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Pulmonary endothelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203404/the-role-of-cyclooxygenase-2-in-the-protection-against-apoptosis-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-induced-by-cigarette-smoking
#1
Zhihui Shi, Yan Chen, Yanfang Pei, Yingjiao Long, Caihong Liu, Jun Cao, Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an important upstream event in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to be biologically relevant in COPD. However, the role of COX-2 in the apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) remains to be elucidated. Our recent study found that the prostacyclin, one of the COX products in the microvascular endothelium, inhibited apoptosis in the emphysematous lungs of rats induced by CSE...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190469/proanthocyanidins-from-vitis-vinifera-inhibit-oxidative-stress-induced-vascular-impairment-in-pulmonary-arteries-from-diabetic-rats
#2
Christian Pinna, Paolo Morazzoni, Angelo Sala
BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera L. (grape seed extract) is a natural source of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. HYPOTHESIS: Grape seed extract supplementation may prevent vascular endothelium impairment associated with diabetes mellitus in rat pulmonary artery. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated endothelial function of rat pulmonary artery ex-vivo at the intermediate stage (4 weeks) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137936/elabela-toddler-is-an-endogenous-agonist-of-the-apelin-apj-receptor-in-the-adult-cardiovascular-system-and-exogenous-administration-of-the-peptide-compensates-for-the-downregulation-of-its-expression-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#3
Peiran Yang, Cai Read, Rhoda E Kuc, Guido Buonincontri, Mark Southwood, Rubben Torella, Paul D Upton, Alexi Crosby, Stephen J Sawiak, T Adrian Carpenter, Robert C Glen, Nicholas W Morrell, Janet J Maguire, Anthony P Davenport
BACKGROUND: -Elabela/Toddler (ELA) is a critical cardiac developmental peptide that acts through the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, despite lack of sequence similarity to the established ligand apelin. Our aim was to investigate the receptor pharmacology, expression pattern and in vivo function of ELA peptides in the adult cardiovascular system, to seek evidence for alteration in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in which apelin signaling is down-regulated, and to demonstrate attenuation of PAH severity with exogenous administration of ELA in a rat model...
January 30, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130261/impact-of-thrombosis-on-pulmonary-endothelial-injury-and-repair-following-sepsis
#4
Colin Evans, You-Yang Zhao
The prevailing morbidity and mortality in sepsis are largely due to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD), most commonly lung injury, as well as renal and cardiac dysfunction. Despite recent advances in defining many aspects of the pathogenesis of sepsis-related MOD, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there are currently no effective pharmacological or cell-based treatments for the disease. Human and animal studies have shown that pulmonary thrombosis is common in sepsis-induced ARDS, and pre-clinical studies have shown that anti-coagulation may improve outcome following sepsis challenge...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110121/s100a12-friend-or-foe-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#5
Vahid Bagheri
In humans, S100A12 (also named Calgranulin C and EN-RAGE) is mainly expressed and secreted by neutrophil granulocytes. Extracellular S100A12 is involved in innate immune responses against microorganisms and parasites. S100A12 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a cell surface receptor on macrophages, endothelium, and lymphocytes. In a recent study, Realegeno et al. showed that S100A12 exerts antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium leprae in infected human macrophages...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107214/loss-of-syndecan-1-abrogates-the-pulmonary-protective-phenotype-induced-by-plasma-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#6
Feng Wu, Zhanglong Peng, Pyong Woo Park, Rosemary A Kozar
Syndecan-1 is considered a biomarker of injury to the endothelial glycocalyx following hemorrhagic shock, with shedding of sdc1 deleterious. Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) has been correlated with restitution of pulmonary sdc1 and reduction of lung injury, but the precise contribution of sdc1 to FFPs protection in the lung remains unclear. Human lung endothelial cells were used to assess the time and dose dependent effect of FFP on sdc1 expression and the effect of sdc1 silencing on in vitro endothelial cell permeability and actin stress fiber formation...
January 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104688/mice-with-a-deficiency-in-clec-2-are-protected-against-deep-vein-thrombosis
#7
Holly Payne, Tatyana Ponomaryov, Steve P Watson, Alexander Brill
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with its major complication, pulmonary embolism, is a global health problem. Mechanisms of DVT remain incompletely understood. Platelets play a role in DVT but the impact of specific platelet receptors remains unclear. Platelet C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) is known to maintain the physiological state of blood vasculature under inflammatory conditions. DVT is a thromboinflammatory disorder developing largely as sterile inflammation in the vessel wall. We hypothesized therefore that CLEC-2 might play a role in DVT...
