilized. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a global problem, affecting mainly diabetic patients and women. Many uropathogens are developing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. There is a need for more research on the ability of LAB to inhibit uropathogens, with a view to apply them in clinical settings, while adhering to strict selection guidelines in the choice of candidate LAB...
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927408/paramedical-staffs-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-antimicrobial-resistance-in-dire-dawa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Belay Tafa, Adugna Endale, Desalegn Bekele
BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence, development and spread of pathogenic organisms that are resistant to antimicrobials are a cause of increasing concern. The control of antimicrobial resistance requires knowledge of factors causing antimicrobial resistance, good attitudes towards the intervention strategies as well as changes in antibiotic prescribing behavior of health workers. Hence, this study was aimed to assess paramedical staffs' knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance and their antibiotics prescription practices in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883911/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-formation-among-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-clinical-samples-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-nepal
#3
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
BACKGROUND: Coagulase negative staphylococci were long regarded non-pathogenic as they are the commensals of human skin and mucosa but the recent changes in the medical practice and changes in underlying host populations, they are being considered significant pathogens associated with number of nosocomial infections. The objective of the study was to determine the species, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biofilm forming ability of the clinically significant CoNS isolates and to compare the different methods for the detection of biofilm formation...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820687/identification-of-subsets-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-associated-with-diarrheal-disease-among-under-5-year-old-children-from-rural-gambia
#4
Usman N Ikumapayi, Nadia Boisen, Mohammad J Hossain, Modupeh Betts, Modou Lamin, Debasish Saha, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Michel Dione, Richard A Adegbola, Anna Roca, James P Nataro, Martin Antonio
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814444/implementing-an-inpatient-pediatric-prospective-audit-and-feedback-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-within-a-larger-medical-center
#5
Jennifer Lighter-Fisher, Sonya Desai, Anna Stachel, Vinh Philip Pham, Liana Klejmont, Yanina Dubrovskaya
BACKGROUND: Pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) within larger institutions have unique opportunities to develop programs specialized to the needs of the pediatric program. In January 2013, our institution established a formalized pediatric ASP utilizing the prospective audit and feedback process. In an effort to standardize therapy and improve quality of care, members of the ASP developed evidence-based guidelines for management of common inpatient pediatric infections...
September 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745260/implementation-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#7
Nneka I Nzegwu, Michelle R Rychalsky, Loren A Nallu, Xuemei Song, Yanhong Deng, Amber M Natusch, Robert S Baltimore, George R Paci, Matthew J Bizzarro
OBJECTIVE To evaluate antimicrobial utilization and prescription practices in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). DESIGN Quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series study. SETTING A 54-bed, level IV NICU in a regional academic and tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS All neonates prescribed antimicrobials from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016, were eligible for inclusion. INTERVENTION Implementation of a NICU-specific ASP beginning July 2012...
July 26, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726037/can-a-collaborative-subspecialty-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-have-lasting-effects
#8
Kaushal B Shah, Ramzy H Rimawi, Mark A Mazer, Paul P Cook
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated the benefit of direct, daily collaboration between infectious disease (ID) and critical care practitioners (CCP) on guideline adherence and antibiotic use in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). In this post-intervention review, we sought to establish whether the effect on antibiotic use and guideline adherence was sustainable. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 87 patients, admitted to the 24-bed MICU, was done 3 (n = 45) and 6 months (n = 42) after the intervention...
July 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722481/clinical-management-of-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-part-i-psychiatric-and-behavioral-interventions
#9
Margo Thienemann, Tanya Murphy, James Leckman, Richard Shaw, Kyle Williams, Cynthia Kapphahn, Jennifer Frankovich, Daniel Geller, Gail Bernstein, Kiki Chang, Josephine Elia, Susan Swedo
OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). METHODS: Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms...
September 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665084/an-audit-of-empiric-antibiotic-choice-in-the-inpatient-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#10
F Delaney, A Jackson
Adherence to antimicrobial guidelines for empiric antibiotic prescribing in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been reported to be worryingly low. We conducted a review of empiric antibiotic prescribing for sixty consecutive adult patients admitted to the Mercy University Hospital with a diagnosis of CAP. When analysed against local antimicrobial guidelines, guideline concordant empiric antibiotics were given in only 48% of cases, lower than the average rate in comparable studies. Concordance was 100% in cases where the CURB-65 pneumonia severity assessment score, on which the guidelines are based, was documented in the medical notes...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629754/improving-compliance-with-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-guidelines-a-multicenter-evaluation
#11
Cristiane Schmitt, Rubia Aparecida Lacerda, Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini, Maria Clara Padoveze
BACKGROUND: Improving surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) use is an important element in the control of antimicrobial resistance. However, compliance with SAP guidelines is unsatisfactory. This study investigated the level of compliance with SAP guidelines in neurosurgery, and institutional characteristics associated with compliance. METHODS: This study assessed surgeries in 9 Brazilian hospitals. Medical record reviews and a structured questionnaire were used to assess compliance and to describe institutional characteristics...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622340/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-surgical-site-infections-as-a-risk-factor-for-infection-with-clostridium-difficile
#12
Aubrey Balch, Aaron M Wendelboe, Sara K Vesely, Dale W Bratzler
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the association between 2013 guideline concordant prophylactic antibiotic use prior to surgery and infection with Clostridium difficile. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective case-control study by selecting patients who underwent a surgical procedure between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013. SETTING: Large urban community hospital. PATIENTS: Cases and controls were patients age 18+ years who underwent an eligible surgery (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580893/appropriateness-of-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-patients-in-italy
#13
Mariavalentina Giordano, Lorena Squillace, Maria Pavia
OBJECTIVES Appropriate use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) reduces intraoperative wound contamination in pediatric surgery, thus minimizing the risk of surgical site infection (SSIs). Conversely, inappropriate use of SAP exposes patients to the risk of antibiotic side effects and contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Our aims were to describe SAP administration and to analyze factors associated with nonadherence in pediatric patients. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Overall, 955 pediatric patients underwent 1,038 surgical procedures...
