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Clinical Practice Guidelines Antibiotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192108/timely-use-of-probiotics-in-hospitalized-adults-prevents-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-with-meta-regression-analysis
#1
Nicole T Shen, Anna Maw, Lyubov L Tmanova, Alejandro Pino, Kayley Ancy, Carl V Crawford, Matthew S Simon, Arthur T Evans
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and The Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating use of probiotics and CDI in hospitalized adults taking antibiotics...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185664/review-of-the-role-of-probiotics-in-gastrointestinal-diseases-in-adults
#2
Juan José Sebastián Domingo
BACKGROUND: Probiotics may act as biological agents that modify the intestinal microbiota and certain cytokine profiles, which can lead to an improvement in certain gastrointestinal diseases. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a review of the evidence of the role of probiotics in certain gastrointestinal diseases in adults. SEARCH METHODS: Review conducted using appropriate descriptors, filters and limits in the PubMed database (MEDLINE). SELECTION CRITERIA: The MeSH terms used were Probiotics [in the title] AND Gastrointestinal Diseases, with the following limits or filters: Types of study: Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analysis, Guideline, Practice Guideline, Consensus Development Conference (and Consensus Development Conference NIH), Randomized Controlled Trial, Controlled Clinical Trial and Clinical Trial; age: adults (19 or older); language: English and Spanish; in humans, and with at least one abstract...
February 6, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179485/variation-in-sepsis-evaluation-across-a-national-network-of-nurseries
#3
Sagori Mukhopadhyay, James A Taylor, Isabelle Von Kohorn, Valerie Flaherman, Anthony E Burgos, Carrie A Phillipi, Nui Dhepyasuwan, Elizabeth King, Miren Dhudasia, Karen M Puopolo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The extent to which clinicians use currently available guidelines for early-onset sepsis (EOS) screening has not been described. The Better Outcomes through Research for Newborns network represents 97 nurseries in 34 states across the United States. The objective of this study was to describe EOS risk management strategies across a national sample of newborn nurseries. METHODS: A Web-based survey was sent to each Better Outcomes through Research for Newborns network nursery site representative...
February 8, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173888/current-state-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-children-s-hospital-emergency-departments
#4
Rakesh D Mistry, Jason G Newland, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh, Larissa May, Sarah M Perman, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described. OBJECTIVE To determine current ED involvement in children's hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 37 children's hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution...
February 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165791/improving-documentation-in-surgical-operation-notes
#5
Hammad Parwaiz, Rushan Perera, John Creamer, Hamish Macdonald, Ian Hunter
BACKGROUND: Accurate documentation in surgical operation notes is crucial in facilitating the postoperative care of surgical patients and forms an important medicolegal document. This study audited the quality and completeness of documentation in surgical operation notes at a single district general hospital against the Royal College of Surgeons (2014) Good Surgical Practice guidelines, and looked to improve clinical practice through improved compliance with these guidelines. METHOD: A total of 101 operation notes were audited from a variety of surgical specialities in November 2014 (cycle 1) and 100 notes in May 2015 (cycle 2)...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161290/safety-of-treatments-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-clinical-practice-guidelines-of-the-italian-group-for-the-study-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ig-ibd
#6
Livia Biancone, Vito Annese, Sandro Ardizzone, Alessandro Armuzzi, Emma Calabrese, Flavio Caprioli, Fabiana Castiglione, Michele Comberlato, Mario Cottone, Silvio Danese, Marco Daperno, Renata D'Incà, Giuseppe Frieri, Walter Fries, Paolo Gionchetti, Anna Kohn, Giovanni Latella, Monica Milla, Ambrogio Orlando, Claudio Papi, Carmelina Petruzziello, Gabriele Riegler, Fernando Rizzello, Simone Saibeni, Maria Lia Scribano, Maurizio Vecchi, Piero Vernia, Gianmichele Meucci
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic conditions of unknown etiology, showing a growing incidence and prevalence in several countries, including Italy. Although the etiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is unknown, due to the current knowledge regarding their pathogenesis, effective treatment strategies have been developed. Several guidelines are available regarding the efficacy and safety of available drug treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases. Nevertheless, national guidelines provide additional information adapted to local feasibility, costs and legal issues related to the use of the same drugs...
