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Pulmonary endothelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087752/deficient-retinoid-driven-angiogenesis-may-contribute-to-failure-of-adult-human-lung-regeneration-in-emphysema
#1
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Joana Alçada, M Angeles Montero, Charlotte H Dean, Uta Griesenbach, Mark J Griffiths, Matthew Hind
BACKGROUND: Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema...
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079595/acetylated-cyclophilin-a-is-a-major-mediator-in-hypoxia-induced-autophagy-and-pulmonary-vascular-angiogenesis
#2
Min Mao, Xiufeng Yu, Xin Ge, Rui Gu, Qian Li, Shasha Song, Xiaodong Zheng, Tingting Shen, Xuecang Li, Yao Fu, Jiali Li, Daling Zhu
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a major intracellular degradation and recycling process that maintains cellular homeostasis, which is involved in structural and functional abnormalities of pulmonary vasculature in hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH). Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a secreted, oxidative stress-induced factor. Its role in inducing autophagy and augmenting endothelial cell dysfunction has never been explored. METHODS: Lungs from rats exposed to chronic hypoxia were examined for autophagy with electron microscopy, western blotting, and fluorescence microscopy...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068653/exosomes-derived-from-human-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cells-shift-the-balance-between-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Lin Zhao, Hui Luo, Xiaohui Li, Tangzhiming Li, Jingni He, Qiangqiang Qi, Yuwei Liu, Zaixin Yu
BACKGROUND: The overproliferation of pulmonary vascular cells is noted in pulmonary hypertension. The role of exosomes from pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) in the proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) remains unclear. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated and purified from the culture medium of PAEC using a commercial kit. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hypoxia, and hydrogen peroxide were utilized to induce PAEC injury. Coculture of PAEC and PASMC was conducted using Transwell plates, and GW4869 was applied to inhibit exosome release...
January 10, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049696/endothelium-derived-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-contributes-to-blood-pressure-regulation-by-maintaining-endothelial-integrity
#4
Kazuhiro Nakao, Koichiro Kuwahara, Toshio Nishikimi, Yasuaki Nakagawa, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Takeya Minami, Yoshihiro Kuwabara, Chinatsu Yamada, Yuko Yamada, Takeshi Tokudome, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Naoto Minamino, Yoko M Nakao, Shinji Yasuno, Kenji Ueshima, Masakatsu Sone, Takeshi Kimura, Kenji Kangawa, Kazuwa Nakao
We previously reported the secretion of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) from vascular endothelial cells and proposed the existence of a vascular natriuretic peptide system composed of endothelial CNP and smooth muscle guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B), the CNP receptor, and involved in the regulation of vascular tone, remodeling, and regeneration. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of this system in the regulation of blood pressure in vivo using vascular endothelial cell-specific CNP knockout and vascular smooth muscle cell-specific GC-B knockout mice...
January 3, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049526/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-protects-against-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-mice-anp-for-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
Atsuko Okamoto, Takashi Nojiri, Kazuhisa Konishi, Takeshi Tokudome, Koichi Miura, Hiroshi Hosoda, Jun Hino, Mikiya Miyazato, Yohkoh Kyomoto, Kazuhisa Asai, Kazuto Hirata, Kenji Kangawa
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive dyspnea and worsening pulmonary function. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a heart-derived secretory peptide used clinically in Japan for the treatment of acute heart failure, exerts a wide range of protective effects on various organs, including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and lungs. Its therapeutic properties are characterized by anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities mediated by the guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor...
January 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039410/effects-of-novel-muscarinic-m3-receptor-ligand-c1213-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-models
#6
Mohamed Ahmed, Sonya VanPatten, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Hardik Patel, Thomas R Coleman, Yousef Al-Abed
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex disease comprising a pathologic remodeling and thickening of the pulmonary vessels causing an after load on the right heart ventricle that can result in ventricular failure. Triggered by oxidative stress, episodes of hypoxia, and other undetermined causes, PH is associated with poor outcomes and a high rate of morbidity. In the neonate, this disease has a similar etiology but is further complicated by the transition to breathing after birth, which requires a reduction in vascular resistance...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035582/endothelial-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#7
Dildar Konukoglu, Hafize Uzun
In the past, endothelium was thought to be only a mechanical barrier. Today, endothelium is known to be a tissue regulating vascular tone, cell growth and the interaction between the leukocytes, thrombocytes and the vessel wall. It also synthesizes growth factors and thrombo-regulatory molecules and responds to physical and chemical signals. Even though the term "endothelial dysfunction" is generally used for deterioration of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation; the term also includes the abnormalities between endothelium and leukocytes, thrombocytes and regulatory molecules and conditions resulting in aberrant endothelium activation...
