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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641121/is-inhibitory-control-involved-in-discriminating-pseudowords-that-contain-the-reversible-letters-b-and-d
#1
Lorie-Marlène Brault Foisy, Emmanuel Ahr, Steve Masson, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
Children tend to confuse reversible letters such as b and d when they start learning to read. According to some authors, mirror errors are a consequence of the mirror generalization (MG) process that allows one to recognize objects independently of their left-right orientation. Although MG is advantageous for the visual recognition of objects, it is detrimental for the visual recognition of reversible letters. Previous studies comparing novice and expert readers demonstrated that MG must be inhibited to discriminate reversible single letters...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641095/high-dose-chemotherapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-relapsed-or-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma-emerging-questions-newer-agents-and-changing-paradigm
#2
REVIEW
Saad Akhtar
Primary treatment for adult and pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) using current multiagent anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy will cure approximately >70% of the patients; >95% for early stage with a favorable risk profile and 70-75% with advanced stage and high risk features. Managing refractory and relapsed disease, however, remains a challenge. High dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) can salvage 40-70% of patients with relapsed or refractory HL...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#3
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640703/integrating-evidence-based-medicine-for-treatment-of-spinal-metastases-into-a-decision-framework-neurologic-oncologic-mechanicals-stability-and-systemic-disease
#4
Ori Barzilai, Ilya Laufer, Yoshiya Yamada, Daniel S Higginson, Adam M Schmitt, Eric Lis, Mark H Bilsky
Patients with cancer are frequently affected by spinal metastases. Treatment is palliative, with the principle goals of pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, and improvement in quality of life. In the past decade, we have witnessed a dramatic change in the treatment paradigms due to the development of improved surgical strategies and systemic and radiation therapy. The most important change to these paradigms has been the integration of spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS), allowing delivery of tumoricidal radiation doses with sparing of nearby organs at risk...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640660/chromosome-territory-relocation-paradigm-during-dna-damage-response-some-insights-from-molecular-biology-to-physics
#5
Sarosh N Fatakia, Mugdha Kulashreshtha, Ishita S Mehta, Basuthkar J Rao
Among the many facets of DNA damage response (DDR), relocation of chromosome territories (CTs) is most intriguing. We have previously reported that cisplatin induced DDR in human dermal fibroblasts led to relocation of CTs 12, 15 from the nuclear periphery to its interior while CTs 19, 17 repositioned from the interior to its periphery. Studies of CT relocation remain nascent as we begin unraveling the role of key players in DDR to demonstrate its mechanistic basis. Consolidating our recent reports, we argue that γH2AX-signaling leads to enhanced recruitment of nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) to chromatin, which via its motor function, results in CT repositioning...
June 22, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640584/spectroscopic-evidence-for-a-h-bond-network-at-y356-located-at-the-subunit-interface-of-active-e-coli-ribonucleotide-reductase
#6
Thomas U Nick, Kanchana R Ravichandran, JoAnne Stubbe, Müge Kasanmascheff, Marina Bennati
The reaction catalyzed by E. coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) composed of α and β subunits that form an active α2β2 complex is a paradigm for proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes in biological transformations. β2 contains the diferric tyrosyl radical (Y122•) cofactor that initiates a radical transfer (RT) over 35 Å via a specific pathway of amino acids (Y122• ↔ [W48] ↔ Y356 in β2 to Y731 ↔Y730↔ C439 in α2). Experimental evidence exists for co-linear and orthogonal PCET in α2 and β2 respectively...
June 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#7
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#8
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636902/-riddle-me-this-substrate-channeling-solves-the-paradigms-of-camp-dependent-activation-of-pka
#9
César A Ramírez-Sarmiento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636685/interfacial-memristors-in-al-lanio3-heterostructures
#10
Bobo Tian, Pavan Nukala, Mohamed Ben Hassine, Xiaolin Zhao, Xudong Wang, Hong Shen, Jianlu Wang, Shuo Sun, Tie Lin, Jinglan Sun, Jun Ge, Rong Huang, Chungang Duan, Thomas Reiss, Maria Varela, Brahim Dkhil, Xiangjian Meng, Junhao Chu
Memristive devices are promising circuit elements that enable novel computational approaches which go beyond the von-Neumann paradigms. Here by tuning the chemistry at the Al-LaNiO3 (LNO) interface, a metal-metal junction, we engineer good switching behavior with good electroresistance (ON-OFF resistance ratios of 100), and repeatable multiple resistance states. The active material responsible for such a behavior is a self-formed sandwich of an AlxOy layer at the interface obtained by grabbing oxygen by Al from LNO...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636677/contextual-imitation-of-intransitive-body-actions-in-a-beluga-whale-delphinapterus-leucas-a-do-as-other-does-study
#11
José Z Abramson, Mª Victoria Hernández-Lloreda, José-Antonio Esteban, Fernando Colmenares, Francisco Aboitiz, Josep Call
Cetaceans are remarkable for exhibiting group-specific behavioral traditions or cultures in several behavioral domains (e.g., calls, behavioral tactics), and the question of whether they can be acquired socially, for example through imitative processes, remains open. Here we used a "Do as other does" paradigm to experimentally study the ability of a beluga to imitate familiar intransitive (body-oriented) actions demonstrated by a conspecific. The participant was first trained to copy three familiar behaviors on command (training phase) and then was tested for her ability to generalize the learned "Do as the other does" command to a different set of three familiar behaviors (testing phase)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636403/applying-precision-medicine-to-trial-design-using-physiology-extracorporeal-co2-removal-for-ards
#12
Ewan C Goligher, Marcelo B P Amato, Arthur S Slutsky
In clinical trials of therapies for ARDS, the average treatment effect in the study population may be attenuated because individual patient responses vary widely. This inflates sample size requirements and increases the cost and difficulty of conducting successful clinical trials. One solution is to enrich the study population with patients most likely to benefit based on predicted patient response to treatment (predictive enrichment). In this perspective, we apply the precision medicine paradigm to the emerging use of extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) for ultra-protective ventilation in ARDS...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635964/elastically-driven-intermittent-microscopic-dynamics-in-soft-solids
#13
Mehdi Bouzid, Jader Colombo, Lucas Vieira Barbosa, Emanuela Del Gado
Soft solids with tunable mechanical response are at the core of new material technologies, but a crucial limit for applications is their progressive aging over time, which dramatically affects their functionalities. The generally accepted paradigm is that such aging is gradual and its origin is in slower than exponential microscopic dynamics, akin to the ones in supercooled liquids or glasses. Nevertheless, time- and space-resolved measurements have provided contrasting evidence: dynamics faster than exponential, intermittency and abrupt structural changes...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635908/-idiopatic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-new-paradigm
#14
S N Avdeev
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ((IPF) is the most common disease from a group of interstitial lung diseases, which occurs mainly in middle-aged and elderly people. Over the past decade, there have been considerable changes in approaches to diagnosing and treating IPF. The paper presents an update on the epidemiology of IPF, the results of new studies of its pathogenesis, and main approaches to diagnosing the disease. In addition, there is new evidence on therapy for IPF.
