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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915479/trends-in-next-generation-sequencing-and-a-new-era-for-whole-genome-sequencing
#1
REVIEW
Sang Tae Park, Jayoung Kim
This article is a mini-review that provides a general overview for next-generation sequencing (NGS) and introduces one of the most popular NGS applications, whole genome sequencing (WGS), developed from the expansion of human genomics. NGS technology has brought massively high throughput sequencing data to bear on research questions, enabling a new era of genomic research. Development of bioinformatic software for NGS has provided more opportunities for researchers to use various applications in genomic fields...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915365/now-you-make-false-memories-now-you-do-not-the-order-of-presentation-of-words-in-drm-lists-influences-the-production-of-the-critical-lure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Christelle Evrard, Anne-Laure Gilet, Fabienne Colombel, Elodie Dufermont, Yves Corson
Why do some Alzheimer's patients produce fewer false memories than healthy older participants in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, which was especially designed for the study of false memories in a laboratory setting? Using a very simple methodology, this study examines a new explanatory factor inherent in the paradigm itself: the order of presentation of the words in the lists. A sample comprising 149 participants (36 younger, 40 middle-aged, 37 healthy older adults, and 36 Alzheimer's patients) performed a DRM task with either a classic descending forward associative strength (FAS) presentation order of the words or an ascending FAS presentation order...
December 3, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915210/functional-brain-imaging-of-walking-while-talking-an-fnirs-study
#3
Florian G Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Florian B Haeussinger, Patrick Schneeweiss, Justin Hudak, Andreas J Fallgatter, Sabrina Schneider
Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single and dual task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4 x 4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915126/stroke-risk-stratification-and-its-validation-using-ultrasonic-echolucent-carotid-wall-plaque-morphology-a-machine-learning-paradigm
#4
Tadashi Araki, Pankaj K Jain, Harman S Suri, Narendra D Londhe, Nobutaka Ikeda, Ayman El-Baz, Vimal K Shrivastava, Luca Saba, Andrew Nicolaides, Shoaib Shafique, John R Laird, Ajay Gupta, Jasjit S Suri
Stroke risk stratification based on grayscale morphology of the ultrasound carotid wall has recently been shown to have a promise in classification of high risk versus low risk plaque or symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques. In previous studies, this stratification has been mainly based on analysis of the far wall of the carotid artery. Due to the multifocal nature of atherosclerotic disease, the plaque growth is not restricted to the far wall alone. This paper presents a new approach for stroke risk assessment by integrating assessment of both the near and far walls of the carotid artery using grayscale morphology of the plaque...
November 27, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915119/neural-correlates-of-pupil-dilation-during-human-fear-learning
#5
Laura Leuchs, Max Schneider, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning and extinction are prevailing experimental and etiological models for normal and pathological anxiety. Pupil dilations in response to conditioned stimuli are increasingly used as a robust psychophysiological readout of fear learning, but their neural correlates remain unknown. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of pupil responses to threat and safety cues during a fear learning task. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914728/-nanotechnology-a-new-paradigm-in-atherosclerosis-treatment
#6
Virna M Martín Giménez, María Belén Ruiz-Roso, Alejandra Beatriz Camargo, Diego Kassuha, Walter Manucha
Atherosclerosis, a known and prevalent disease, causes progressive deterioration of affected vessels, inducing a blood flow reduction with different complications, and its symptoms usually manifest in advanced stages of the disease. Therefore, the classic therapeutic alternatives are insufficient because the damages are many times irreversible. For this reason, there is a need to implement intelligent forms of drug administration and develop new therapeutic targets that reduce the progression of atherosclerotic lesion...
