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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156849/interest-of-integrins-targeting-in-glioblastoma-according-to-tumor-heterogeneity-and-cancer-stem-cell-paradigm-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Laure Malric, Sylvie Monferran, Julia Gilhodes, Sabrina Boyrie, Perrine Dahan, Nicolas Skuli, Julie Sesen, Thomas Filleron, Aline Kowalski-Chauvel, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Christine Toulas, Anthony Lemarié
Glioblastomas are malignant brain tumors with dismal prognosis despite standard treatment with surgery and radio/chemotherapy. These tumors are defined by an important cellular heterogeneity and notably contain a particular subpopulation of Glioblastoma-initiating cells, which recapitulate the heterogeneity of the original Glioblastoma. In order to classify these heterogeneous tumors, genomic profiling has also been undertaken to classify these heterogeneous tumors into several subtypes. Current research focuses on developing therapies, which could take into account this cellular and genomic heterogeneity...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156585/pan-cellulosomics-of-mesophilic-clostridia-variations-on-a-theme
#2
Bareket Dassa, Ilya Borovok, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer, Sarah Moraïs
The bacterial cellulosome is an extracellular, multi-enzyme machinery, which efficiently depolymerizes plant biomass by degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides. Several cellulolytic bacteria have evolved various elaborate modular architectures of active cellulosomes. We present here a genome-wide analysis of a dozen mesophilic clostridia species, including both well-studied and yet-undescribed cellulosome-producing bacteria. We first report here, the presence of cellulosomal elements, thus expanding our knowledge regarding the prevalence of the cellulosomal paradigm in nature...
November 18, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156583/new-paradigms-for-the-study-of-ocular-alphaherpesvirus-infections-insights-into-the-use-of-non-traditional-host-model-systems
#3
REVIEW
Matthew R Pennington, Eric C Ledbetter, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Ocular herpesviruses, most notably human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1), canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) and felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), infect and cause severe disease that may lead to blindness. CHV-1 and FHV-1 have a pathogenesis and induce clinical disease in their hosts that is similar to HSV-1 ocular infections in humans, suggesting that infection of dogs and cats with CHV-1 and FHV-1, respectively, can be used as a comparative natural host model of herpesvirus-induced ocular disease. In this review, we discuss both strengths and limitations of the various available model systems to study ocular herpesvirus infection, with a focus on the use of these non-traditional virus-natural host models...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156409/it-s-in-the-details-the-role-of-selective-discussion-in-forgetting-of-children-s-autobiographical-memories
#4
Ruth Glynn, Karen Salmon, Jason Low
This experiment investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) would be found in children's self-generated autobiographical memory recall. An adapted version of the RIF paradigm for adults' autobiographical memories was administered to 8- and 9-year-old children (N = 65). We hypothesized that RIF would be found in terms of both number of memories recalled and amount of memory detail reported. The relationship between memory detail at the retrieval practice phase and RIF magnitude was also investigated...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156368/self-and-team-prioritisation-effects-in-perceptual-matching-evidence-for-a-shared-representation
#5
Florence Enock, Jie Sui, Miles Hewstone, Glyn W Humphreys
Previous research has demonstrated that in-group favouritism occurs not only in higher-level judgments such as reward allocation, but also in low-level perceptual and attentional tasks. Recently, Moradi, Sui, Hewstone, and Humphreys (2015) found a novel effect of in-group bias on a simple perceptual matching task in which football fans responded more efficiently to stimuli newly associated with their own football team than stimuli associated with rival or neutral teams. This result is consistent with a robust self-bias effect in which individuals show a large performance advantage in responding to stimuli associated with the self over stimuli associated with a close friend or a stranger (Sui, He, & Humphreys, 2012)...
