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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342478/design-and-implementation-of-a-visual-analytics-electronic-antibiogram-within-an-electronic-health-record-system-at-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital
#1
Allan F Simpao, Luis M Ahumada, Beatriz Larru Martinez, Ana M Cardenas, Talene A Metjian, Kaede V Sullivan, Jorge A Gálvez, Bimal R Desai, Mohamed A Rehman, Jeffrey S Gerber
BACKGROUND:  Hospitals use antibiograms to guide optimal empiric antibiotic therapy, reduce inappropriate antibiotic usage, and identify areas requiring intervention by antimicrobial stewardship programs. Creating a hospital antibiogram is a time-consuming manual process that is typically performed annually. OBJECTIVE:  We aimed to apply visual analytics software to electronic health record (EHR) data to build an automated, electronic antibiogram ("e-antibiogram") that adheres to national guidelines and contains filters for patient characteristics, thereby providing access to detailed, clinically relevant, and up-to-date antibiotic susceptibility data...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310974/sepsis-in-tropical-regions-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#2
Steven McGloughlin, Guy A Richards, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Shirish Prayag, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Sepsis and septic shock in the tropics are caused by a wide array of organisms. These infections are encountered mainly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where a lack of infrastructure and medical facilities contribute to the high morbidity and mortality. Published sepsis guidelines are based on studies primarily performed in high income countries and as such recommendations may or may not be relevant to practice in the tropics. Failure to adhere to guidelines, particularly among non-intensive care specialists even in high-income countries, is an area of concern for sepsis management...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240786/time-trend-analysis-2009-2016-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolated-in-italy-following-the-introduction-of-the-combined-antimicrobial-therapy
#3
Paola Stefanelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Maria Paola Landini, Ivano Dal Conte, Alberto Matteelli, Antonio Cristaudo, Marina Gaino, Marco Cusini, Anna Maria Barbui, Antonella Mencacci, Rosella De Nittis, Valeria Ghisetti, Elena Stroppiana, Anna Carannante
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) antimicrobial susceptibility trends to azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone were analyzed, from 2009 to 2016, to monitor changing antimicrobial susceptibility concomitant with the change in prescribing practice in 2012 from cefixime, or ceftriaxone, to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Patient characteristics predictive to be infected by antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae were estimated. Finally, the protocol for the treatment of gonorrhoea, in comparison with the international guidelines, was also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228960/cross-sectional-survey-on-the-use-and-impact-of-the-danish-national-antibiotic-use-guidelines-for-companion-animal-practice
#4
Lisbeth Rem Jessen, Tina Møller Sørensen, Zenia Littau Lilja, Maja Kristensen, Tine Hald, Peter Damborg
BACKGROUND: The Danish antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice were published by the Danish Veterinary Association in 2012. Since then, national surveillance data indicate a 10% reduction in the total use of antibiotics for companion animals, particularly a marked reduction in the use of third generation cephalosporins. The aim of the study was to assess if and how the guidelines have impacted diagnostic and antibiotic prescription habits of the users, and to identify user perceived barriers to implementation...
December 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169340/situational-analysis-of-antibiotic-use-and-resistance-in-ghana-policy-and-regulation
#5
Saviour Kwame Yevutsey, Kwame Ohene Buabeng, Moses Aikins, Berko Panyin Anto, Richard B Biritwum, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have played an essential role in decreasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. However, indiscriminate use and unrestricted access is contributing to the emergence of bacterial resistance. This paper reports on a situational analysis of antimicrobial use and resistance in Ghana, with focus on policy and regulation. METHODS: Relevant policy documents, reports, regulations and enactments were reviewed. PubMed and Google search engines were used to extract relevant published papers...