December 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026875/the-evidence-for-and-against-different-modes-of-tumour-cell-extravasation-in-the-lung-diapedesis-capillary-destruction-necroptosis-and-endothelialisation
#8
Sandor Paku, Viktoria Laszlo, Katalin Dezso, Peter Nagy, Mir Alireza Hoda, Walter Klepetko, Ferenc Renyi-Vamos, Jozsef Timar, Andrew R Reynolds, Balazs Dome
The development of lung metastasis is a significant negative prognostic factor for cancer patients. The extravasation phase of lung metastasis involves interactions of tumour cells with the pulmonary endothelium. These interactions may have broad biological and medical significance, with potential clinical implications ranging from the discovery of lung metastasis biomarkers to the identification of targets for intervention in preventing lung metastases. Because of the potential significance, the mechanisms of tumour cell extravasation require cautious, systematic studies...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024456/thrombospondin-1-mediates-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-induced-impairment-of-arteriolar-dilation
#9
W Kyle Mandler, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Dale W Porter, I Mark Olfert
Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been shown to disrupt endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation in the peripheral microcirculation. The molecular mechanisms behind these arteriolar disruptions have yet to be fully elucidated. The secreted matricellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is capable of moderating arteriolar vasodilation by inhibiting soluble guanylate cyclase activity. We hypothesized that TSP-1 may be a link between nanomaterial exposure and observed peripheral microvascular dysfunction...
December 26, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017778/rhoa-s-nitrosylation-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-influencing-endothelial-barrier-function-in-response-to-g-bacterial-toxins
#10
F Chen, Y Wang, R Rafikov, S Haigh, W B Zhi, S Kumar, P T Doulias, O Rafikova, H Pillich, T Chakraborty, R Lucas, A V Verin, J D Catravas, J X She, S M Black, D J R Fulton
Disruption of the endothelial barrier in response to Gram positive (G(+)) bacterial toxins is a major complication of acute lung injury (ALI) and can be further aggravated by antibiotics which stimulate toxin release. The integrity of the pulmonary endothelial barrier is mediated by the balance of disruptive forces such as the small GTPase RhoA, and protective forces including endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). How NO protects against the barrier dysfunction is incompletely understood and our goal was to determine whether NO and S-nitrosylation can modulate RhoA activity and whether this mechanism is important for G(+) toxin-induced microvascular permeability...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012803/airway-and-pulmonary-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-vasodilatory-function-in-current-smokers-and-never-smokers
#11
Barry E Hurwitz, Eliana S Mendes, Andreas Schmid, Meela Parker, Johana Arana, Alex Gonzalez, Adam Wanner
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been associated with diminished vasodilatory function in the airway circulation. It is possible that cigarette smoking similarly affects the pulmonary circulation before resting pulmonary circulatory abnormalities manifest. OBJECTIVES: To compare in smokers and never-smokers the acute effect of inhaled albuterol on airway and pulmonary hemodynamic function, as an index of β2-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation. METHODS: In 30 adults, airway and pulmonary vascular function was assessed before and 15-min after albuterol inhalation (270 μg)...
December 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009790/exercise-training-reverses-extrapulmonary-impairments-in-smoke-exposed-mice
#12
T Scott Bowen, Lars Aakerøy, Sophia Eisenkolb, Patricia Kunth, Fredrik Bakkerud, Martin Wohlwend, Anne Marie Ormbostad, Tina Fischer, Ulrik Wisloff, Gerhard Schuler, Sigurd Steinshamn, Volker Adams, Eivind Bronstad
PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on non-pharmacological treatments such as exercise training. METHODS: Three groups of mice including control (n=10), smoking (n=10), and smoking with 6 weeks of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n=11) were exposed to 20 weeks of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003744/endocan-and-the-respiratory-system-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Maria Kechagia, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
Endocan, formerly called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1, is an endothelial cell-associated proteoglycan that is preferentially expressed by renal and pulmonary endothelium. It is upregulated by proangiogenic molecules as well as by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and since it reflects endothelial activation and dysfunction, it is regarded as a novel tissue and blood-based relevant biomarker. As such, it is increasingly being researched and evaluated in a wide spectrum of healthy and disease pathophysiological processes...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000095/exosomes-from-ipscs-delivering-sirna-attenuate-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-expression-and-neutrophils-adhesion-in-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#14
Zhihai Ju, Jinhui Ma, Chen Wang, Jie Yu, Yeru Qiao, Feilong Hei
The pro-inflammatory activation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells resulting in continuous expression of cellular adhesion molecules, and subsequently recruiting primed neutrophils to form a firm neutrophils-endothelium (PMN-EC) adhesion, has been examined and found to play a vital role in acute lung injury (ALI). RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular process through harnessing a natural pathway silencing target gene based on recognition and subsequent degradation of specific mRNA sequences. It opens a promising approach for precision medicine...