January 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100233/the-role-of-the-endothelium-in-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#8
REVIEW
Clara E Green, Alice M Turner
COPD and asthma are important chronic inflammatory disorders with a high associated morbidity. Much research has concentrated on the role of inflammatory cells, such as the neutrophil, in these diseases, but relatively little focus has been given to the endothelial tissue, through which inflammatory cells must transmigrate to reach the lung parenchyma and cause damage. There is evidence that there is an abnormal amount of endothelial tissue in COPD and asthma and that this tissue and its' progenitor cells behave in a dysfunctional manner...
January 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087752/deficient-retinoid-driven-angiogenesis-may-contribute-to-failure-of-adult-human-lung-regeneration-in-emphysema
#9
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Joana Alçada, M Angeles Montero, Charlotte H Dean, Uta Griesenbach, Mark J Griffiths, Matthew Hind
BACKGROUND: Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema...
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079595/acetylated-cyclophilin-a-is-a-major-mediator-in-hypoxia-induced-autophagy-and-pulmonary-vascular-angiogenesis
#10
Min Mao, Xiufeng Yu, Xin Ge, Rui Gu, Qian Li, Shasha Song, Xiaodong Zheng, Tingting Shen, Xuecang Li, Yao Fu, Jiali Li, Daling Zhu
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a major intracellular degradation and recycling process that maintains cellular homeostasis, which is involved in structural and functional abnormalities of pulmonary vasculature in hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH). Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a secreted, oxidative stress-induced factor. Its role in inducing autophagy and augmenting endothelial cell dysfunction has never been explored. METHODS: Lungs from rats exposed to chronic hypoxia were examined for autophagy with electron microscopy, western blotting, and fluorescence microscopy...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068653/exosomes-derived-from-human-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cells-shift-the-balance-between-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Lin Zhao, Hui Luo, Xiaohui Li, Tangzhiming Li, Jingni He, Qiangqiang Qi, Yuwei Liu, Zaixin Yu
BACKGROUND: The overproliferation of pulmonary vascular cells is noted in pulmonary hypertension. The role of exosomes from pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) in the proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) remains unclear. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated and purified from the culture medium of PAEC using a commercial kit. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hypoxia, and hydrogen peroxide were utilized to induce PAEC injury. Coculture of PAEC and PASMC was conducted using Transwell plates, and GW4869 was applied to inhibit exosome release...
January 10, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049696/endothelium-derived-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-contributes-to-blood-pressure-regulation-by-maintaining-endothelial-integrity
#12
Kazuhiro Nakao, Koichiro Kuwahara, Toshio Nishikimi, Yasuaki Nakagawa, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Takeya Minami, Yoshihiro Kuwabara, Chinatsu Yamada, Yuko Yamada, Takeshi Tokudome, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Naoto Minamino, Yoko M Nakao, Shinji Yasuno, Kenji Ueshima, Masakatsu Sone, Takeshi Kimura, Kenji Kangawa, Kazuwa Nakao
We previously reported the secretion of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) from vascular endothelial cells and proposed the existence of a vascular natriuretic peptide system composed of endothelial CNP and smooth muscle guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B), the CNP receptor, and involved in the regulation of vascular tone, remodeling, and regeneration. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of this system in the regulation of blood pressure in vivo using vascular endothelial cell-specific CNP knockout and vascular smooth muscle cell-specific GC-B knockout mice...
January 3, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049526/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-protects-against-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-mice-anp-for-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Atsuko Okamoto, Takashi Nojiri, Kazuhisa Konishi, Takeshi Tokudome, Koichi Miura, Hiroshi Hosoda, Jun Hino, Mikiya Miyazato, Yohkoh Kyomoto, Kazuhisa Asai, Kazuto Hirata, Kenji Kangawa
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive dyspnea and worsening pulmonary function. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a heart-derived secretory peptide used clinically in Japan for the treatment of acute heart failure, exerts a wide range of protective effects on various organs, including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and lungs. Its therapeutic properties are characterized by anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities mediated by the guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor...