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635672/towards-the-internet-of-smart-trains-a-review-on-industrial-iot-connected-railways
#15
Paula Fraga-Lamas, Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Luis Castedo
Nowadays, the railway industry is in a position where it is able to exploit the opportunities created by the IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) and enabling communication technologies under the paradigm of Internet of Trains. This review details the evolution of communication technologies since the deployment of GSM-R, describing the main alternatives and how railway requirements, specifications and recommendations have evolved over time. The advantages of the latest generation of broadband communication systems (e...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#16
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635286/utilization-of-an-active-site-mutant-receptor-for-the-identification-of-potent-and-selective-atypical-5-ht2c-receptor-agonists
#17
Joseph Carpenter, Ying Wang, Gang Wu, Jianxin Feng, Xiang-Yang Ye, Christian L Morales, Matthias Broekema, Karen A Rossi, Keith J Miller, Brian J Murphy, Ginger Yingzhe Wu, Sarah E Malmstrom, Anthony V Azzara, Philip M Sher, John M Fevig, Andrew Alt, Robert L Bertekap, Mary Jane Cullen, Timothy M Harper, Kimberly A Foster, Chiuwa Emily Luk, Qian Xiang, Mary F Grubb, Jeffrey A Robl, Dean A Wacker
Agonism of the 5-HT2C receptor represents one of the most well-studied and clinically-proven mechanisms for pharmacological weight reduction. Selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors is critical as their activation has been shown to lead to undesirable side-effects and major safety concerns. In this communication, we report the development of a new screening paradigm which utilizes an active site mutant D134A 5-HT2C receptor to identify atypical agonist structures. We additionally report the discovery and optimization of a novel class of non-basic heterocyclic amide agonists of 5-HT2C...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634789/detection-and-grading-of-prostate-cancer-using-temporal-enhanced-ultrasound-combining-deep-neural-networks-and-tissue-mimicking-simulations
#18
Shekoofeh Azizi, Sharareh Bayat, Pingkun Yan, Amir Tahmasebi, Guy Nir, Jin Tae Kwak, Sheng Xu, Storey Wilson, Kenneth A Iczkowski, M Scott Lucia, Larry Goldenberg, Septimiu E Salcudean, Peter A Pinto, Bradford Wood, Purang Abolmaesumi, Parvin Mousavi
PURPOSE  : Temporal Enhanced Ultrasound (TeUS) has been proposed as a new paradigm for tissue characterization based on a sequence of ultrasound radio frequency (RF) data. We previously used TeUS to successfully address the problem of prostate cancer detection in the fusion biopsies. METHODS  : In this paper, we use TeUS to address the problem of grading prostate cancer in a clinical study of 197 biopsy cores from 132 patients. Our method involves capturing high-level latent features of TeUS with a deep learning approach followed by distribution learning to cluster aggressive cancer in a biopsy core...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634646/the-role-of-robotics-in-the-invasive-management-of-bladder-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Pramit Khetrapal, Wei Shen Tan, Benjamin Lamb, Melanie Tan, Hilary Baker, James Thompson, Ashwin Sridhar, John D Kelly, Tim Briggs
Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) has been adopted widely in many centres, owed largely to the success of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). It aims to replicate the oncological outcomes of open radical cystectomy (ORC), while providing a shorter recovery period. Despite this, previous RCTs have failed to show a benefit for RARC over ORC. These trials have compared extracorporeal RARC (eRARC) with ORC, which requires a further incision to mobilise the bowel for urinary reconstruction with an open technique...
August 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634552/inherited-paediatric-motor-neuron-disorders-beyond-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#20
REVIEW
Hooi Ling Teoh, Kate Carey, Hugo Sampaio, David Mowat, Tony Roscioli, Michelle Farrar
Paediatric motor neuron diseases encompass a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the onset of muscle weakness and atrophy before the age of 18 years, attributable to motor neuron loss across various neuronal networks in the brain and spinal cord. While the genetic underpinnings are diverse, advances in next generation sequencing have transformed diagnostic paradigms. This has reinforced the clinical phenotyping and molecular genetic expertise required to navigate the complexities of such diagnoses...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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