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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527481/rethinking-anatomy-how-to-overcome-challenges-of-medical-education-s-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Bruno Guimarães, Luís Dourado, Stanislav Tsisar, José Miguel Diniz, Maria Dulce Madeira, Maria Amélia Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Due to scientific and technological development, Medical Education has been readjusting its focus and strategies. Medical curriculum has been adopting a vertical integration model, in which basic and clinical sciences coexist during medical instruction. This context favours the introduction of new complementary technology-based pedagogical approaches. Thus, even traditional core sciences of medical curriculum, like Anatomy, are refocusing their teaching/learning paradigm...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508919/cognitive-development-of-school-age-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-survivors-a-single-center-study
#2
REVIEW
Raphael D Oberhuber, Sonja Huemer, Rudolf Mair, Eva Sames-Dolzer, Michaela Kreuzer, Gerald Tulzer
Neurological and radiologic research results show an abnormal cerebral microstructure as well as abnormal neurodevelopment in patients treated for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the varying cognitive performance these children have developed in dependence upon prenatal diagnosis, surgical techniques, surgical learning effects, anatomy, perfusion techniques, gender, pedagogic, and sociodemographic parameters in comparison to age-adjusted normative values. School-age children (6...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495214/lesson-learned-with-the-use-of-iliac-branch-devices-single-centre-10-year-experience-in-157-consecutive-procedures
#3
G Simonte, G Parlani, L Farchioni, G Isernia, E Cieri, M Lenti, P Cao, F Verzini
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Absence of an adequate iliac seal rarely represents an absolute contraindication to endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Iliac branch devices (IBD) are increasingly used in patients with extensive aorto-iliac aneurysmal disease, but few data are available on the long-term results of these procedures. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2016, 157 consecutive IBD procedures performed at a single centre were entered into a prospective database...
May 7, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493805/creating-three-dimensional-printed-models-of-acetabular-fractures-for-use-as-educational-tools
#4
Matthew S Manganaro, Yoav Morag, William J Weadock, Corrie M Yablon, Kara Gaetke-Udager, Erica B Stein
Acetabular fractures are frequently encountered in some clinical practices, and the precise classification of these fractures greatly influences treatments and outcomes. The authors identified the need for an educational aid when teaching acetabular fracture classifications, given the complex spatial anatomy and the nonintuitive classification system that is commonly used. Three-dimensional ( 3D three-dimensional ) printing is an evolving technique that has applications as an educational aid, providing the student with a tangible object to interact with and learn from...
May 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477340/a-neural-network-approach-for-fast-automated-quantification-of-dir-performance
#5
John Neylon, Yugang Min, Daniel A Low, Anand Santhanam
PURPOSE: A critical step in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) workflow is deformably registering the simulation CT with the daily or weekly volumetric imaging. Quantifying the deformable image registration accuracy under these circumstances is a complex task due to the lack of known ground-truth landmark correspondences between the source data and target data. Generating landmarks manually (using experts) is time-consuming, and limited by image quality and observer variability. While image similarity metrics (ISM) may be used as an alternative approach to quantify the registration error, there is a need to characterize the ISM values by developing a non-linear cost function and translate them to physical distance measures in order to enable fast, quantitative comparison of registration performance...
May 5, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473955/orthopaedic-education-in-the-era-of-surgical-simulation-still-at-the-crawling-stage
#6
EDITORIAL
Kivanc Atesok, Peter MacDonald, Jeff Leiter, James Dubberley, Richard Satava, Ann VanHeest, Shepard Hurwitz, J Lawrence Marsh
Surgical skills education is in the process of a crucial transformation from a master-apprenticeship model to simulation-based training. Orthopaedic surgery is one of the surgical specialties where simulation-based skills training needs to be integrated into the curriculum efficiently and urgently. The reason for this strong and pressing need is that orthopaedic surgery covers broad human anatomy and pathologies and requires learning enormously diverse surgical procedures including basic and advanced skills...
April 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472546/an-exploration-of-anatomists-views-toward-the-use-of-body-painting-in-anatomical-and-medical-education-an-international-study
#7
Natalie E Cookson, Justine J Aka, Gabrielle M Finn
Previous research has explored the experiences of medical students using body painting as a learning tool. However, to date, faculty experiences and views have not been explored. This international qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach with data collection through interviews with academics and clinicians who utilized body painting as part of their anatomical teaching. Twenty-six anatomists participated in the study from 14 centers worldwide. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the efficacy of body painting, (2) the promotion of knowledge retention and recall, (3) considerations and practicalities regarding the use of body painting as a teaching tool...
May 4, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472535/learning-from-human-cadaveric-prosections-examining-anxiety-in-speech-therapy-students
#8
Juan Jose Criado-Álvarez, Jaime González González, Carmen Romo Barrientos, Isabel Ubeda-Bañon, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Juan Carlos Albertos-Marco, Alino Martinez-Marcos, Alicia Mohedano-Moriano
Human anatomy education often utilizes the essential practices of cadaver dissection and examination of prosected specimens. However, these exposures to human cadavers and confronting death can be stressful and anxiety-inducing for students. This study aims to understand the attitudes, reactions, fears, and states of anxiety that speech therapy students experience in the dissection room. To that end, a before-and-after cross-sectional analysis was conducted with speech therapy students undertaking a dissection course for the first time...
