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Pulmonary endothelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714905/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-on-fetal-pulmonary-circulation-an-experimental-study-in-fetal-lambs
#1
Dyuti Sharma, Estelle Aubry, Thavarak Ouk, Ali Houeijeh, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Rémi Besson, Philippe Deruelle, Laurent Storme
Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n-3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep and in fetal pulmonary arterial rings. Methods: At 128 days of gestation, catheters were placed surgically in fetal systemic and pulmonary circulation, and a Doppler probe around the left pulmonary artery (LPA)...
July 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714851/pdgfr%C3%AE-functions-in-endothelial-derived-cells-to-regulate-neural-crest-cells-and-development-of-the-great-arteries
#2
Haig Aghajanian, Young Kuk Cho, Nicholas W Rizer, Qiaohong Wang, Li Li, Karl Degenhardt, Rajan Jain
Originating as a single vessel emerging from the embryonic heart, the truncus arteriosus must septate and remodel into the aorta and pulmonary artery to support postnatal life. Defective remodeling or septation leads to abnormalities collectively known as conotruncal defects, which are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Multiple populations of cells must interact to coordinate outflow tract remodeling, and cardiac neural crest has emerged as particularly important during this process. Abnormalities in cardiac neural crest have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple conotruncal defects, including persistent truncus arteriosus, double outlet right ventricle, and tetralogy of Fallot...
July 14, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709982/impact-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-air-blood-barrier
#3
Rossella Bengalli, Maurizio Gualtieri, Laura Capasso, Chiara Urani, Marina Camatini
The inhalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) may induce systemic diseases, damages to the alveolar epithelium and inflammatory response to endothelial cells. In this work the use of an in vitro air-blood barrier (ABB) model provided a tool to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the potential effects of inhaled nanoparticles (NPs). The ABB model used is composed of a Transwell co-culture of a lung epithelial cell line (NCI-H441) and an immortalized pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693343/the-potential-role-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-platelet-activation-in-the-development-of-thrombotic-risk-in-copd-patients
#4
Mario Malerba, Matteo Nardin, Alessandro Radaeli, Paolo Montuschi, Giovanna E Carpagnano, Enrico Clini
Despite lack of knowledge in the field, several studies have underlined the role of endothelium dysfunction and platelet activation as significant players in the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indeed, endothelium plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis and impairment, due to the inflammation process enhanced by smoking. Chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction have been proved to drive platelet activity. Consequently, thrombotic risk is enhanced in COPD, and might explain the higher percentage of cardiovascular death in such patients...
July 12, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689269/pulmonary-endothelial-chimerism-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Kyoko Hijiya, Toyofumi Fengshi Chen-Yoshikawa, Aya Miyagawa-Hayashino, Tadakazu Kondo, Akihiro Aoyama, Hironori Haga, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Hiroshi Date
PURPOSE: Few studies have investigated pulmonary endothelial chimerism after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we investigated pulmonary endothelial chimerism using the ABH histo-blood group antigen as an identifying marker in cases of ABO-incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Sixteen lung samples were analyzed. Of these, seven were explanted lungs from lung transplant recipients with severe pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)...
July 8, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680581/endothelial-follistatin-like-1-regulates-the-postnatal-development-of-the-pulmonary-vasculature-by-modulating-bmp-smad-signaling
#6
Navessa P Tania, Harm Maarsingh, I Sophie T Bos, Andrea Mattiotti, Stuti Prakash, Wim Timens, Quinn D Gunst, Luis J Jimenez-Borreguero, Martina Schmidt, Maurice J B van den Hoff, Reinoud Gosens
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates vascular smooth muscle maturation, endothelial cell proliferation, and tube formation. The endogenous BMP antagonist Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is highly expressed in pulmonary vascular endothelium of the developing mouse lung, suggesting a role in pulmonary vascular formation and vascular homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Fstl1 in the pulmonary vascular endothelium. To this aim, Fstl1 was conditionally deleted from endothelial and endothelial-derived cells using Tie2-cre driven Fstl1-KO mice (Fstl1-eKO mice)...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680578/dysfunctional-bmpr2-signaling-drives-an-abnormal-endothelial-requirement-for-glutamine-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Robert A Egnatchik, Evan L Brittain, Amy T Shah, Wassim H Fares, H James Ford, Ken Monahan, Christie J Kang, Emily G Kocurek, Shijun Zhu, Thong Luong, Thuy T Nguyen, Erik Hysinger, Eric D Austin, Melissa C Skala, Jamey D Young, L Jackson Roberts, Anna R Hemnes, James West, Joshua P Fessel