November 30, 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914690/c1q-as-an-autocrine-and-paracrine-regulator-of-cellular-functions
#7
REVIEW
Berhane Ghebrehiwet, Kinga H Hosszu, Ellinor I B Peerschke
Most of the complement proteins in circulation are, by and large, synthesized in the liver. However data accumulated over the past several decades provide incontrovertible evidence that some if not most of the individual complement proteins are also synthesized extrahepatically by activated as well as non-activated cells. The question that is finally being addressed by various investigators is: are the locally synthesized proteins solely responsible for the myriad of biological functions in situ without the contribution of systemic complement? The answer is probably "yes"...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914629/cytoplasmic-fmr1-interacting-protein-2-is-a-major-genetic-factor-underlying-binge-eating
#8
Stacey L Kirkpatrick, Lisa R Goldberg, Neema Yazdani, R Keith Babbs, Jiayi Wu, Eric R Reed, David F Jenkins, Amanda F Bolgioni, Kelsey I Landaverde, Kimberly P Luttik, Karen S Mitchell, Vivek Kumar, W Evan Johnson, Megan K Mulligan, Pietro Cottone, Camron D Bryant
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are lethal and heritable; however, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Binge eating is a highly heritable trait associated with eating disorders that is comorbid with mood and substance use disorders. Therefore, understanding its genetic basis will inform therapeutic development that could improve several comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. METHODS: We assessed binge eating in closely related C57BL/6 mouse substrains and in an F2 cross to identify quantitative trait loci associated with binge eating...
October 25, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914502/rationale-and-design-of-the-progression-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-determined-by-computed-tomographic-angiography-imaging-paradigm-registry-a-comprehensive-exploration-of-plaque-progression-and-its-impact-on-clinical-outcomes-from-a-multicenter-serial-coronary
#9
Sang-Eun Lee, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Asim Rizvi, Martin Hadamitzky, Yong-Jin Kim, Edoardo Conte, Daniele Andreini, Gianluca Pontone, Valentina Volpato, Matthew J Budoff, Ilan Gottlieb, Byoung Kwon Lee, Eun Ju Chun, Filippo Cademartiri, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Jonathon A Leipsic, Sanghoon Shin, Jung Hyun Choi, Namsik Chung, James K Min
BACKGROUND: The natural history of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with low-to-intermediate risk is not well characterized. Although earlier invasive serial studies have documented the progression of atherosclerotic burden, most were focused on high-risk patients only. The PARADIGM registry is a large, prospective, multinational dynamic observational registry of patients undergoing serial coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). The primary aim of PARADIGM is to characterize the natural history of CAD in relation to clinical and laboratory data...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914377/evaluating-multipulse-integration-as-a-neural-health-correlate-in-human-cochlear-implant-users-relationship-to-spatial-selectivity
#10
Ning Zhou, Bryan E Pfingst
The decrease of psychophysical detection thresholds as a function of pulse rate for a fixed-duration electrical pulse train is referred to as multipulse integration (MPI). The MPI slopes correlate with anatomical and physiological indices of cochlear health in guinea pigs with cochlear implants. The aim of the current study was to assess whether the MPI slopes were related to the spatial spread of activation by electrical stimulation. The hypothesis was that MPI is dependent on the total number of excitable neurons at the stimulation site, with broader neural excitation producing a steeper threshold decrease as a function of stimulation rate...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914318/older-adults-attentional-deployment-differential-gaze-patterns-for-different-negative-mood-states
#11
Ineke Demeyer, Alvaro Sanchez, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Older adults are characterized by an attentional preference for positive over negative information. Since this positivity effect is considered to be an emotion regulation strategy, it should be more pronounced when emotion regulation is needed. In contrast to previous studies that focused on the effects of sad mood on attention, we used a stressor to activate emotion regulation and evaluate the effects of different types of mood state changes. Moreover, we evaluated mood effects on attentional processes using a paradigm that allows disentangling between different attentional engagement and disengagement processes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914171/clinical-feasibility-of-brain-computer-interface-based-on-steady-state-visual-evoked-potential-in-patients-with-locked-in-syndrome-case-studies
#12
Han-Jeong Hwang, Chang-Hee Han, Jeong-Hwan Lim, Yong-Wook Kim, Soo-In Choi, Kwang-Ok An, Jun-Hak Lee, Ho-Seung Cha, Seung Hyun Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Although the feasibility of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems based on steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been extensively investigated, only a few studies have evaluated its clinical feasibility in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS), who are the main targets of BCI technology. The main objective of this case report was to share our experiences of SSVEP-based BCI experiments involving five patients with LIS, thereby providing researchers with useful information that can potentially help them to design BCI experiments for patients with LIS...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914168/short-term-trained-lexical-categories-affect-preattentive-shape-perception-evidence-from-vmm
#13
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913856/direct-oral-anticoagulants-an-overview-for-the-interventional-radiologist
#14
Pradesh Kumar, Rajeev Ravi, Gaurav Sundar, Caroline Shiach
The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as a good alternative for the treatment of thromboembolic diseases, and their use in clinical practice is increasing rapidly. The DOACs act by blocking the activity of one single step in the coagulation cascade. These drugs act downstream in the common pathway of the coagulation cascade by directly antagonising the action of thrombin or factor Xa. The development of DOACs represents a paradigm shift from the oral vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin. This article aims to describe the properties of the currently available DOACs including pharmacology and dosing...