June 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577933/impact-of-selective-reporting-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-test-results-on-the-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-chosen-by-french-general-practitioners-in-urinary-tract-infections-a-randomised-controlled-case-vignette-study
#14
Loic Bourdellon, Nathalie Thilly, Sébastien Fougnot, Céline Pulcini, Sandrine Henard
Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general practitioners for urinary tract infections (UTIs). A randomised controlled case-vignette study in a region of northeast France surveyed general practitioners between July and October 2015 on treatment of four clinical cases of community-acquired Escherichia coli UTIs (two cases of complicated cystitis, one of acute pyelonephritis and one male UTI)...
August 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566116/adherence-to-local-antimicrobial-guidelines-for-initial-treatment-of-community-acquired-infections
#15
Trine Langfeldt Hagen, Mathias Amdi Hertz, Gábor Balázs Uhrin, Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Henrik Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Adherence to antimicrobial guidelines is key to ensuring a correct treatment of severe infections and to lessening misuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study at the Emergency Department of Aalborg University Hospital, North Denmark Region. Our aim was to examine adherence to local antimicrobial guidelines in the empirical treatment of community-acquired infections and to identity any predictors of guideline non-adherence. METHODS: We identified 1,555 patients who had blood cultures performed and were admitted to the medical emergency department in 2016...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526836/characterisation-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-danish-general-practice-a-retrospective-registry-based-cohort-study
#16
Rune Aabenhus, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Laura Trolle Saust, Lars Bjerrum
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice...
May 19, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524255/enablers-and-barriers-to-the-use-of-antibiotic-guidelines-in-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-qualitative-study-of-clinicians-perspectives
#17
Antoine Sedrak, Mahesan Anpalahan, Karen Luetsch
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition and a number of guidelines have been developed for its assessment and treatment. Adherence to guidelines by clinicians varies and particularly the prescribing of antibiotics often remains suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate potential barriers and enablers to the adherence to antibiotic guidelines by clinicians treating CAP in an Australian hospital. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively recruited senior prescribers who regularly treat CAP in an Australian hospital...
June 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516494/recommendations-for-approaches-to-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcal-infections-of-small-animals-diagnosis-therapeutic-considerations-and-preventative-measures-clinical-consensus-guidelines-of-the-world-association-for-veterinary-dermatology
#18
REVIEW
Daniel O Morris, Anette Loeffler, Meghan F Davis, Luca Guardabassi, J Scott Weese
BACKGROUND: Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in staphylococci, including resistance to the semi-synthetic penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as meticillin, is a problem of global proportions that presents serious challenges to the successful treatment of staphylococcal infections of companion animals. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to provide harmonized recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in dogs and cats...
June 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476493/promoting-appropriate-urine-culture-management-to-improve-health-care-outcomes-and-the-accuracy-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#19
REVIEW
Robert Garcia, Eric D Spitzer
Published literature indicates that the unjustified ordering or improper collection of urine for urinalysis or culture from either catheterized patients or those without indwelling devices, or misinterpretation of positive results, often leads to adverse health care events, including increased financial burdens, overreporting of mandated catheter-associated urinary tract infection events, overtreatment of patients with antimicrobial agents, selection of multidrug-resistant organisms, and Clostridium difficile infection...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459929/behavioral-approach-to-appropriate-antimicrobial-prescribing-in-hospitals-the-dutch-unique-method-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-dumas-participatory-intervention-study
#20
Jonne J Sikkens, Michiel A van Agtmael, Edgar J G Peters, Kamilla D Lettinga, Martijn van der Kuip, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Cordula Wagner, Mark H H Kramer
Importance: Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing leads to antimicrobial resistance and suboptimal clinical outcomes. Changing antimicrobial prescribing is a complex behavioral process that is not often taken into account in antimicrobial stewardship programs. Objective: To examine whether an antimicrobial stewardship approach grounded in behavioral theory and focusing on preserving prescriber autonomy and participation is effective in improving appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in hospitals...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
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