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Kousuke Sasaki, Tamotsu Sugai, Kazuyuki Ishida, Mitsumasa Osakabe, Hiroo Amano, Hiroaki Kimura, Minoru Sakuraba, Katsuhiko Kashiwa, Seiichiro Kobayashi
Activated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and fibroblasts that have undergone the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer stroma contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, no reports have investigated the CAF phenotype and its clinicopathological relevance in cutaneous malignant tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Here, we investigated the CAF phenotype in cutaneous malignant tumors based on their histology and immunohistochemical expression of CAF-related markers, including adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1), podoplanin, platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), PDGFRβ, fibroblast activating protein (FAP), CD10, S100A4, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and EMT-related markers (Zeb1, Slug and Twist)...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Arianna L Kim, Jung Ho Back, Sandeep C Chaudhary, Yucui Zhu, Mohammad Athar, David R Bickers
Currently available SMO targeted therapies in patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) are associated with substantial tumor recurrence and clinical resistance. Strategies bypassing SMO and/or identifying additional downstream components of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway could provide novel anti-tumor targets with a better therapeutic index. SOX9 is a Hh/GLI-regulated transcription factor known to be overexpressed in BCCs. A sequence motif search for SOX9-responsive elements identified three motifs in the promoter region of mTOR...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Jef L Leroy, Deanna Olney, Marie Ruel
Background: Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. Objective: We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jiangwei Wang, Yanming Wang, Wei Cai, Jixue Li, Ze Zhang, Scott X Mao
Shear band in metallic crystals is localized deformation with high dislocation density, which is often observed in nanopillar deformation experiments. The shear band dynamics coupled with dislocation activities, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamic processes of dislocation and shear band in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten nanowires via an integrated approach of in situ nanomechanical testing and atomistic simulation. We find a strong effect of surface orientation on dislocation nucleation in tungsten nanowires, in which {111} surfaces act as favorite sites under high strain...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Ruiz-Franco, J Marakis, N Gnan, J Kohlbrecher, M Gauthier, M P Lettinga, D Vlassopoulos, E Zaccarelli
Ultrasoft colloids typically do not spontaneously crystallize, but rather vitrify, at high concentrations. Combining in situ rheo-small-angle-neutron-scattering experiments and numerical simulations we show that shear facilitates crystallization of colloidal star polymers in the vicinity of their glass transition. With increasing shear rate well beyond rheological yielding, a transition is found from an initial bcc-dominated structure to an fcc-dominated one. This crystal-to-crystal transition is not accompanied by intermediate melting but occurs via a sudden reorganization of the crystal structure...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Liza Brown, Jennifer David, Stanley Skopit
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a common skin malignancy comprising 80% of non-melanoma skin cancers.1 Over 2.8 million cases are estimated to be diagnosed in the United States alone each year. Advanced BCCs are comprised of BCCs that have metastasized to local or distant lymph nodes or organs, or locally invasive BCCs that are extensive and infiltrate vital structures such as eyes, nose, or brain. Advanced BCC tumors represent roughly 1-10% of BCCs today. Two severe case presentations and treatment options will be discussed in this case report series and review...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Keisuke Takahashi
Prediction of the magnetic moment of binary body centered cubic (BCC) is explored in terms of first principle calculations and data science. A dataset of 1,541 binary BCC materials constructed by first principle calculations is implemented for data mining. Descriptors for determining the magnetic moment are explored using machine learning, where classification and regression models are both implemented. Data mining reveals that two descriptors are responsible for classifying whether the materials have zero or nonzero magnetic moments and can also classify which groups of magnetic moments they belong to ($\mu_{B}$ $<$ 1, 1 $\leq$ $\mu_{B}$ $<$2,or 2 $\leq$ $\mu_{B}$ $<$ 3) where the average scores produced in cross validation indicate 80$\%$ and 91$\%$ accuracy, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
B Raone, A Patrizi, C Gurioli, A Gazzola, G M Ravaioli
BACKGROUND: Narrowband-ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is widely used for the treatment of several dermatological diseases. A cutaneous carcinogenic effect has been hypothesized, but not proved. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients treated with NB-UVB between January 1998 and December 2013 at the Dermatology Unit of our University Hospital, to evaluate the cutaneous carcinogenic risk of NB-UVB. RESULTS: 375 patients were included, each receiving a mean follow-up of 6...
March 13, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Slavomir Kondoff, Atanas Drenchev, Torello Lotti, Uwe Wollina, Ilia Lozev, Ivan Pidakev, Ivan Terziev, Yavor Grigorov, Serena Gianfaldoni, Georgi Tchernev
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) located in the sun-exposed regions are a serious therapeutic challenge. Therefore early diagnosis and adequate therapy should be of a high priority for every dermatologic surgeon. CASE PRESENTATION: We are presenting a patient with multiple BCCs, located on the area of the scalp, who had been treated several years ago with electrocautery and curettage after histopathological verification. However, the last few years the tumours have advanced, infiltrating firstly the tabula external and a year later the tabula interna of the cranium...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Courtney Hanna, Lauren Cook, Galen Foulke, Elizabeth V Seiverling
Dermoscopy, commonly used to analyze skin tumors, has more recently been used to evaluate inflammatory dermatoses. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the role of dermoscopy in evaluating psoriasis, and briefly reviewed the findings with an emphasis on the specificity or sensitivity of the dermoscopic findings of psoriasis. We also describe the case of a 63-year-old man with a history of psoriasis and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) who presented with a new scaly pink patch on the back. This case highlights the importance of dermoscopy in differentiating patches and plaques of psoriasis from BCC...