November 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156091/multifarious-anchovy-and-sardine-regimes-in-the-humboldt-current-system-during-the-last-150-years
#6
Renato Salvatteci, David Field, Dimitri Gutierrez, Tim Baumgartner, Vicente Ferreira, Luc Ortlieb, Abdel Sifeddine, Daniel Grados, Arnaud Bertrand
The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, though it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20(th) century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean-climate variability...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155893/inhibitory-control-and-decimal-number-comparison-in-school-aged-children
#7
Margot Roell, Arnaud Viarouge, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
School-aged children erroneously think that 1.45 is larger 1.5 because 45 is larger than 5. Using a negative priming paradigm, we investigated whether the ability to compare the magnitude of decimal numbers in the context in which the smallest number has the greatest number of digits after the decimal point (1.45 vs. 1.5) is rooted in part on the ability to inhibit the "greater the number of digits the greater its magnitude" misconception derived from a property of whole numbers. In Experiment 1, we found a typical negative priming effect with 7th graders requiring more time to compare decimal numbers in which the largest number has the greatest number of digits after the decimal point (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155862/a-multi-paradigm-framework-to-assess-the-impacts-of-climate-change-on-end-use-energy-demand
#8
Roshanak Nateghi, Sayanti Mukherjee
Projecting the long-term trends in energy demand is an increasingly complex endeavor due to the uncertain emerging changes in factors such as climate and policy. The existing energy-economy paradigms used to characterize the long-term trends in the energy sector do not adequately account for climate variability and change. In this paper, we propose a multi-paradigm framework for estimating the climate sensitivity of end-use energy demand that can easily be integrated with the existing energy-economy models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155279/scalar-timing-in-memory-a-temporal-map-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Sorinel A Oprisan, Tristan Aft, Mona Buhus, Catalin V Buhusi
Decision making, rate calculation, and planning are examples of daily tasks we perform. They require accurate timing and involve many cortical areas such as the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although the neurobiological origin and the mechanisms of interval timing are largely unknown, we developed increasingly accurate mathematical and computational models that can mimic some properties of time perception. The accepted paradigm of temporal durations storage is that the objective elapsed time from the short-term memory is transferred to the reference memory using a multiplicative "memory translation constant" K*...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155240/matrix-metalloproteinases-a-challenging-paradigm-of-cancer-management
#10
REVIEW
Ali Alaseem, Khalid Alhazzani, Priya Dondapati, Saad Alobid, Anupam Bishayee, Appu Rathinavelu
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of zinc-dependent endopeptidases implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Over the decades, MMPs have been studied for their role in cancer progression, migration, and metastasis. As a result, accumulated evidence of MMPs incriminating role has made them an attractive therapeutic target. Early generations of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors exhibited potent inhibitory activities, which subsequently led to clinical trials. Unexpectedly, these trials failed to meet the desired goals, mainly due to the lack of efficacy, poor oral bioavailability, and toxicity...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155230/the-association-of-monoamine-related-gene-polymorphisms-with-behavioural-correlates-of-response-inhibition-a-meta-analytic-review
#11
REVIEW
Irene Rincón-Pérez, Alberto J Sánchez-Carmona, Jacobo Albert, José A Hinojosa
Response inhibition has been shown to be associated with monoamine-related gene polymorphisms, although evidence is inconclusive. To comprehensively examine these genotype effects on behavioural correlates of response inhibition in non-clinical adult populations, we performed a two-step approach. A systematic review of studies using Go/No-Go and/or Stop-Signal paradigms was first carried out. Thirty-eight eligible research articles were identified, which examined over 15 candidate genes. Remarkably, no firm conclusions could be drawn from these studies...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155008/-alternative-fuels-contributing-to-mitochondrial-electron-transport-importance-of-non-classical-pathways-in-the-diversity-of-animal-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Allison E McDonald, Nicolas Pichaud, Charles-A Darveau
The study of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation in animals has yielded a wealth of information about bioenergetics. Less is known about how animals use fuels other than glucose and less characterized enzymes that are also used to provide electrons to the electron transport system. It has become clear that bioenergetic flexibility is employed by a wide variety of animals in order to successfully grow, maintain cells, and reproduce, and has contributed to the exploitation of new environments and ecological niches through evolution...
