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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061148/integrated-community-case-management-by-drug-sellers-influences-appropriate-treatment-of-paediatric-febrile-illness-in-south-western-uganda-a-quasi-experimental-study
#1
Freddy Eric Kitutu, Joan Nakayaga Kalyango, Chrispus Mayora, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Stefan Peterson, Henry Wamani
BACKGROUND: Fever case management is a major challenge for improved child health globally, despite existence of cheap and effective child survival health technologies. The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) intervention of paediatric febrile illnesses though adopted by Uganda's Ministry of Health to be implemented by community health workers, has not addressed the inaccess to life-saving medicines and diagnostics. Therefore, the iCCM intervention was implemented in private drug shops and evaluated for its effect on appropriate treatment of paediatric fever in a low malaria transmission setting in South Western Uganda...
October 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052109/assessments-of-opportunities-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing-in-an-emergency-department-a-period-prevalence-survey
#2
Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Anais Ovalle, Maya Beganovic, William Curioso, Melissa Gaitanis, Kerry L LaPlante
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 30% of all outpatient antimicrobials are inappropriately prescribed. Currently, antimicrobial prescribing patterns in emergency departments (ED) are not well described. Determining inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing patterns and opportunities for interventions by antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) are needed. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed among a random sample of non-admitted, adult patients who received an antimicrobial prescription in the ED from January 1 to December 31, 2015...
October 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043532/changes-observed-in-urine-microbiology-following-replacement-of-long-term-urinary-catheters-need-to-modify-uti-guidelines-in-the-uk
#3
Deepak Batura, G Gopal Rao, Marion Foran, Fatmata Brempong
AIMS: Bacteria adherent to long-term urinary catheters (LTUC) may give misleading urine culture results. Guidelines in the USA recommend changing LTUC before urine collection to diagnose UTI and before commencing appropriate antimicrobial treatment. However, in the UK there is no such guidance. In this study, we evaluated differences in urine cultures before and after changing LTUC. METHODS: In a prospective study in a UK urology department, we made a quantitative and qualitative comparison between paired urines collected before and after catheter change in patients with LTUC...
October 17, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991315/-impact-of-rational-use-of-antibiotics-in-a-third-level-clinic-in-colombia
#4
Christian J Pallares, Juan C Cataño
BACKGROUND: The increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the survival of patients and health costs. AIM: To determine the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program in bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi experimental study in a third level clinic in the city of Medellin, that evaluate in two time periods (pre-intervention between October 2012 and September 2013 and post intervention between October 2013 and September 2014) the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program in terms of antibiotic consumption and bacterial ecology...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951073/biofilm-formation-and-multidrug-resistant-aeromonas-spp-from-wild-animals
#5
Carla Dias, Anabela Borges, Maria José Saavedra, Manuel Simões
OBJECTIVES: The "One Health" concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals and the environment are interconnected. Therefore, the knowledge on the behavior of microorganisms from the most diverse environmental niches is important to prevent the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Wild animals are known to carry antimicrobial resistant microorganisms with potential public health impact. However, no data is available on the sessile behavior of bacteria from wild animals, even if antimicrobial resistance is amplified in biofilms...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941632/professional-practice-evaluation-of-emergency-department-prescriptions-for-community-acquired-infections-in-lebanon
#6
Iqbal Fahs, Zeina Shrayteh, Rima Abdulkhalek, Pascale Salameh, Souheil Hallit, Diana Malaeb
BACKGROUND: Selecting the appropriate antibiotic regimen is extremely important in improving patient outcomes, minimizing antimicrobial resistance, and reducing costs. This study was conducted to evaluate current prescribing practices for empiric antibiotics at the time of admission to the emergency department (ED) and to assess their appropriateness in Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at three different Lebanese hospitals between June and December 2016...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933759/lactic-acid-bacteria-and-their-bacteriocins-classification-biosynthesis-and-applications-against-uropathogens-a-mini-review
#7
REVIEW
Mduduzi Paul Mokoena
Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from the Lactobacillus genera have been applied in food preservation, partly due to their antimicrobial properties. Their application in the control of human pathogens holds promise provided appropriate strains are scientifically chosen and a suitable mode of delivery is utilized. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a global problem, affecting mainly diabetic patients and women. Many uropathogens are developing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. There is a need for more research on the ability of LAB to inhibit uropathogens, with a view to apply them in clinical settings, while adhering to strict selection guidelines in the choice of candidate LAB...
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927408/paramedical-staffs-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-antimicrobial-resistance-in-dire-dawa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Belay Tafa, Adugna Endale, Desalegn Bekele
BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence, development and spread of pathogenic organisms that are resistant to antimicrobials are a cause of increasing concern. The control of antimicrobial resistance requires knowledge of factors causing antimicrobial resistance, good attitudes towards the intervention strategies as well as changes in antibiotic prescribing behavior of health workers. Hence, this study was aimed to assess paramedical staffs' knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance and their antibiotics prescription practices in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883911/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-formation-among-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-clinical-samples-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-nepal
#9
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
BACKGROUND: Coagulase negative staphylococci were long regarded non-pathogenic as they are the commensals of human skin and mucosa but the recent changes in the medical practice and changes in underlying host populations, they are being considered significant pathogens associated with number of nosocomial infections. The objective of the study was to determine the species, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biofilm forming ability of the clinically significant CoNS isolates and to compare the different methods for the detection of biofilm formation...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820687/identification-of-subsets-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-associated-with-diarrheal-disease-among-under-5-years-of-age-children-from-rural-gambia
#10
Usman N Ikumapayi, Nadia Boisen, Mohammad J Hossain, Modupeh Betts, Modou Lamin, Debasish Saha, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Michel Dione, Richard A Adegbola, Anna Roca, James P Nataro, Martin Antonio
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814444/implementing-an-inpatient-pediatric-prospective-audit-and-feedback-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-within-a-larger-medical-center
#11
Jennifer Lighter-Fisher, Sonya Desai, Anna Stachel, Vinh Philip Pham, Liana Klejmont, Yanina Dubrovskaya
BACKGROUND: Pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) within larger institutions have unique opportunities to develop programs specialized to the needs of the pediatric program. In January 2013, our institution established a formalized pediatric ASP utilizing the prospective audit and feedback process. In an effort to standardize therapy and improve quality of care, members of the ASP developed evidence-based guidelines for management of common inpatient pediatric infections...