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is increasingly recognized as a systemic disease driven by alteration in the normal functioning of multiple metabolic pathways affecting all of the major carbon substrates, including amino acids. We found that human pulmonary hypertension patients (WHO Group I, PAH) exhibit systemic and pulmonary-specific alterations in glutamine metabolism, with the diseased pulmonary vasculature taking up significantly more glutamine than that of controls. Using cell culture models and transgenic mice expressing PAH-causing BMPR2 mutations, we found that the pulmonary endothelium in PAH shunts significantly more glutamine carbon into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle than wild-type endothelium...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680577/hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#8
Minglin Pan, Ying Han, Rui Si, Rui Guo, Ankit Desai, Ayako Makino
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease that is mainly caused by chronic exposure to high altitude, chronic obstructive lung disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pulmonary arterial pressure result in increased right ventricular afterload, leading to right heart failure and increased morbidity. There are several clinical reports suggesting a link between PH and diabetes, insulin resistance, or obesity; however, it is unclear whether HPH is associated with diabetes as a progressive complication in diabetes...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670310/sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-the-sphingolipid-rheostat
#9
REVIEW
Stephen J Kuperberg, Raj Wadgaonkar
Sepsis is not only a significant cause of mortality worldwide but has particularly devastating effects on the central nervous system of survivors. It is therefore crucial to understand the molecular structure, physiology, and events involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated encephalopathy, so that potential therapeutic advances can be achieved. A key determinant to the development of this type of encephalopathy is morphological and functional modification of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whose function is to protect the CNS from pathogens and toxic threats...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662100/mir-146a-mir-146b-and-mir-155-increase-expression-of-il-6-and-il-8-and-support-hsp10-in-an-in-vitro-sepsis-model
#10
Dagmar Pfeiffer, Eva Roßmanith, Ingrid Lang, Dieter Falkenhagen
microRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in inflammation processes including sepsis. This study aimed to identify miRNAs as candidates for therapies that are involved in the innate immune response and to assess their potential functions in the activation of the endothelium. We stimulated THP-1 monocytes with 10 ng/ml LPS for 4 h and used the supernatant for the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) for 16 h. miRNA array analysis (of 1,891 miRNAs) identified a 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660189/eosinophil-activation-status-in-separate-compartments-and-association-with-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Mats W Johansson
Asthma is frequently characterized by eosinophil-rich airway inflammation. Airway eosinophilia is associated with asthma exacerbations and likely plays a part in airway remodeling. Eosinophil recruitment from the bloodstream depends on circulating eosinophils becoming activated, which leads to eosinophil arrest on activated endothelium, extravasation, and continued movement through the bronchial tissue by interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Circulating eosinophils can exist at different activation levels, which include non-activated or pre-activated (sensitized or "primed")...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629122/age-related-changes-in-immunological-and-physiological-responses-following-pulmonary-challenge
#12
REVIEW
Edmund J Miller, Helena M Linge
This review examines the current status of knowledge of sepsis and pneumonia in the elderly population and how the dynamics of the pulmonary challenge affects outcome and consequences. Led by an unprecedented shift in demographics, where a larger proportion of the population will reach an older age, clinical and experimental research shows that aging is associated with certain pulmonary changes, but it is during infectious insult of the lungs, as in the case of pneumonia, that the age-related differences in responsiveness and endurance become obvious and lead to a worse outcome than in the younger population...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628347/preventive-treatment-with-atorvastatin-ameliorates-endothelial-dysfunction-of-small-pulmonary-arteries-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#13
Zhihong Lin, Zhi Jiang, Xiaodong Huang, Xiaoqi Cai, Huajun Wang, Liangdi Xie
This study examined the effects of preventive atorvastatin (Ator) treatment on vasodilatation of small pulmonary arteries (SPAs) in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats. SD rats were randomly assigned to: normal control (Ctr), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), PAH treated with 5 mg/kg/d Ator (LAtor), or 10 mg/kg/d Ator (HAtor). PAH was induced by MCT injection (40 mg/kg, i.p.). Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI%), endothelium-dependent relaxations (EDdRs), and endothelium-independent relaxations (EDiRs) were determined...