December 21, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988519/nobiletin-relaxes-isolated-mesenteric-arteries-by-activating-the-endothelial-ca2-enos-pathway-in-rats
#15
Weiwei Yang, Shuzhen Li, Lin Liao, Xiaodong Zheng, Jiali Li, Yaqin Zheng, Xiuling Zhang, Daling Zhu
AIMS: Nobiletin, a natural polymethoxylated flavonoid compound, has various beneficial properties, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, and it also improves memory. Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of nobiletin on rat isolated mesenteric arteries (MAs). METHODS: We examined vasodilation induced by nobiletin on rat isolated MA rings with a tension study, the expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) with Western blotting, NO production with DAF- FMDA fluorescence, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) with Fluo-3AM...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941354/the-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-perioperative-lung-injury
#16
Florian Brettner, Vera von Dossow, Daniel Chappell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-induced lung injury is a major contributor to perioperative lung injury. The end-expiratory lung volume, regional lung overdistension, and tidal recruitment are known to be the main factors causing subsequent alveolar damage and inflammation. The alveolar-capillary membrane including the endothelial glycocalyx as an integral part of the vascular endothelium seems to play a major role in different kinds of lung injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies underline the pivotal importance of the endothelial glycocalyx in lung injury...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928450/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-myeloperoxidase-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-predictors-of-high-vascular-risk-in-respiratory-bacterial-infections
#17
Seri A, Marta Ds, Madalan A, Popescu M, Tiglea Ai, Moldoveanu E
Objective. Respiratory bacterial infections are associated with important coagulation disturbances that amplify the pulmonary lesions and determine a more severe course of the disease. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between the evolution of the general clinical parameters and the occurrence of thrombotic events on one side, and plasma levels of selected proteins involved in inflammation and coagulation on the other side, with the intent to establish and to validate a laboratory test panel for the assessment of the vascular risk in patients with bacterial respiratory infections...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919660/a-comparison-of-vasodilation-mode-among-selexipag-ns-304-2-4-5-6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl-isopropyl-amino-butoxy-n-methylsulfonyl-acetamide-its-active-metabolite-mre-269-and-various-prostacyclin-receptor-agonists-in-rat-porcine-and-human-pulmonary-arteries
#18
Chiaki Fuchikami, Kohji Murakami, Koyuki Tajima, Junko Homan, Keiji Kosugi, Kazuya Kuramoto, Michiko Oka, Keiichi Kuwano
Selexipag (NS-304; [2-{4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N- (methylsulfonyl)acetamide]) is a novel, orally available non-prostanoid prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonist that has recently been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We examined the effect of the active metabolite of selexipag, MRE-269, and IP receptor agonists that are currently available as PAH therapeutic drugs on the relaxation of rat, porcine and human pulmonary artery. cAMP formation in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was induced by all test compounds (MRE-269, epoprostenol, iloprost, treprostinil and beraprost sodium) and suppressed by IP receptor antagonists (CAY10441 and 2-[4-(1H-indol-4-yloxymethyl)-benzyloxycarbonylamino]-3-phenyl-propionic acid)...
December 3, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884766/mechanisms-of-vascular-dysfunction-in-copd-and-effects-of-a-novel-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-in-smokers
#19
Lucy Yang, Joseph Cheriyan, David D Gutterman, Ruth J Mayer, Zsuzsanna Ament, Jules L Griffin, Aili L Lazaar, David E Newby, Ruth Tal-Singer, Ian B Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the pathogenesis may involve endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-mediated endothelial function is impaired in patients with COPD, and a novel sEH inhibitor GSK2256294 attenuates EET-mediated endothelial dysfunction in human resistance vessels both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Endogenous and stimulated endothelial release of EETs was assessed in 12 COPD patients, 11 overweight smokers, and 2 matched control groups, using forearm plethysmography with intra-arterial infusions of fluconazole, bradykinin, and the combination...
November 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871277/pulmonary-endothelial-activation-caused-by-extracellular-histones-contributes-to-neutrophil-activation-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
Yanlin Zhang, Li Guan, Jie Yu, Zanmei Zhao, Lijun Mao, Shuqiang Li, Jinyuan Zhao
BACKGROUND: During the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), neutrophils play a central role in the pathogenesis, and their activation requires interaction with the endothelium. Extracellular histones have been recognized as pivotal inflammatory mediators. This study was to investigate the role of pulmonary endothelial activation during the extracellular histone-induced inflammatory response in ARDS. METHODS: ARDS was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intravenous injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or exogenous histones...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
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