January 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Ruobing Wang, Sebastian K Welsh, Marie Budev, Hilary Goldberg, Peadar G Noone, David Zaas, Debra Boyer
Cystic fibrosis (CF) with severe lung disease is a well-recognized indication for lung transplantation. Colonization with various organisms in CF patients may impact post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is made up of distinct genomovars with significant morbidity and mortality associated with B. cenocepacia (genomovar III) following lung transplant. The outcomes of patients infected with genomovar B. dolosa (genomovar VI) have yet to be described in the literature. We performed a retrospective chart review of all cystic fibrosis patients colonized with B...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Kamran Balighi, Mahshid Sadat Ansari, Mehdi Mirzaiepour, Maryam Daneshpazhooh, HamidReza Mahmoudi
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the world. Surgery is treatment of the choice and other modalities such as topical and systemic agents have been used. In this study we evaluate intralesional methotrexate(MTX) effectiveness in treatment of BCC as an antimetabolite agent.MTX was injected into 40 nodular BCCs with 2.5mg/ml,10mg/ml and 25 mg/ml concentrations and rebiopsy was done 1 month later. There was no change in size and shape of lesions. Although MTX was safe and well tolerated, the study does not show any effect in treatment of BCC...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
E de Vries, Y Misirli, T Nijsten, L M Hollestein
The incidence of Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) rises by 5% per decade in the Netherlands (1), representing an important burden on the health care system and dermatologists' workload (2,3). There is no evidence that intensive follow-up results in better outcomes (burden of disease, cosmetic results) in patients with low risk BCCs (4-6). According to the Dutch BCC guideline, follow-up after treatment is not indicated for patients with a low risk BCC (7), but patients may come for follow-up more frequently for various reasons (4,7,8)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
N Fakhfakh, R Abdelmlak, S Aissa, A Kallel, Y Boudawara, S Bel Hadj, N Ben Romdhane, H Touiri Ben Aissa, K Kallel
Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by a dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a 34-year-old woman, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), originating from Ivory Coast and living in Tunisia for 4 years. She was complaining from fever, chronic diarrhoea and pancytopenia. The Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum was identified by direct microscopic examination of the bone marrow. She was treated by Amphotericin B, relayed by itraconazole...
March 5, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Whitney S Loo, Xi Jiang, Jacqueline A Maslyn, Hee Jeung Oh, Chenhui Zhu, Kenneth H Downing, Nitash P Balsara
It is known that the addition of salts to symmetric block copolymers leads to stabilization of ordered phases and an increase in domain spacing; both trends are consistent with an increase in the effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between the blocks, χ. In this work, we show that the addition of salt to a disordered asymmetric block copolymer first leads to the formation of coexisting ordered phases which give way to a reentrant disordered phase at a higher salt concentration. The coexisting phases are both body centered cubic (BCC) with different domain spacings, stabilized by partitioning of the salt...
March 7, 2018: Soft Matter
Shijian Feng, Liang Zhou, Qinyu Liu, Qing He, Banghua Liao, Xin Wei, Hong Li, Kunjie Wang, Yuchun Zhu
Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are recommended for patients with erectile dysfunction by American Urological Association and European Association Urology guidelines. However, recent researches have shown that PDE5 inhibitors may lead to increased melanoma risk. Thus, we aimed to explore whether PDE5 inhibitors are associated with increased melanoma risk based on published literatures.We conducted a systematic online search on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biochemical Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical databases to identify the related studies...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Olga L Voronina, Marina S Kunda, Natalia N Ryzhova, Ekaterina I Aksenova, Natalia E Sharapova, Andrey N Semenov, Elena L Amelina, Alexandr G Chuchalin, Alexandr L Gintsburg
BACKGROUND: Microbes infecting cystic fibrosis patients' respiratory tract are important in determining patients' functional status. Representatives of Burkholderiales order are the most dangerous. The goal of our investigation was to reveal the diversity of Burkholderiales, define of their proportion in the microbiome of various parts of respiratory tract and determine the pathogenicity of the main representatives. RESULTS: In more than 500 cystic fibrosis patients, representing all Federal Regions of Russia, 34...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Matthew L Rohlfing, Jordan M Sukys, Dennis Poe, Kenneth M Grundfast
OBJECTIVES: Congenital cholesteatoma (CC) occurs less commonly than acquired cholesteatoma (AC), and bilateral CC (BCC) is even more rare with only 38 such cases having been reported in the past 42 years. Because of the rarity of this condition, providers confronted with cases of BCC may find it difficult to treat while balancing complete removal of disease, optimal hearing outcomes, and minimized surgical burden in the pediatric patient. This review alerts physicians that BCC occurs, highlights past presentations and management strategies, describes the considerations in treatment and offers an algorithm helpful in the management of BCC...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Antonio Teri, Samantha Sottotetti, Arianna Biffi, Daniela Girelli, Monica D'Accico, Milena Arghittu, Carla Colombo, Fabiola Corti, Giovanna Pizzamiglio, Lisa Cariani
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are capable of causing severe infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bcc infection is often extremely difficult to treat due to its intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. In addition, it seems to speed up the decline of lung function and is considered a contraindication for lung transplantation in CF. This study investigates the species of the Bcc strains recovered from chronically infected CF subjects by means of: isolation, identification methods and complete recA nucleotide sequences of 151 samples...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
Ujjal Saikia, Munima B Sahariah, César González, Ravindra Pandey
Cu-Nb layered nanocomposite system can be considered as a prototype system to investigate stability of the fcc-bcc semicoherent metallic interfaces. Theoretical simulations based on density functional theory have been performed in order to investigate the stability of different defects in such interfaces. The calculations find the interfacial misfit dislocation intersections as the preferred site for defects including a vacancy, He-interstitial, and a vacancy-He complex in good agreement with previous works...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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