November 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163151/ongoing-initiatives-to-improve-the-quality-and-efficiency-of-medicine-use-within-the-public-healthcare-system-in-south-africa-a-preliminary-study
#6
Johanna C Meyer, Natalie Schellack, Jacobus Stokes, Ruth Lancaster, Helecine Zeeman, Douglas Defty, Brian Godman, Gavin Steel
Introduction: South Africa has an appreciable burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as high maternal, neonatal, and child morbidity. In recent years there have been significant strides with improving the public health system, and addressing current inequalities, with the right to health a constitutional provision in South Africa. Initiatives include the introduction of National Health Insurance, programmes to enhance access to medicines for patients with chronic diseases, as well as activities to improve care in hospitals, including improving pharmacovigilance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061148/integrated-community-case-management-by-drug-sellers-influences-appropriate-treatment-of-paediatric-febrile-illness-in-south-western-uganda-a-quasi-experimental-study
#7
Freddy Eric Kitutu, Joan Nakayaga Kalyango, Chrispus Mayora, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Stefan Peterson, Henry Wamani
BACKGROUND: Fever case management is a major challenge for improved child health globally, despite existence of cheap and effective child survival health technologies. The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) intervention of paediatric febrile illnesses though adopted by Uganda's Ministry of Health to be implemented by community health workers, has not addressed the inaccess to life-saving medicines and diagnostics. Therefore, the iCCM intervention was implemented in private drug shops and evaluated for its effect on appropriate treatment of paediatric fever in a low malaria transmission setting in South Western Uganda...
October 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052109/assessments-of-opportunities-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing-in-an-emergency-department-a-period-prevalence-survey
#8
Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Anais Ovalle, Maya Beganovic, William Curioso, Melissa Gaitanis, Kerry L LaPlante
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 30% of all outpatient antimicrobials are inappropriately prescribed. Currently, antimicrobial prescribing patterns in emergency departments (ED) are not well described. Determining inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing patterns and opportunities for interventions by antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) are needed. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed among a random sample of non-admitted, adult patients who received an antimicrobial prescription in the ED from January 1 to December 31, 2015...
December 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043532/changes-observed-in-urine-microbiology-following-replacement-of-long-term-urinary-catheters-need-to-modify-uti-guidelines-in-the-uk
#9
Deepak Batura, G Gopal Rao, Marion Foran, Fatmata Brempong
AIMS: Bacteria adherent to long-term urinary catheters (LTUC) may give misleading urine culture results. Guidelines in the USA recommend changing LTUC before urine collection to diagnose UTI and before commencing appropriate antimicrobial treatment. However, in the UK there is no such guidance. In this study, we evaluated differences in urine cultures before and after changing LTUC. METHODS: In a prospective study in a UK urology department, we made a quantitative and qualitative comparison between paired urines collected before and after catheter change in patients with LTUC...
October 17, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991315/-impact-of-rational-use-of-antibiotics-in-a-third-level-clinic-in-colombia
#10
Christian J Pallares, Juan C Cataño
BACKGROUND: The increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the survival of patients and health costs. AIM: To determine the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program in bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi experimental study in a third level clinic in the city of Medellin, that evaluate in two time periods (pre-intervention between October 2012 and September 2013 and post intervention between October 2013 and September 2014) the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program in terms of antibiotic consumption and bacterial ecology...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951073/biofilm-formation-and-multidrug-resistant-aeromonas-spp-from-wild-animals
#11
Carla Dias, Anabela Borges, Maria José Saavedra, Manuel Simões
OBJECTIVES: The "One Health" concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals and the environment are interconnected. Therefore, the knowledge on the behavior of microorganisms from the most diverse environmental niches is important to prevent the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Wild animals are known to carry antimicrobial resistant microorganisms with potential public health impact. However, no data is available on the sessile behavior of bacteria from wild animals, even if antimicrobial resistance is amplified in biofilms...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941632/professional-practice-evaluation-of-emergency-department-prescriptions-for-community-acquired-infections-in-lebanon
#12
Iqbal Fahs, Zeina Shrayteh, Rima Abdulkhalek, Pascale Salameh, Souheil Hallit, Diana Malaeb
BACKGROUND: Selecting the appropriate antibiotic regimen is extremely important in improving patient outcomes, minimizing antimicrobial resistance, and reducing costs. This study was conducted to evaluate current prescribing practices for empiric antibiotics at the time of admission to the emergency department (ED) and to assess their appropriateness in Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at three different Lebanese hospitals between June and December 2016...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933759/lactic-acid-bacteria-and-their-bacteriocins-classification-biosynthesis-and-applications-against-uropathogens-a-mini-review
#13
REVIEW
Mduduzi Paul Mokoena
Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from the Lactobacillus genera have been applied in food preservation, partly due to their antimicrobial properties. Their application in the control of human pathogens holds promise provided appropriate strains are scientifically chosen and a suitable mode of delivery is utilized. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a global problem, affecting mainly diabetic patients and women. Many uropathogens are developing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. There is a need for more research on the ability of LAB to inhibit uropathogens, with a view to apply them in clinical settings, while adhering to strict selection guidelines in the choice of candidate LAB...