November 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154954/the-impact-of-social-exclusion-on-anticipatory-attentional-processing
#13
John E Kiat, Jacob E Cheadle, Bridget J Goosby
The importance of understanding how we anticipate and prepare for social rejection is underscored by the mental and physical toll of continual social vigilance. In this study, we investigate the impact of social rejection on anticipatory attentional processes using the well-known Cyberball task, a paradigm in which participants engage in a game of catch with virtual avatars who after an initial period of fair-play (inclusion condition) then exclude the participant from the game (exclusion condition). The degree of anticipatory attention allocated by subjects towards the avatars was assessed by measuring P3b responses towards the avatars' preparatory actions (i...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154808/genetic-host-factors-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-carcinogenesis-emerging-new-paradigms
#14
REVIEW
Michiel C Mommersteeg, Jun Yu, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler
Helicobacter Pylori is a gram negative rod shaped microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately half the world's population. Infection with c may cause chronic gastritis which via a quite well described process known as Correas cascade can progress through sequential development of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia to gastric cancer. H. pylori is currently the only bacterium that is classified as a class 1 carcinogen by the WHO, although the exact mechanisms by which this bacterium contributes to gastric carcinogenesis are still poorly understood...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154800/the-use-of-model-fish-as-tools-for-research-the-biological-mechanisms-of-cooperative-behaviour-a-future-for-translational-research-concerning-social-anxiety-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, Tamires Dos Santos Carvalho, Caio Maximino
Human societies demand of its composing members the development of a wide array of social tools and strategies. A notable example is human outstanding ability to cooperate with others, in all its complex forms, depicting the reality of a highly demanding social framework in which humans need to be integrated as to attain physical and mental benefits. Considering the importance of social engagement, it's not entirely unexpected that most psychiatric disorders involve some disruption of normal social behaviour, ranging from an abnormal absence to a significant increase of social functioning...
November 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154628/the-bandwidth-of-vwm-consolidation-varies-with-the-stimulus-feature-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#16
Renning Hao, Mark W Becker, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu, Taosheng Liu
Our previous work suggests that 2 colors can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) in parallel without a loss of memory precision, whereas consolidation of 2 orientations is performed in a strictly serial manner. Those experiments compared VSTM performance for simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. However, there is still controversy about whether the bandwidth for consolidation is determined by the type of information. To further investigate this issue, here we measured electroencephalography while participants attempted to consolidate 1, 2 or 4 simultaneously presented colors (Experiment 1) or orientations (Experiment 2) under limited presentation times...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154620/seeing-it-both-ways-using-a-double-cuing-task-to-investigate-the-role-of-spatial-cuing-in-level-1-visual-perspective-taking
#17
John Michael, Thomas Wolf, Clément Letesson, Stephen Butterfill, Joshua Skewes, Jakob Hohwy
Previous research using the dot-perspective task has produced evidence that humans may be equipped with a mechanism that spontaneously tracks others' gaze direction and thereby acquires information about what they can see. Other findings, however, support the alternative hypothesis that a spatial-cuing mechanism underpins the effect observed in the dot-perspective task. To adjudicate between these hypotheses, we developed a double-cuing version of Posner's (1980) spatial-cuing paradigm to be implemented in the dot-perspective task, and conducted 3 experiments in which we manipulated stimulus-onset asynchrony, as well as secondary task demands...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154588/automatic-stimulus-evaluation-depends-on-goal-relevance
#18
Adriaan Spruyt, Helen Tibboel, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
To examine whether automatic stimulus evaluation is dependent upon goal relevance, participants were presented with a mixture of (a) goal-induction trials to create a set of goal-relevant and goal-irrelevant stimuli, and (b) evaluative priming trials to capture the automatic evaluation of these stimuli as good or bad. In line with our predictions, a reliable evaluative priming effect was obtained only for stimuli that were relevant for the goal-induction task. Implications for the use of the evaluative priming paradigm as an assessment tool and the replicability of the evaluative priming effect in the absence of dimensional overlap between the prime set and the target set are discussed...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154584/digital-altruists-resolving-key-questions-about-the-empathy-altruism-hypothesis-in-an-internet-sample
#19
William H B McAuliffe, Daniel E Forster, Joachner Philippe, Michael E McCullough
Researchers have identified the capacity to take the perspective of others as a precursor to empathy-induced altruistic motivation. Consequently, investigators frequently use so-called perspective-taking instructions to manipulate empathic concern. However, most experiments using perspective-taking instructions have had modest sample sizes, undermining confidence in the replicability of results. In addition, it is unknown whether perspective-taking instructions work because they increase empathic concern or because comparison conditions reduce empathic concern (or both)...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154568/altered-spatial-profile-of-distraction-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#20
Carly J Leonard, Benjamin M Robinson, Britta Hahn, Steven J Luck, James M Gold
Attention is critical for effective processing of incoming information and has long been identified as a potential area of dysfunction in people with schizophrenia (PSZ). In the realm of visual processing, both spatial attention and feature-based attention are involved in biasing selection toward task-relevant stimuli and avoiding distraction. Evidence from multiple paradigms has suggested that PSZ may hyperfocus and have a narrower "spotlight" of spatial attention. In contrast, feature-based attention seems largely preserved, with some suggestion of increased processing of stimuli sharing the target-defining feature...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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