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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917290/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-isolated-mouse-pulmonary-arterial-vessels
#1
Ievgen Strielkov, Nicole Catherine Krause, Natasha Sommer, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Friedrich Grimminger, Thomas Gudermann, Alexander Dietrich, Norbert Weissmann
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has never been characterized in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries of different generations in detail. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that only small intrapulmonary arteries (80 - 200 μm in diameter) exhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The observed response was sustained, significantly potentiated by depolarization-induced preconstriction, and not dependent on endothelium and TRPC6 channels...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913136/mmp-2-and-mmp-9-contribute-to-the-angiogenic-effect-produced-by-hypoxia-15-hete-in-pulmonary-endothelial-cells
#2
Ying Liu, Hongyue Zhang, Lixin Yan, Wei Du, Min Zhang, He Chen, Lixin Zhang, Guangqun Li, Jijin Li, Yinchu Dong, Daling Zhu
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are the predominant gelatinases in the developing lung. Studies have shown that the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is upregulated in hypoxic fibroblasts, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) regulated fibroblasts migration via modulating MMP-2 or MMP-9, and that hypoxia/15-HETE is a predominant contributor to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) through increased angiogenesis. However, the roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) angiogenesis as well as the molecular mechanism of hypoxia-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression have not been identified...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902384/abrupt-deflation-after-sustained-inflation-causes-lung-injury
#3
Bhushan H Katira, Doreen Engelberts, Gail Otulakowski, Regan E Giesinger, Takeshi Yoshida, Martin Post, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Kim A Connelly, Brian P Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Ventilator management in ARDS focuses on 'setting' parameters and not on ventilator disconnection. OBJECTIVE: To determine if abrupt deflation after sustained inflation causes lung injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were ventilated (6 mL·kg-1) and randomized to Control (n=6, PEEP 3 cmH2O; 100 min) or Intervention (n=6, PEEP 3 to 11 cmH2O over 70 min; abrupt deflation to zero PEEP; ventilation for 30 mins). Lung function and injury was assessed, scanning electron microscopy performed, and microvascular leak timed by Evans Blue dye (n=4/group at 0, 2, 5, 10 & 20 min post deflation)...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867539/revisiting-the-role-of-trp-orai-and-asic-channels-in-the-pulmonary-arterial-response-to-hypoxia
#4
REVIEW
Roberto V Reyes, Sebastián Castillo-Galán, Ismael Hernandez, Emilio A Herrera, Germán Ebensperger, Aníbal J Llanos
The pulmonary arteries are exquisitely responsive to oxygen changes. They rapidly and proportionally contract as arterial PO2 decrease, and they relax as arterial PO2 is re-established. The hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is intrinsic since it does not require neural or endocrine factors, as evidenced in isolated vessels. On the other hand, pulmonary arteries also respond to sustained hypoxia with structural and functional remodeling, involving growth of smooth muscle medial layer and later recruitment of adventitial fibroblasts, secreted mitogens from endothelium and changes in the response to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867503/relaxin-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-the-cardiovascular-complications-of-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Hooi Hooi Ng, Chen Huei Leo, Laura J Parry, Rebecca H Ritchie
Cardiovascular complications are the major cause of mortality in patients with diabetes. This is closely associated with both macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, which lead to organ injuries in diabetic patients. Previous studies have consistently demonstrated the beneficial effects of relaxin treatment for protection of the vasculature, with evidence of antioxidant and anti-remodeling actions. Relaxin enhances nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type-mediated relaxation in various vascular beds...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799120/transition-from-post-capillary-pulmonary-hypertension-to-combined-pre-and-post-capillary-pulmonary-hypertension-in-swine-a-key-role-for-endothelin
#6
Richard W B van Duin, Kelly Stam, Zongye Cai, André Uitterdijk, Ana Garcia-Alvarez, Borja Ibanez, Ah Jan Danser, Irwin K M Reiss, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Passive, isolated post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (IpcPH) secondary to left heart disease may progress to combined pre- and post-capillary or 'active' PH (CpcPH) characterized by chronic pulmonary vascular constriction and remodelling. The mechanisms underlying this 'activation' of passive PH remain incompletely understood. Here we investigate the role of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET) in the progression from IpcPH to CpcPH in a swine model for post-capillary PH. Swine underwent pulmonary vein banding (PVB n = 7) or sham-surgery (SH n = 6) and were chronically instrumented four weeks later...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792349/pulmonary-endothelial-permeability-and-tissue-fluid-balance-depend-on-the-viscosity-of-the-perfusion-solution
#7
Simon C Rowan, Keith D Rochfort, Lucie Piouceau, Philip M Cummins, Malachy O'Rourke, Paul McLoughlin
Fluid filtration in the pulmonary microcirculation depends on the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients across the endothelium, and the selective permeability of the endothelial barrier. Maintaining normal fluid balance depends both on specific properties of the endothelium and of the perfusing blood. Although some of the essential properties of blood needed to prevent excessive fluid leak have been identified and characterised, our understanding of these remains incomplete. The role of perfusate viscosity in maintaining normal fluid exchange has not previously been examined...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766401/penehyclidine-hydrochloride-decreases-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-inflammatory-injury-through-a-beta-arrestin-1-dependent-mechanism
#8
Fei Zheng, Fei Xiao, Qing-Hong Yuan, Qiang-Sheng Liu, Zong-Ze Zhang, Yan-Lin Wang, Jia Zhan
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with other hyoscyamine, the notable advantage of PHC is that it has few M2 receptor-associated cardiovascular side effects. Recent studies and clinical trials have suggested that treatment with penehyclidine hydrochloride may also possess good effects in the treatment of lung injury. The mechanism responsible for this effect has yet to be determined; however, one possibility is that they might do so by a direct effect on pulmonary vascular endothelium...
