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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778925/deep-learning-strategy-for-accurate-carotid-intima-media-thickness-measurement-an-ultrasound-study-on-japanese-diabetic-cohort
#1
Mainak Biswas, Venkatanareshbabu Kuppili, Tadashi Araki, Damodar Reddy Edla, Elisa Cuadrado Godia, Luca Saba, Harman S Suri, Tomaž Omerzu, John R Laird, Narendra N Khanna, Andrew Nicolaides, Jasjit S Suri
MOTIVATION: The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an important biomarker for cardiovascular diseases and stroke monitoring. This study presents an intelligence-based, novel, robust, and clinically-strong strategy that uses a combination of deep-learning (DL) and machine-learning (ML) paradigms. METHODOLOGY: A two-stage DL-based system (a class of AtheroEdge™ systems) was proposed for cIMT measurements. Stage I consisted of a convolution layer-based encoder for feature extraction and a fully convolutional network-based decoder for image segmentation...
May 12, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778853/natural-history-of-diabetic-coronary-atherosclerosis-by-quantitative-measurement-of-serial-coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-results-of-the-paradigm-study-progression-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-determined-by-computed-tomographic-angiography-imaging
#2
Ung Kim, Jonathon A Leipsic, Stephanie L Sellers, Michael Shao, Philipp Blanke, Martin Hadamitzky, Yong-Jin Kim, Edoardo Conte, Daniele Andreini, Gianluca Pontone, Matthew J Budoff, Ilan Gottlieb, Byoung Kwon Lee, Eun Ju Chun, Filippo Cademartiri, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Sanghoon Shin, Jung Hyun Choi, Renu Virmani, Habib Samady, Peter H Stone, Daniel S Berman, Jagat Narula, Leslee J Shaw, Jeroen J Bax, James K Min, Hyuk-Jae Chang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the rate and extent of plaque progression (PP), changes in plaque features, and clinical predictors of PP in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). BACKGROUND: The natural history of coronary PP in patients with DM is not well established. METHODS: A total of 1,602 patients (age 61.3 ± 9.0 years; 60.3% men; median scan interval 3.8 years) who underwent serial coronary computed tomography angiography over a period of at least 24 months were enrolled and analyzed from the PARADIGM (Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque Determined by Computed Tomographic Angiography Imaging) trial...
May 11, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778851/paradigms-of-noninvasive-assessment-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-diabetic-patients-insights-from-the-paradigm-registry
#3
EDITORIAL
Maros Ferencik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778762/object-spatial-and-social-recognition-testing-in-a-single-test-paradigm
#4
Bin Lian, Jun Gao, Nan Sui, Tingyong Feng, Ming Li
Animals have the ability to process information about an object or a conspecific's physical features and location, and alter its behavior when such information is updated. In the laboratory, the object, spatial and social recognition are often studied in separate tasks, making them unsuitable to study the potential dissociations and interactions among various types of recognition memories. The present study introduced a single paradigm to detect the object and spatial recognition, and social recognition of a familiar and novel conspecific...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778546/imaging-genetics-paradigms-in-depression-research-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Lícia P Pereira, Cristiano A Köhler, Brendon Stubbs, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Gerwyn Morris, Bárbara P de Freitas, Trevor Thompson, Brisa S Fernandes, André R Brunoni, Michael Maes, Diego A Pizzagalli, André F Carvalho
Imaging genetics studies involving participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) have expanded. Nevertheless, findings have been inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging genetics studies that enrolled MDD participants across major databases through June 30th, 2017. Sixty-five studies met eligibility criteria (N = 4034 MDD participants and 3293 controls), and there was substantial between-study variability in the methodological quality of included studies. However, few replicated findings emerged from this literature with only 22 studies providing data for meta-analyses (882 participants with MDD and 616 controls)...
May 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778290/spatial-hearing-ability-of-the-pigmented-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-minimum-audible-angle-and-spatial-release-from-masking-in-azimuth
#6
Nathaniel T Greene, Kelsey L Anbuhl, Alexander T Ferber, Marisa DeGuzman, Paul D Allen, Daniel J Tollin
Despite the common use of guinea pigs in investigations of the neural mechanisms of binaural and spatial hearing, their behavioral capabilities in spatial hearing tasks have surprisingly not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to fill this void, we tested the spatial hearing of adult male guinea pigs in several experiments using a paradigm based on the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. In the first experiment, we presented continuous broadband noise from one speaker location and switched to a second speaker location (the "prepulse") along the azimuth prior to presenting a brief, ∼110 dB SPL startle-eliciting stimulus...