September 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745260/implementation-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#13
Nneka I Nzegwu, Michelle R Rychalsky, Loren A Nallu, Xuemei Song, Yanhong Deng, Amber M Natusch, Robert S Baltimore, George R Paci, Matthew J Bizzarro
OBJECTIVE To evaluate antimicrobial utilization and prescription practices in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). DESIGN Quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series study. SETTING A 54-bed, level IV NICU in a regional academic and tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS All neonates prescribed antimicrobials from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016, were eligible for inclusion. INTERVENTION Implementation of a NICU-specific ASP beginning July 2012...
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726037/can-a-collaborative-subspecialty-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-have-lasting-effects
#14
Kaushal B Shah, Ramzy H Rimawi, Mark A Mazer, Paul P Cook
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated the benefit of direct, daily collaboration between infectious disease (ID) and critical care practitioners (CCP) on guideline adherence and antibiotic use in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). In this post-intervention review, we sought to establish whether the effect on antibiotic use and guideline adherence was sustainable. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 87 patients, admitted to the 24-bed MICU, was done 3 (n = 45) and 6 months (n = 42) after the intervention...
October 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722481/clinical-management-of-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-part-i-psychiatric-and-behavioral-interventions
#15
Margo Thienemann, Tanya Murphy, James Leckman, Richard Shaw, Kyle Williams, Cynthia Kapphahn, Jennifer Frankovich, Daniel Geller, Gail Bernstein, Kiki Chang, Josephine Elia, Susan Swedo
OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). METHODS: Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms...
September 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665084/an-audit-of-empiric-antibiotic-choice-in-the-inpatient-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
F Delaney, A Jackson
Adherence to antimicrobial guidelines for empiric antibiotic prescribing in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been reported to be worryingly low. We conducted a review of empiric antibiotic prescribing for sixty consecutive adult patients admitted to the Mercy University Hospital with a diagnosis of CAP. When analysed against local antimicrobial guidelines, guideline concordant empiric antibiotics were given in only 48% of cases, lower than the average rate in comparable studies. Concordance was 100% in cases where the CURB-65 pneumonia severity assessment score, on which the guidelines are based, was documented in the medical notes...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629754/improving-compliance-with-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-guidelines-a-multicenter-evaluation
#17
Cristiane Schmitt, Rubia Aparecida Lacerda, Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini, Maria Clara Padoveze
BACKGROUND: Improving surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) use is an important element in the control of antimicrobial resistance. However, compliance with SAP guidelines is unsatisfactory. This study investigated the level of compliance with SAP guidelines in neurosurgery, and institutional characteristics associated with compliance. METHODS: This study assessed surgeries in 9 Brazilian hospitals. Medical record reviews and a structured questionnaire were used to assess compliance and to describe institutional characteristics...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622340/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-surgical-site-infections-as-a-risk-factor-for-infection-with-clostridium-difficile
#18
Aubrey Balch, Aaron M Wendelboe, Sara K Vesely, Dale W Bratzler
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the association between 2013 guideline concordant prophylactic antibiotic use prior to surgery and infection with Clostridium difficile. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective case-control study by selecting patients who underwent a surgical procedure between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013. SETTING: Large urban community hospital. PATIENTS: Cases and controls were patients age 18+ years who underwent an eligible surgery (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580893/appropriateness-of-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-patients-in-italy
#19
Mariavalentina Giordano, Lorena Squillace, Maria Pavia
OBJECTIVES Appropriate use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) reduces intraoperative wound contamination in pediatric surgery, thus minimizing the risk of surgical site infection (SSIs). Conversely, inappropriate use of SAP exposes patients to the risk of antibiotic side effects and contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Our aims were to describe SAP administration and to analyze factors associated with nonadherence in pediatric patients. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Overall, 955 pediatric patients underwent 1,038 surgical procedures...
June 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577933/impact-of-selective-reporting-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-test-results-on-the-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-chosen-by-french-general-practitioners-in-urinary-tract-infections-a-randomised-controlled-case-vignette-study
#20
Loic Bourdellon, Nathalie Thilly, Sébastien Fougnot, Céline Pulcini, Sandrine Henard
Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general practitioners for urinary tract infections (UTIs). A randomised controlled case-vignette study in a region of northeast France surveyed general practitioners between July and October 2015 on treatment of four clinical cases of community-acquired Escherichia coli UTIs (two cases of complicated cystitis, one of acute pyelonephritis and one male UTI)...
August 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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