January 17, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152727/a-prospective-study-of-an-inpatient-febrile-neutropenia-clinical-practice-guideline-in-oncology-patients
#7
Tanya Thomas, Joshua Reuss, Gina Degennaro, Elizabeth Daniels, Jin Li, Mark Smolkin, Michael Kenneth Keng
: 114 Background: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication in oncology patients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. Because of this, it is regarded as a medical emergency. FN treatment guidelines universally recommend the prompt initiation ( < 60 minutes) of intravenous antibiotic therapy. We hypothesized that a quality initiative project creating a new FN clinical practice guideline (CPG) would reduce the time to antibiotic administration (TTA) for inpatient oncology patients with FN...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147426/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#8
Ľubomír Skladaný, Silvia Kasová, Anna Purgelová, Natália Bystrianska, Svetlana Adamcová-Selčanová
AIM OF STUDY: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most frequent infectious complication of liver cirrhosis with serious consequences. Initially, SBP is always treated with empirical, not targeted, antibiotic therapy. Since a retrospective study performed in our department showed suboptimal effectiveness (only 40 %) of empirical antibiotic therapy in accordance with the EASL guidelines, a decision was made to change the protocol. The aims of this prospective study were to determine: (1) the incidence and characteristics of SBP in real clinical practice - in a liver unit of a tertiary hospital, (2) the effectiveness of new antibiotic therapy selected based on analysis of the spectrum of pathogens and their resistance to antibiotics as identified in a retrospective cohort study on SBP carried out in our department, (3) mortality, and to compare these findings with the literature data...
December 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145848/clinical-practice-guideline-improving-nasal-form-and-function-after-rhinoplasty-executive-summary
#9
Lisa E Ishii, Travis T Tollefson, Gregory J Basura, Richard M Rosenfeld, Peter J Abramson, Scott R Chaiet, Kara S Davis, Karl Doghramji, Edward H Farrior, Sandra A Finestone, Stacey L Ishman, Robert X Murphy, John G Park, Michael Setzen, Deborah J Strike, Sandra A Walsh, Jeremy P Warner, Lorraine C Nnacheta
Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work...
February 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145823/clinical-practice-guideline-improving-nasal-form-and-function-after-rhinoplasty
#10
Lisa E Ishii, Travis T Tollefson, Gregory J Basura, Richard M Rosenfeld, Peter J Abramson, Scott R Chaiet, Kara S Davis, Karl Doghramji, Edward H Farrior, Sandra A Finestone, Stacey L Ishman, Robert X Murphy, John G Park, Michael Setzen, Deborah J Strike, Sandra A Walsh, Jeremy P Warner, Lorraine C Nnacheta
Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work...
February 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134708/chorioamnionitis-time-for-a-new-approach
#11
Tara M Randis, Richard A Polin, George Saade
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The association between maternal chorioamnionitis and early-onset sepsis in the newborn has long been recognized, and established guidelines recommend treating all exposed infants with broad-spectrum antibiotics until infection can be ruled out. However, recent data suggest that close observation of well appearing term and late-preterm newborns may be a preferable alternative. The present review addresses the evidence in favor of newly proposed changes to the diagnosis and management of women and newborns following a maternal diagnosis of chorioamnionitis...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132798/the-clinical-significance-of-specific-antibody-deficiency-sad-severity-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-crs
#12
Anjeni Keswani, Neha M Dunn, Angelica Manzur, Sara Kashani, Xavier Bossuyt, Leslie C Grammer, David B Conley, Bruce K Tan, Robert C Kern, Robert P Schleimer, Anju T Peters
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased identification of specific antibody deficiency (SAD) in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), little is known about the relationship between SAD severity and the severity and comorbidities of CRS. The prevalence of an impaired antibody response in the general population is also unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if the SAD severity stratification applies to real-life data of patients with CRS. METHODS: An electronic health record database was used to identify patients with CRS evaluated for humoral immunodeficiency with quantitative immunoglobulins and Streptococcus pneumoniae antibody titers before and after pneumococcal vaccine...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131855/helicobacter-pylori-treatment-new-perspectives-using-current-experience
#13
REVIEW
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Infection with Helicobacter pylori plays an essential role in the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers as well as in the pathobiology of gastric adenocarcinoma. Thus, successful elimination of the bacterium can reduce the risk of development of these diseases. Currently, most guidelines recommend standard triple therapy (amoxicillin+clarithromycin+proton pump inhibitor), although its efficacy is rapidly falling. Notably, traditional first-line therapy fails in almost 32% of H. pylori-carrying cases, suggesting the importance of choosing the best formulation for first-line therapy...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131458/biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis-and-necrotizing-entercolitis-clinical-practice-guidelines
#14
Margaret Gilfillan, Vineet Bhandari
Sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in those born preterm. While therapeutic interventions are available for both (for e.g. antibiotics), a major dilemma is early diagnosis so that these interventions can be done in a timely manner. As clinical evaluation alone is unreliable in identifying infants in the early stages of neonatal sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis, there is a need to find specific biomarkers associated with these conditions to improve diagnostic capabilities...