April 27, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778278/new-evidence-of-a-rhythmic-priming-effect-that-enhances-grammaticality-judgments-in-children
#7
Alexander Chern, Barbara Tillmann, Chloe Vaughan, Reyna L Gordon
Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the potential influence of musical rhythmic priming on subsequent spoken grammar task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers of English. Participants (ages 5-8 years) listened to rhythmically regular and irregular musical sequences (within-participants design) followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences upon which they were asked to perform a grammaticality judgment task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778062/unattended-processing-of-hierarchical-pitch-variations-in-spoken-sentences
#8
Xiaoqing Li, Yiya Chen
An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the unattended processing of pitch variation which functions to signal hierarchically different levels of meaning contrasts. Four oddball conditions were constructed by varying the pitch contour of critical words embedded in a Mandarin Chinese sentence. Two conditions included lexical-level word meaning contrasts (i.e. TONE condition) and the other two sentence-level information-status contrasts (i.e. ACCENTUATION condition). Both included stimuli with early vs...
May 16, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777983/young-infants-discrimination-of-subtle-phonetic-contrasts
#9
Megha Sundara, Céline Ngon, Katrin Skoruppa, Naomi H Feldman, Glenda Molina Onario, James L Morgan, Sharon Peperkamp
It is generally accepted that infants initially discriminate native and non-native contrasts and that perceptual reorganization within the first year of life results in decreased discrimination of non-native contrasts, and improved discrimination of native contrasts. However, recent findings from Narayan, Werker, and Beddor (2010) surprisingly suggested that some acoustically subtle native-language contrasts might not be discriminated until the end of the first year of life. We first provide countervailing evidence that young English-learning infants can discriminate the Filipino contrast tested by Narayan et al...
May 16, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777674/an-approach-for-brain-controlled-prostheses-based-on-scene-graph-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials
#10
Rui Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Hanzhe Li, Liming Zhang, Zhufeng Lu, Jiangcheng Chen
Brain control technology can restore communication between the brain and a prosthesis, and choosing a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) paradigm to evoke electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an essential step for developing this technology. In this paper, the Scene Graph paradigm used for controlling prostheses was proposed; this paradigm is based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) regarding the Scene Graph of a subject's intention. A mathematic model was built to predict SSVEPs evoked by the proposed paradigm and a sinusoidal stimulation method was used to present the Scene Graph stimulus to elicit SSVEPs from subjects...
May 16, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777616/regenerative-endodontics-a-review
#11
REVIEW
S G Kim, M Malek, A Sigurdsson, L M Lin, B Kahler
The European Society of Endodontology and the American Association for Endodontists have released position statements and clinical considerations for regenerative endodontics. There is increasing literature on this field since the initial reports of Iwaya et al. (2001) and Banchs & Trope (2004). Endogenous stem cells from an induced periapical bleeding and scaffolds using blood clot, platelet rich plasma or platelet rich fibrin have been utilized in regenerative endodontics. This approach has been described as a 'paradigm shift" and considered the first treatment option for immature teeth with pulp necrosis...