May 15, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760995/intravital-imaging-of-a-pulmonary-endothelial-surface-layer-in-a-murine-sepsis-model
#9
Inwon Park, Kibaek Choe, Howon Seo, Yoonha Hwang, Eunjoo Song, Jinhyo Ahn, You Hwan Jo, Pilhan Kim
Direct intravital imaging of an endothelial surface layer (ESL) in pulmonary microcirculation could be a valuable approach to investigate the role of a vascular endothelial barrier in various pathological conditions. Despite its importance as a marker of endothelial cell damage and impairment of the vascular system, in vivo visualization of ESL has remained a challenging technical issue. In this work, we implemented a pulmonary microcirculation imaging system integrated to a custom-design video-rate laser scanning confocal microscopy platform...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745255/pannexin-1-channels-on-endothelial-cells-mediate-vascular-inflammation-during-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
Ashish K Sharma, Eric J Charles, Yunge Zhao, Adishesh K Narahari, Pranav K Baderdinni, Miranda E Good, Ulrike M Lorenz, Irving L Kron, Douglas A Bayliss, Kodi S Ravichandran, Brant E Isakson, Victor E Laubach
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which involves inflammation, vascular permeability, and edema, remains a major challenge after lung transplantation. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels modulate cellular ATP release during inflammation. This study tests the hypothesis that endothelial Panx1 is a key mediator of vascular inflammation and edema after IR and that IRI can be blocked by Panx1 antagonism. A murine hilar ligation model of IRI was utilized whereby left lungs underwent 1 hour of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737632/mesenchymal-stem-cell-microvesicles-restore-protein-permeability-across-primary-cultures-of-injured-human-lung-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#11
Shuling Hu, Jeonghyun Park, Airan Liu, JaeHoon Lee, Xiwen Zhang, Qi Hao, Jae-Woo Lee
Our previous study demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) microvesicles (MV) reduced lung inflammation, protein permeability, and pulmonary edema in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms for restoring lung protein permeability were not fully understood. In this current study, we hypothesized that MSC MV would restore protein permeability across injured human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) in part through the transfer of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) mRNA to the injured endothelium...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707296/sevoflurane-did-not-show-better-protective-effect-on-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-compared-to-propofol-during-lung-resection-surgery-with-one-lung-ventilation
#12
Hye-Jin Kim, Eunsoo Kim, Seung-Hoon Baek, Hee Young Kim, Joo-Yun Kim, Juyeon Park, Eun-Ji Choi
Background: The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) coats the alveolar capillary endothelium and plays important roles in pulmonary vascular protection, modulation, and hemostasis. Ischemia-reperfusion, which occurs during lung resection surgery with one lung ventilation (OLV), can damage the EGL. Sevoflurane is known for its protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that lung resection surgery produces EGL damage and sevoflurane protects the EGL better than the intravenous anesthetic propofol...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699902/intravenous-leiomyomatosis-of-the-uterus-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-13-cases-with-an-emphasis-on-histogenesis
#13
Lanlan Tang, Bingjian Lu
The object of this study is to investigate the prognosis and potential histologic origin of uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL). We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 13 cases of IVL from a single institute. The patients underwent hysterectomy (3 with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and 8 with excision of the broad ligaments and/or parametrium). They survived with no evidence of disease for 6-90 months. Intravascular worm-like plugs were macroscopically identified in the myometrium in 10 of 13 cases (76...