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927408/paramedical-staffs-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-antimicrobial-resistance-in-dire-dawa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Belay Tafa, Adugna Endale, Desalegn Bekele
BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence, development and spread of pathogenic organisms that are resistant to antimicrobials are a cause of increasing concern. The control of antimicrobial resistance requires knowledge of factors causing antimicrobial resistance, good attitudes towards the intervention strategies as well as changes in antibiotic prescribing behavior of health workers. Hence, this study was aimed to assess paramedical staffs' knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance and their antibiotics prescription practices in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883911/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-formation-among-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-clinical-samples-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-nepal
#15
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
BACKGROUND: Coagulase negative staphylococci were long regarded non-pathogenic as they are the commensals of human skin and mucosa but the recent changes in the medical practice and changes in underlying host populations, they are being considered significant pathogens associated with number of nosocomial infections. The objective of the study was to determine the species, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biofilm forming ability of the clinically significant CoNS isolates and to compare the different methods for the detection of biofilm formation...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820687/identification-of-subsets-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-associated-with-diarrheal-disease-among-under-5-years-of-age-children-from-rural-gambia
#16
Usman N Ikumapayi, Nadia Boisen, Mohammad J Hossain, Modupeh Betts, Modou Lamin, Debasish Saha, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Michel Dione, Richard A Adegbola, Anna Roca, James P Nataro, Martin Antonio
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814444/implementing-an-inpatient-pediatric-prospective-audit-and-feedback-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-within-a-larger-medical-center
#17
Jennifer Lighter-Fisher, Sonya Desai, Anna Stachel, Vinh Philip Pham, Liana Klejmont, Yanina Dubrovskaya
BACKGROUND: Pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) within larger institutions have unique opportunities to develop programs specialized to the needs of the pediatric program. In January 2013, our institution established a formalized pediatric ASP utilizing the prospective audit and feedback process. In an effort to standardize therapy and improve quality of care, members of the ASP developed evidence-based guidelines for management of common inpatient pediatric infections...
September 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745260/implementation-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#19
Nneka I Nzegwu, Michelle R Rychalsky, Loren A Nallu, Xuemei Song, Yanhong Deng, Amber M Natusch, Robert S Baltimore, George R Paci, Matthew J Bizzarro
OBJECTIVE To evaluate antimicrobial utilization and prescription practices in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). DESIGN Quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series study. SETTING A 54-bed, level IV NICU in a regional academic and tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS All neonates prescribed antimicrobials from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016, were eligible for inclusion. INTERVENTION Implementation of a NICU-specific ASP beginning July 2012...
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726037/can-a-collaborative-subspecialty-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-have-lasting-effects
#20
Kaushal B Shah, Ramzy H Rimawi, Mark A Mazer, Paul P Cook
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated the benefit of direct, daily collaboration between infectious disease (ID) and critical care practitioners (CCP) on guideline adherence and antibiotic use in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). In this post-intervention review, we sought to establish whether the effect on antibiotic use and guideline adherence was sustainable. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 87 patients, admitted to the 24-bed MICU, was done 3 (n = 45) and 6 months (n = 42) after the intervention...
October 2017: Infection
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