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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353366/is-invasion-a-necessary-step-for-metastases-in-breast-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Steven A Narod, Victoria Sopik
PURPOSE: To review the empirical evidence to support the conventional (sequential) model of breast cancer progression, which is based on the paradigm that cancer passes through several stages, including an in situ stage prior to an invasive stage, and thereafter (in some cases) disseminates to the lymph nodes and distant organs. METHODS: We review the cancer literature of the last 50 years which relates to the prevention of invasive breast cancer (through radiotherapy or surgery) and reductions in the mortality for breast cancer...
January 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352998/two-weeks-of-variable-stress-increases-gamma-h2ax-levels-in-the-mouse-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#2
Brendan D Hare, Tina M Thornton, Mercedes Rincon, Borivoj Golijanin, S Bradley King, Diane M Jaworski, William A Falls
Recent reports demonstrate that DNA damage is induced, and rapidly repaired, in circuits activated by experience. Moreover, stress hormones are known to slow DNA repair, suggesting that prolonged stress may result in persistent DNA damage. Prolonged stress is known to negatively impact physical and mental health; however, DNA damage as a factor in stress pathology has only begun to be explored. Histone H2A-X phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX) is a marker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), a type of damage that may lead to cell death if unrepaired...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352677/surface-structure-and-tribology-of-legless-squamate-reptiles
#3
REVIEW
Hisham A Abdel-Aal
Squamate reptiles (around 10,000 species of snakes and lizards) comprise a myriad of distinct terrestrial vertebrates. The diversity within this biological group offers a great opportunity for customized bio-inspired solutions that address a variety of current technological problems especially within the realm of surface engineering and tribology. One subgroup within squamata is of interest in that context, namely the legless reptiles (mainly snakes and few lizards). The promise of that group lies within their functional adaptation as manifested in optimized surface designs and locomotion that is distinguished by economy of effort even when functioning within hostile tribological environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352543/a-paradigm-shift-in-psychiatric-classification-the-hierarchical-taxonomy-of-psychopathology-hitop
#4
EDITORIAL
Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, David Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352441/utility-of-tumor-burden-score-to-stratify-prognosis-of-patients-with-hepatocellular-cancer-results-of-4759-cases-from-ita-li-ca-study-group
#5
Alessandro Vitale, Quirino Lai, Fabio Farinati, Laura Bucci, Edoardo G Giannini, Lucia Napoli, Francesca Ciccarese, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Maria Di Marco, Eugenio Caturelli, Marco Zoli, Franco Borzio, Rodolfo Sacco, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Roberto Virdone, Fabio Marra, Martina Felder, Filomena Morisco, Luisa Benvegnù, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Gabriele Missale, Alberto Masotto, Gerardo Nardone, Antonio Colecchia, Mauro Bernardi, Franco Trevisani, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Dichotomous models like Milan Criteria represent the routinely used tools for predicting the outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, a paradigm shift from a dichotomous to continuous prognostic stratification should represent a good strategy for improving the prediction process. Recently, the tumor burden score (TBS) has been proposed for selecting patients with colorectal liver metastases. To date, TBS has not been validated in a large HCC population...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352277/influence-of-early-stress-on-memory-reconsolidation-implications-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-treatment
#6
Hélène Villain, Aïcha Benkahoul, Philippe Birmes, Barbara Ferry, Pascal Roullet
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352163/word-mode-a-crowding-free-reading-protocol-for-individuals-with-macular-disease
#7
Stuart Wallis, Yit Yang, Stephen J Anderson
Central retinal loss through macular disease markedly reduces the ability to read largely because identification of a word using peripheral vision is negatively influenced by nearby text, a phenomenon termed visual crowding. Here, we present a novel peripheral reading protocol, termed Word Mode, that eliminates crowding by presenting each word in isolation but in a position that mimics its natural position in the line of text being read, with each new word elicited using a self-paced button press. We used a gaze-contingent paradigm to simulate a central scotoma in four normally-sighted observers, and measured oral reading speed for text positioned 7...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352145/integrating-modality-specific-expectancies-for-the-deployment-of-spatial-attention
#8
Paola Mengotti, Frank Boers, Pascasie L Dombert, Gereon R Fink, Simone Vossel
The deployment of spatial attention is highly sensitive to stimulus predictability. Despite evidence for strong crossmodal links in spatial attentional systems, it remains to be elucidated how concurrent but divergent predictions for targets in different sensory modalities are integrated. In a series of behavioral studies, we investigated the processing of modality-specific expectancies using a multimodal cueing paradigm in which auditory cues predicted the location of visual or tactile targets with modality-specific cue predictability...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352133/molecular-and-physiological-roles-of-the-adaptor-protein-card9-in-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoming Zhong, Bin Chen, Liang Yang, Zhiwen Yang
CARD9 is a caspase recruitment domain-containing signaling protein that plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. It has been widely demonstrated that CARD9 adaptor allows pattern recognition receptors to induce NF-κB and MAPK activation, which initiates a "downstream" inflammation cytokine cascade and provides effective protection against microbial invasion, especially fungal infection. Here our aim is to update existing paradigms and summarize the most recent findings on the CARD9 signaling pathway, revealing significant mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CARD9 deficiency...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352036/multiple-memory-systems-multiple-time-points-how-science-can-inform-treatment-to-control-the-expression-of-unwanted-emotional-memories
#10
REVIEW
Renée M Visser, Alex Lau-Zhu, Richard N Henson, Emily A Holmes
Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351918/personalized-chemosensitivity-assays-for-mesothelioma-is-it-worth-the-effort
#11
Thomas John, Puey Ling Chia
Cell-lines formed from an individual's tumor can be used to predict response to specific therapies and determine genomic predictors. For mesothelioma, where chemotherapy remains the backbone of current therapeutic paradigms, such assays could be used to treat patients with the most effective agents specific to their "chemical profile".