January 25, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127641/assessment-of-linezolid-prescriptions-in-three-french-hospitals
#15
C Dentan, E Forestier, M Roustit, S Boisset, S Chanoine, O Epaulard, P Pavese
The use of linezolid to treat gram-positive cocci infections is increasing in France. Linezolid is approved in pneumonia and complicated skin and soft tissue infections. Overuse and misuse of linezolid can favor the emergence and spreading of linezolid-resistant strains. We aimed to assess the appropriateness of linezolid use in French hospitals. This is a multicenter, retrospective study conducted in three tertiary care hospitals. Appropriateness of linezolid indications and adequacy (composite score concerning dosage, route of administration and blood monitoring) were assessed...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122841/antibiotic-management-of-children-with-infectious-diseases-in-dutch-primary-care
#16
Anne R J Dekker, Theo J M Verheij, Alike W van der Velden
BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common in general practice. Although clinical guidelines recommend restrictive antibiotic use for children, antibiotics are too often prescribed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to obtain insight in antibiotic prescribing for children related to clinical diagnoses. This is pivotal to define improvement strategies in the antibiotic management. METHODS: In this observational study, we used consultation data collected from 45 general practices in the Netherlands in 2012...
January 24, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122829/qualitative-study-of-primary-care-clinicians-views-on-point-of-care-testing-for-c-reactive-protein-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-family-medicine
#17
Victoria Hardy, Matthew Thompson, Gina A Keppel, William Alto, M Ashworth Dirac, Jon Neher, Christopher Sanford, Jaime Hornecker, Allison Cole
OBJECTIVE: To explore clinicians views of the barriers and facilitators to use of C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care tests (POCT) in US family medicine clinics for the management of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in adults. SETTING: Five family medicine clinics across two US states. PARTICIPANTS: 30 clinicians including 18 physicians, 9 physician residents, 2 physician assistants and 1 nurse practitioner, took part in the study...
January 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121034/alternatives-to-antibiotics-for-prevention-of-surgical-infection
#18
REVIEW
I B M Ploegmakers, S W M Olde Damink, S O Breukink
BACKGROUND: Surgical-site infection (SSI) is still the second most common healthcare-associated infection, after respiratory tract infection. SSIs are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, and result in enormous healthcare costs. In the past decade, several guidelines have been developed that aim to reduce the incidence of SSI. Unfortunately, there is no consensus amongst the guidelines, and some are already outdated. This review discusses the recent literature regarding alternatives to antibiotics for prevention of SSI...
January 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119402/a-national-pharmacoepidemiological-study-of-antibiotic-use-in-korean-paediatric-outpatients
#19
Yun-Kyoung Song, Nayoung Han, Myeong Gyu Kim, Hyeu-Jin Chang, Hyun Soon Sohn, Eunhee Ji, Jung Mi Oh
BACKGROUND: Information on the use of antibiotics in Eastern Asian children is limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate in Korean paediatric outpatients (1) the nationwide pattern of prescribing antibiotics according to age group and medical institution and (2) the adherence of antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections to both national guidelines and European antibiotic prescribing quality indicators. METHOD: This population-based study used the national insurance reimbursement database for 2011...
January 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114979/impact-of-the-duration-of-antibiotics-on-clinical-events-in-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-study
#20
Adrien Bouglé, Arnaud Foucrier, Hervé Dupont, Philippe Montravers, Alexandre Ouattara, Pierre Kalfon, Pierre Squara, Tabassome Simon, Julien Amour
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) accounts for 25% of infections in intensive care units. Compared to a long duration (LD) of antibiotic therapy, a short duration (SD) has a comparable clinical efficacy with less antibiotic use and less multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen emergence, with the exception of documented VAP of non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). These results have led the American Thoracic Society to recommend SD therapy for VAP, except for PA-VAP...
January 23, 2017: Trials
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