December 2, 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913817/the-contribution-of-response-conflict-multisensory-integration-and-body-mediated-attention-to-the-crossmodal-congruency-effect
#15
Francesco Marini, Daniele Romano, Angelo Maravita
The crossmodal congruency task is a consolidated paradigm for investigating interactions between vision and touch. In this task, participants judge the elevation of a tactile target stimulus while ignoring a visual distracter stimulus that may occur at a congruent or incongruent elevation, thus engendering a measure of visuo-tactile interference (crossmodal congruency effect, CCE). The CCE reflects perceptual, attentional, and response-related factors, but their respective roles and interactions have not been set out yet...
December 2, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913654/novel-small-molecule-jp-153-targets-the-src-fak-paxillin-signaling-complex-to-inhibit-vegf-induced-retinal-angiogenesis
#16
Jordan J Toutounchian, Jayaprakash Pagadala, Duane D Miller, Jerome Baudry, Frank Park, Edward Chaum, Charles R Yates
Targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a common treatment strategy for neovascular eye disease, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. However, the decline in clinical efficacy over time in many patients suggests that monotherapy of anti-VEGF protein therapeutics may benefit from adjunctive treatments. Our previous work has shown that through decreased activation of the cytoskeletal protein paxillin, growth factor-induced ischemic retinopathy in the murine oxygen-induced retinopathy model could be inhibited...
January 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913529/ph-like-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#17
Thai Hoa Tran, Mignon L Loh
Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is a newly identified high-risk (HR) B-lineage ALL subtype, accounting for ∼15% of children with National Cancer Institute-defined HR B-ALL. It occurs more frequently in adolescents and adults, having been reported in as much as 27% of young adults with ALL between 21 and 39 years of age. It exhibits adverse clinical features, confers a poor prognosis, and harbors a diverse range of genetic alterations that activate cytokine receptor genes and kinase signaling pathways, making it amenable to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913515/cellular-immune-responses-in-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization
#18
James C Zimring, Krystalyn E Hudson
In excess of 340 blood group antigens have now been described that vary between individuals. Thus, any unit of blood that is nonautologous represents a significant dose of alloantigen. Most blood group antigens are proteins, which differ by a single amino acid between donors and recipients. Approximately 1 out of every 70 individuals are transfused each year (in the United States alone), which leads to antibody responses to red blood cell (RBC) alloantigens in some transfusion recipients. When alloantibodies are formed, in many cases, RBCs expressing the antigen in question can no longer be safely transfused...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913499/novel-agents-and-strategies-in-transplant-eligible-patients-with-relapsed-and-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma
#19
Craig Moskowitz
The majority of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma are cured with frontline therapy; however, 10% to 15% with early-stage disease and 20% to 30% with advanced stage require second-line therapy that includes a potentially curative transplant, of which an additional 50% to 55% are cured. Those with multiply relapsed disease traditionally would receive novel agents on a clinical trial or combination chemotherapy as a potential bridge to an allogeneic stem cell transplant. This treatment paradigm has changed with the availability of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody drug conjugate used pre- and post-ASCT, as well as for palliation...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913463/single-dose-intravenous-iron-for-iron-deficiency-a-new-paradigm
#20
Michael Auerbach, Thomas Deloughery
Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
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