January 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039410/effects-of-novel-muscarinic-m3-receptor-ligand-c1213-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-models
#14
Mohamed Ahmed, Sonya VanPatten, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Hardik Patel, Thomas R Coleman, Yousef Al-Abed
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex disease comprising a pathologic remodeling and thickening of the pulmonary vessels causing an after load on the right heart ventricle that can result in ventricular failure. Triggered by oxidative stress, episodes of hypoxia, and other undetermined causes, PH is associated with poor outcomes and a high rate of morbidity. In the neonate, this disease has a similar etiology but is further complicated by the transition to breathing after birth, which requires a reduction in vascular resistance...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035582/endothelial-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#15
Dildar Konukoglu, Hafize Uzun
In the past, endothelium was thought to be only a mechanical barrier. Today, endothelium is known to be a tissue regulating vascular tone, cell growth and the interaction between the leukocytes, thrombocytes and the vessel wall. It also synthesizes growth factors and thrombo-regulatory molecules and responds to physical and chemical signals. Even though the term "endothelial dysfunction" is generally used for deterioration of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation; the term also includes the abnormalities between endothelium and leukocytes, thrombocytes and regulatory molecules and conditions resulting in aberrant endothelium activation...
December 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026875/the-evidence-for-and-against-different-modes-of-tumour-cell-extravasation-in-the-lung-diapedesis-capillary-destruction-necroptosis-and-endothelialization
#16
Sándor Paku, Viktoria Laszlo, Katalin Dezso, Peter Nagy, Mir Alireza Hoda, Walter Klepetko, Ferenc Renyi-Vamos, Jozsef Timar, Andrew R Reynolds, Balazs Dome
The development of lung metastasis is a significant negative prognostic factor for cancer patients. The extravasation phase of lung metastasis involves interactions of tumour cells with the pulmonary endothelium. These interactions may have broad biological and medical significance, with potential clinical implications ranging from the discovery of lung metastasis biomarkers to the identification of targets for intervention in preventing lung metastases. Because of the potential significance, the mechanisms of tumour cell extravasation require cautious, systematic studies...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024456/thrombospondin-1-mediates-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-induced-impairment-of-arteriolar-dilation
#17
W Kyle Mandler, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Dale W Porter, I Mark Olfert
Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been shown to disrupt endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation in the peripheral microcirculation. The molecular mechanisms behind these arteriolar disruptions have yet to be fully elucidated. The secreted matricellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is capable of moderating arteriolar vasodilation by inhibiting soluble guanylate cyclase activity. We hypothesized that TSP-1 may be a link between nanomaterial exposure and observed peripheral microvascular dysfunction...
February 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017778/rhoa-s-nitrosylation-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-influencing-endothelial-barrier-function-in-response-to-g-bacterial-toxins
#18
F Chen, Y Wang, R Rafikov, S Haigh, W B Zhi, S Kumar, P T Doulias, O Rafikova, H Pillich, T Chakraborty, R Lucas, A D Verin, J D Catravas, J X She, S M Black, D J R Fulton
Disruption of the endothelial barrier in response to Gram positive (G(+)) bacterial toxins is a major complication of acute lung injury (ALI) and can be further aggravated by antibiotics which stimulate toxin release. The integrity of the pulmonary endothelial barrier is mediated by the balance of disruptive forces such as the small GTPase RhoA, and protective forces including endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). How NO protects against the barrier dysfunction is incompletely understood and our goal was to determine whether NO and S-nitrosylation can modulate RhoA activity and whether this mechanism is important for G(+) toxin-induced microvascular permeability...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012803/airway-and-pulmonary-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-vasodilatory-function-in-current-smokers-and-never-smokers
#19
Barry E Hurwitz, Eliana S Mendes, Andreas Schmid, Meela Parker, Johana Arana, Alex Gonzalez, Adam Wanner
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been associated with diminished vasodilatory function in the airway circulation. It is possible that cigarette smoking similarly affects the pulmonary circulation before resting pulmonary circulatory abnormalities manifest. OBJECTIVES: To compare in smokers and never-smokers the acute effect of inhaled albuterol on airway and pulmonary hemodynamic function, as an index of β2-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation. METHODS: In 30 adults, airway and pulmonary vascular function was assessed before and 15-min after albuterol inhalation (270 μg)...
December 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009790/exercise-training-reverses-extrapulmonary-impairments-in-smoke-exposed-mice
#20
T Scott Bowen, Lars Aakerøy, Sophia Eisenkolb, Patricia Kunth, Fredrik Bakkerud, Martin Wohlwend, Anne Marie Ormbostad, Tina Fischer, Ulrik Wisloff, Gerhard Schuler, Sigurd Steinshamn, Volker Adams, Eivind Bronstad
PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on non-pharmacological treatments such as exercise training. METHODS: Three groups of mice including control (n=10), smoking (n=10), and smoking with 6 weeks of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n=11) were exposed to 20 weeks of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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