May 19, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777410/startling-differences-using-the-acoustic-startle-response-to-study-sex-differences-and-neurosteroids-in-affective-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Liisa Hantsoo, Carla E M Golden, Sara Kornfield, Christian Grillon, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroactive steroid hormones, such as estradiol and progesterone, likely play a role in the pathophysiology of female-specific psychiatric disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and postpartum depression and may contribute to the marked sex differences observed in the incidence and presentation of affective disorders. However, few tools are available to study the precise contributions of these neuroactive steroids (NSs). In this review, we propose that the acoustic startle response (ASR), an objective measure of an organism's response to an emotional context or stressor, is sensitive to NSs...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777302/emerging-strategies-in-brca-positive-pancreatic-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Adam Kowalewski, Łukasz Szylberg, Michał Saganek, Wojciech Napiontek, Paulina Antosik, Dariusz Grzanka
PURPOSE: We propose a treatment algorithm for PDAC with particular emphasis on BRCA1 or 2 mutation-positive patients. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest diseases in the United States and Europe. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are among the most common of the known genetic mutations involved in familial PDAC. The optimal chemotherapy regimen to use for BRCA1 or 2 mutation carriers with PDAC is not yet established. As new treatment options emerge, algorithms must balance the need to give the best drugs first with ensuring that there are still beneficial options available for later...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776900/the-biopsychosocial-digital-approach-to-health-and-disease-call-for-a-paradigm-expansion
#14
Alireza Ahmadvand, Robert Gatchel, John Brownstein, Lisa Nissen
Digital health is an advancing phenomenon in modern health care systems. Currently, numerous stakeholders in various countries are evaluating the potential benefits of digital health solutions at the individual, population, and/or organizational levels. Additionally, driving factors are being created from the customer-side of the health care systems to push health care providers, policymakers, or researchers to embrace digital health solutions. However, health care providers may differ in their approach to adopt these solutions...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776605/g-protein-coupled-receptor-resensitization-paradigms
#15
Manveen K Gupta, Maradumane L Mohan, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad
Cellular responses to extracellular milieu/environment are driven by cell surface receptors that transmit the signal into the cells resulting in a synchronized and measured response. The ability to provide such exquisite responses to changes in external environment is mediated by the tight and yet, deliberate regulation of cell surface receptor function. In this regard, the seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell surface receptors that regulate responses like cardiac contractility, vision, and olfaction including platelet activation...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776602/blurring-boundaries-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-as-functional-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#16
Caitrin Crudden, Takashi Shibano, Dawei Song, Naida Suleymanova, Ada Girnita, Leonard Girnita
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) control important biological activities as well as being involved in pathological processes. Due to their supportive nature in many human cancers they have long been considered attractive therapeutic targets. However, lessons learnt from early targeting trials highlight that a simple "active versus inactive" state model with classical kinase-only signaling is overly simplistic and does not describe reality...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776559/angioedema-in-heart-failure-patients-treated-with-sacubitril-valsartan-lcz696-or-enalapril-in-the-paradigm-hf-study
#17
Victor Shi, Michele Senni, Hendrik Streefkerk, Vikas Modgill, Wenchun Zhou, Allen Kaplan
BACKGROUND: PARADIGM-HF demonstrated significant clinical benefits for sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor) versus the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. As inhibition of ACE, and co-inhibition of ACE and neprilysin, may increase the risk of angioedema, this was an adverse event of special interest. METHODS: Following sequential enalapril and sacubitril/valsartan run-ins, patients were randomized to twice-daily sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg or enalapril 10 mg...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776293/analysis-of-circulating-tumor-dna-the-next-paradigm-shift-in-detection-and-treatment-of-lung-cancer
#18
EDITORIAL
David S Schrump, Julie A Hong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776125/post-transcriptional-bursting-in-genes-regulated-by-small-rna-molecules
#19
Guillermo Rodrigo
Gene expression programs in living cells are highly dynamic due to spatiotemporal molecular signaling and inherent biochemical stochasticity. Here we study a mechanism based on molecule-to-molecule variability at the RNA level for the generation of bursts of protein production, which can lead to heterogeneity in a cell population. We develop a mathematical framework to show numerically and analytically that genes regulated post transcriptionally by small RNA molecules can exhibit such bursts due to different states of translation activity (on or off), mostly revealed in a regime of few molecules...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775858/when-is-the-right-hemisphere-holistic-and-when-is-it-not-the-case-of-chinese-character-recognition
#20
Harry K S Chung, Jacklyn C Y Leung, Vienne M Y Wong, Janet H Hsiao
Holistic processing (HP) has long been considered a characteristic of right hemisphere (RH) processing. Indeed, holistic face processing is typically associated with left visual field (LVF)/RH processing advantages. Nevertheless, expert Chinese character recognition involves reduced HP and increased RH lateralization, presenting a counterexample. Recent modeling research suggests that RH processing may be associated with an increase or decrease in HP, depending on whether spacing or component information was used respectively...
May 15, 2018: Cognition
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