January 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351863/size-congruity-influences-visual-search-via-the-target-template
#12
Kenith V Sobel, Amrita M Puri
In numerical comparison experiments, participants are presented with two digits that vary in numerical and physical size, and they select the numerically (or physically) larger (or smaller) of the two digits. Response times are typically faster when numerical and physical size are congruent than when they are incongruent, which is called the size congruity effect (SCE). Although numerical size is unlikely to be a guiding feature in visual search, recent studies have nevertheless observed the SCE in the visual search paradigm...
January 16, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351666/intraoperative-identification-and-preservation-of-verbal-memory-in-diffuse-gliomas-a-matched-pair-cohort-study
#13
Juan Martino, Elsa Gomez, Enrique Marco de Lucas, David Mato, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon
BACKGROUND: Recent glioma surgery series with intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES) language mapping have demonstrated high rates of postoperative memory impairment, raising a question regarding the efficacy of this approach to preserve memory. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if intraoperative identification and preservation of verbal memory sites with IES mapping in diffuse gliomas in eloquent areas consistently protect patients from long-term postoperative decline in short-term memory...
January 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351292/allocation-of-distinct-organ-fates-from-a-precursor-field-requires-a-shift-in-expression-and-function-of-gene-regulatory-networks
#14
Sneha Palliyil, Jinjin Zhu, Luke R Baker, Sarah D Neuman, Arash Bashirullah, Justin P Kumar
A common occurrence in metazoan development is the rise of multiple tissues/organs from a single uniform precursor field. One example is the anterior forebrain of vertebrates, which produces the eyes, hypothalamus, diencephalon, and telencephalon. Another instance is the Drosophila wing disc, which generates the adult wing blade, the hinge, and the thorax. Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that are comprised of signaling pathways and batteries of transcription factors parcel the undifferentiated field into discrete territories...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350963/observation-of-the-quantum-hall-effect-in-confined-films-of-the-three-dimensional-dirac-semimetal-cd_-3-as_-2
#15
Timo Schumann, Luca Galletti, David A Kealhofer, Honggyu Kim, Manik Goyal, Susanne Stemmer
The magnetotransport properties of epitaxial films of Cd_{3}As_{2}, a paradigm three-dimensional Dirac semimetal, are investigated. We show that an energy gap opens in the bulk electronic states of sufficiently thin films and, at low temperatures, carriers residing in surface states dominate the electrical transport. The carriers in these states are sufficiently mobile to give rise to a quantized Hall effect. The sharp quantization demonstrates surface transport that is virtually free of parasitic bulk conduction and paves the way for novel quantum transport studies in this class of topological materials...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350946/electrical-control-of-structural-and-physical-properties-via-strong-spin-orbit-interactions-in-sr_-2-iro_-4
#16
G Cao, J Terzic, H D Zhao, H Zheng, L E De Long, Peter S Riseborough
Electrical control of structural and physical properties is a long-sought, but elusive goal of contemporary science and technology. We demonstrate that a combination of strong spin-orbit interactions (SOI) and a canted antiferromagnetic Mott state is sufficient to attain that goal. The antiferromagnetic insulator Sr_{2}IrO_{4} provides a model system in which strong SOI lock canted Ir magnetic moments to IrO_{6} octahedra, causing them to rigidly rotate together. A novel coupling between an applied electrical current and the canting angle reduces the Néel temperature and drives a large, nonlinear lattice expansion that closely tracks the magnetization, increases the electron mobility, and precipitates a unique resistive switching effect...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350396/tobacco-regulation-as-a-paradigm-for-advancing-regulatory-science-in-dermatology
#17
Harrison P Nguyen, Marney A White, Stephen K Tyring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350251/pyramidal-cell-selective-glun1-knockout-causes-impairments-in-salience-attribution-and-related-eeg-activity
#18
Alexandra D Forrest, Jakyung Bang, Robert E Featherstone, Jonathan H Bloom, Matthew S Luminais, Rebecca V Zhang, Christopher R Gajewski, Mary F McMullen, Yuling Liang, Steven J Siegel
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disease characterized by symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, loss of pleasure, and inappropriate affect. Although schizophrenia is marked by dysfunction in dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling, it is not presently clear how these dysfunctions give rise to symptoms. The aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia argues that abnormal attribution of motivational salience to stimuli is one of the main contributors to both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
January 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350030/correction-to-tunneling-control-of-chemical-reactions-the-third-reactivity-paradigm
#19
Peter R Schreiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349904/lysosome-remodelling-and-adaptation-during-phagocyte-activation
#20
REVIEW
Victoria E B Hipolito, Erika Ospina-Escobar, Roberto J Botelho
Lysosomes are acidic and hydrolytic organelles responsible for receiving and digesting cargo acquired during endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. For macrophages and dendritic cells, the lysosome is kingpin, playing a direct role in microbe killing and antigen processing for presentation. Strikingly, the historic view that lysosomes are homogeneous and static organelles is being replaced with a more elegant paradigm, in which lysosomes are heterogeneous, dynamic and respond to cellular needs. For example, lysosomes are signaling platforms that integrate stress detection and molecular decision hubs like mTORC1 and AMPK to modulate cellular activity...
January 19, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
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