June 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627093/characterization-of-thrombosis-in-patients-with-proteus-syndrome
#14
Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Jay N Lozier, Julie C Sapp, Leslie G Biesecker
Patients with overgrowth and complex vascular malformation syndromes, including Proteus syndrome have an increased risk of thromboembolism. Proteus syndrome is a mosaic, progressive overgrowth disorder involving vasculature, skin, and skeleton, and caused by a somatic activating mutation in AKT1. We conducted a comprehensive review of the medical histories and hematologic evaluations of 57 patients with Proteus syndrome to identify potential risk factors for thrombosis. We found that six of ten patients, who were deceased, died secondary to deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626833/the-lung-is-a-host-defense-niche-for-immediate-neutrophil-mediated-vascular-protection
#15
Bryan G Yipp, Jung Hwan Kim, Ronald Lima, Lori D Zbytnuik, Björn Petri, Nick Swanlund, May Ho, Vivian G Szeto, Tamar Tak, Leo Koenderman, Peter Pickkers, Anton T J Tool, Taco W Kuijpers, Timo K van den Berg, Mark R Looney, Matthew F Krummel, Paul Kubes
Bloodstream infection is a hallmark of sepsis, a medically emergent condition requiring rapid treatment. However, upregulation of host defense proteins through toll-like receptors and NFκB requires hours after endotoxin detection. Using confocal pulmonary intravital microscopy, we identified that the lung provides a TLR4-Myd88-and abl tyrosine kinase-dependent niche for immediate CD11b-dependent neutrophil responses to endotoxin and Gram-negative bloodstream pathogens. In an in vivo model of bacteremia, neutrophils crawled to and rapidly phagocytosed Escherichia coli sequestered to the lung endothelium...
April 28, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611413/a-microengineered-model-of-rbc-transfusion-induced-pulmonary-vascular-injury
#16
Jeongyun Seo, David Conegliano, Megan Farrell, Minseon Cho, Xueting Ding, Thomas Seykora, Danielle Qing, Nilam S Mangalmurti, Dongeun Huh
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion poses significant risks to critically ill patients by increasing their susceptibility to acute respiratory distress syndrome. While the underlying mechanisms of this life-threatening syndrome remain elusive, studies suggest that RBC-induced microvascular injury in the distal lung plays a central role in the development of lung injury following blood transfusion. Here we present a novel microengineering strategy to model and investigate this key disease process. Specifically, we created a microdevice for culturing primary human lung endothelial cells under physiological flow conditions to recapitulate the morphology and hemodynamic environment of the pulmonary microvascular endothelium in vivo...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602360/the-role-of-platelets-in-autoimmunity-vasculopathy-and-fibrosis-implications-for-systemic-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Konstantinos Ntelis, Elena E Solomou, Lazaros Sakkas, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Dimitrios Daoussis
INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy, autoimmunity, and widespread dermal and visceral fibrosis. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the potential contribution of platelets in the disease process and the rationale of targeting platelets as an adjunct treatment for SSc. METHODS: We performed an electronic search (Medline) using the keywords platelets, systemic sclerosis, autoimmunity, fibrosis, Raynaud, and pulmonary arterial hypertension...
May 23, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596957/heterogeneous-vascular-bed-responses-to-pulmonary-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-exposure
#18
Alaeddin B Abukabda, Phoebe A Stapleton, Carroll R McBride, Jinghai Yi, Timothy R Nurkiewicz
A growing body of research links engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure to adverse cardiovascular endpoints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ENM exposure on vascular reactivity in discrete segments so that we may determine the most sensitive levels of the vasculature where these negative cardiovascular effects are manifest. We hypothesized that acute nano-TiO2 exposure differentially affects reactivity with a more robust impairment in the microcirculation. Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10 weeks) were exposed to nano-TiO2via intratracheal instillation (20, 100, or 200 µg suspended per 250 µL of vehicle) 24 h prior to vascular assessments...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596374/lrp1-dependent-bmper-signaling-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-vascular-inflammation
#19
Pamela Lockyer, Hua Mao, Qiying Fan, Luge Li, Li-Yuan Yu-Lee, N Tony Eissa, Cam Patterson, Liang Xie, Xinchun Pi
OBJECTIVE: Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)-mediated sepsis involves dysregulated systemic inflammation, which injures the lung and other organs, often fatally. Vascular endothelial cells act as both targets and mediators of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses. Dysfunction of endothelium results in increases of proinflammatory cytokine production and permeability leakage. BMPER (bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator), an extracellular modulator of bone morphogenetic protein signaling, has been identified as a vital component in chronic endothelial inflammatory responses and atherosclerosis...
June 8, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552597/vasodilation-effect-of-volatile-oil-from-allium-macrostemon-bunge-are-mediated-by-pka-no-pathway-and-its-constituent-dimethyl-disulfide-in-isolated-rat-pulmonary-arterials
#20
Chenghua Han, Jing Qi, Sainan Gao, Chunxiang Li, Ying Ma, Jing Wang, Yuhua Bai, Xiaodong Zheng
The present study aimed to investigate the vasodilation effects of Allium macrostemon Bunge (AMB) on isolated rat pulmonary arterials (PAs) and to assess the underling mechanisms. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation from the bulbs of AMB. Then the volatile oil from AMB was studied on isolated rat PA, removal of endothelium, or pretreatment with nitro oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor PKI but not cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin significantly blocked the AMB induced relaxation on PE-contracted PA rings...
May 26, 2017: Fitoterapia
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