June 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686623/ticagrelor-improves-endothelial-function-by-decreasing-circulating-epidermal-growth-factor-egf
#14
Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesca Fortini, Giorgio Aquila, Rita Pavasini, Simone Biscaglia, Davide Bernucci, Annamaria Del Franco, Elisabetta Tonet, Paola Rizzo, Roberto Ferrari, Gianluca Campo
Ticagrelor is one of the most powerful P2Y12 inhibitor. We have recently reported that, in patients with concomitant Stable Coronary Artery Disease (SCAD) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), treatment with ticagrelor, as compared to clopidogrel, is associated with an improvement of the endothelial function (Clinical Trial NCT02519608). In the present study, we showed that, in the same population, after 1 month treatment with ticagrelor, but not with clopidogrel, there is a decrease of the circulating levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that these changes in circulating levels of EGF correlate with on-treatment platelet reactivity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679722/pulmonary-lymphatic-vessel-morphology-a-review
#15
REVIEW
E Weber, F Sozio, A Borghini, P Sestini, E Renzoni
Our understanding of lymphatic vessels has been advanced by the recent identification of relatively specific lymphatic endothelium markers, including Prox-1, VEGFR3, podoplanin and LYVE-1. The use of lymphatic markers has led to the observation that, contrary to previous assumptions, human lymphatic vessels extend deep inside the pulmonary lobule, either in association with bronchioles, intralobular arterioles or small pulmonary veins. Pulmonary lymphatic vessels may thus be classified into pleural, interlobular (in interlobular septa) and intralobular...
July 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676623/nicotine-downregulates-the-compensatory-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#16
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674000/angiotensin-ii-promotes-pulmonary-metastasis-of-melanoma-through-the-activation-of-adhesion-molecules-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#17
Shin Ishikane, Hiroshi Hosoda, Takashi Nojiri, Takeshi Tokudome, Tetsuya Mizutani, Koichi Miura, Yoshiharu Akitake, Toru Kimura, Yoshitaka Imamichi, Shinya Kawabe, Yumiko Toyohira, Nobuyuki Yanagihara, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Mikiya Miyazato, Kaoru Miyamoto, Kenji Kangawa
Hypertension is considered as one of the cancer progressive factors, and often found comorbidity in cancer patients. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, and angiotensin II (Ang II) is well known pressor peptide associated with RAS. Ang II has been reported to accelerate progression and metastasis of cancer cells. However, its precise mechanisms have not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which Ang II exacerbates hematogenous metastasis in mouse melanoma cells, focusing the adhesion pathway in vascular endothelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644226/nitric-oxide-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Adrian H Chester, Magdi H Yacoub, Salvador Moncada
The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains undefined. Changes in the expression and effects mediated by a number of vasoactive factors have been implicated to play a role in the onset and progression of the disease. The source of many of these mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), is the pulmonary endothelium. This article focus in the role of nitric oxide in PAH, reviewing the evidence for its involvement in regulation of pulmonary a vascular tone under physiological conditions, the mechanisms by which it can contribute to the pathological changes seen in PAH and strategies for the use of NO as a therapy for treatment of the disease...
June 30, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643033/-vaspin-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-mice-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-protecting-vascular-endothelium-via-pi3k-akt-signal-pathway
#19
Wen Li, Di Qi, Lan Chen, Yan Zhao, Wang Deng, Xu-Mao Tang, Dao-Xin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Vaspin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in mice and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Forty male C57B/L6 mice were randomized equally into control group, LPS group, Vaspin group and wortmannin group with corresponding treatments. The pathological changes of the lung tissues were evaluated by HE staining, and the severity of pulmonary edema was measured according to the wet/dry ratio (W/D) of the lung tissue...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622593/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-8-activation-induces-relaxation-of-pulmonary-artery-by-inhibition-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-normoxic-and-chronic-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#20
Yun-Ping Mu, Da-Cen Lin, Si-Yi Zheng, Hai-Xia Jiao, James S K Sham, Mo-Jun Lin
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, which are attributable to the alteration of Ca2+ homeostasis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). It is well established that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is augmented in PASMCs during PH and that it plays a crucial role in PH development. Our previous studies showed that the melastatin-related transient receptor potential 8 (TRPM8) is down-regulated in PASMCs of PH animal models, and activation of TRPM8 causes relaxation of pulmonary arteries (PAs)...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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