May 4, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472178/influence-of-eye-biometrics-and-corneal-micro-structure-on-noncontact-tonometry
#9
Danilo A Jesus, Małgorzata Majewska, Patrycja Krzyżanowska-Berkowska, D Robert Iskander
PURPOSE: Tonometry is widely used as the main screening tool supporting glaucoma diagnosis. Still, its accuracy could be improved if full knowledge about the variation of the corneal biomechanical properties was available. In this study, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) speckle statistics are used to infer the organisation of the corneal micro-structure and hence, to analyse its influence on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. METHODS: Fifty-six subjects were recruited for this prospective study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452118/the-attitudes-of-medical-students-in-europe-towards-the-clinical-importance-of-histology
#10
Bernard John Moxham, Elpida Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Erich Brenner, Odile Plaisant, Hana Brichova, Tomas Kucera, Diogo Pais, Isobel Stabile, Jordy Borg, Michael Scholz, Friedrich Paulsen, José Luis Bueno-López, Luis Alfonso Arraez Aybar, Raffaele De Caro, Stojanka Arsic, Baptiste Lignier, Andy Chirculescu
Many studies have been undertaken to assess the attitudes of medical students to the clinical importance of gross anatomy. However, much less is known about their attitudes towards the clinical importance of histology. Using Thurstone and Chave methods to assess attitudes, over 2,000 early stage medical students across Europe provided responses to a survey that tested the hypothesis that the students have a high regard for histology's clinical relevance. Regardless of the university and country surveyed, and of the teaching methods employed for histology, our findings were not consistent with our hypotheses, students providing a more moderate assessment of histology's importance compared to gross anatomy but more positive than their attitudes towards embryology...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441639/antecubital-fossa-venous-access-for-right-heart-catheterization
#11
Omar Waheed, Abhinav Sharma, Maninder Singh, Edo Kaluski
With the advance of radial access and ulnar access there has been an increased interest in performing right heart catheterization (RHC) and right-heart based procedures via antecubital venous access. Our purpose is to describe the venous anatomy of the upper extremities, technique, equipment, and cost for employing this approach. Reported also is the international experience based on publications assessing procedural success, complications, fluoroscopy time and radiation dose, access-site compression time, and time to ambulation...
May 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#12
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439719/radiological-imaging-of-teratological-fetuses-what-can-we-learn
#13
REVIEW
Lucas L Boer, A N Schepens-Franke, J J A van Asten, D G H Bosboom, K Kamphuis-van Ulzen, T L Kozicz, D J Ruiter, R-J Oostra, W M Klein
OBJECTIVES: To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all...
April 24, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431420/generative-retrieval-improves-learning-and-retention-of-cardiac-anatomy-using-transesophageal-echocardiography
#14
Amanda M Kleiman, Katherine T Forkin, Allison J Bechtel, Stephen R Collins, Jennie Z Ma, Edward C Nemergut, Julie L Huffmyer
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable monitor for patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery as it allows for evaluation of cardiovascular compromise in the perioperative period. It is challenging for anesthesiology residents and medical students to learn to use and interpret TEE in the clinical environment. A critical component of learning to use and interpret TEE is a strong grasp of normal cardiovascular ultrasound anatomy. METHODS: Fifteen fourth-year medical students and 15 post-graduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 anesthesiology residents without prior training in cardiac anesthesia or TEE viewed normal cardiovascular anatomy TEE video clips; participants were randomized to learning cardiac anatomy in generative retrieval (GR) and standard practice (SP) groups...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423232/a-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-anatomy-learning-experiences-questionnaire-and-correlations-with-learning-outcomes
#15
Derek L Choi-Lundberg, Anne-Marie M Williams, Craig Zimitat
The Anatomy Learning Experiences Questionnaire (ALEQ) was designed by Smith and Mathias to explore students' perceptions and experiences of learning anatomy. In this study, the psychometric properties of a slightly altered 34-item ALEQ (ALEQ-34) were evaluated, and correlations with learning outcomes investigated, by surveying first- and second-year undergraduate medical students; 181 usable responses were obtained (75% response rate). Psychometric analysis demonstrated overall good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0...
April 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419750/the-effectiveness-of-virtual-and-augmented-reality-in-health-sciences-and-medical-anatomy
#16
Christian Moro, Zane Štromberga, Athanasios Raikos, Allan Stirling
Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross anatomy in favor of applied clinical work. The release of virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices allows learning to occur through hands-on immersive experiences...
April 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417050/venezuelan-surgeons-view-concerning-teaching-human-anatomical-dissection
#17
Rafael Romero-Reverón
Currently, the importance of human anatomical dissection have come under debate in many countries but there are not references in Venezuela on this concern. This survey's aim is to assess the insights of Venezuelan surgeons and their outlines of usage of human anatomical dissection in teaching and learning human anatomy. Sixty-five Venezuelan surgeons at the Centro Médico Docente La Trinidad completed an anonymous survey on current and future teaching practices in human anatomy. Eighty-nine point two three percent of surveyed (n=58) conferred importance to human anatomical dissection despite the arrival of new innovations in learning human anatomy...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413269/localization-of-epidural-space-a-review-of-available-technologies
#18
REVIEW
Hesham Elsharkawy, Abraham Sonny, Ki Jinn Chin
Although epidural analgesia is widely used for pain relief, it is associated with a significant failure rate. Loss of resistance technique, tactile feedback from the needle, and surface landmarks are traditionally used to guide the epidural needle tip into the epidural space (EDS). The aim of this narrative review is to critically appraise new and emerging technologies for identification of EDS and their potential role in the future. The PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Studies, and Web of Science databases were searched using predecided search strategies, yielding 1048 results...
January 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405951/posterior-retroperitonoscopic-adrenalectomy-a-back-door-access-with-an-unusually-rapid-learning-curve
#19
Sohail Bakkar, Gabriele Materazzi, Lorenzo Fregoli, Piermarco Papini, Paolo Miccoli
Posterior retroperitonoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) has become a standard approach to the adrenal gland. The aim of this study was to report an initial experience with the procedure following a proper preparatory phase highlighting the rapidity, safety and effectiveness by which it could be introduced into a surgeon's practice. Between May 2015 and July 2016, 14 PRAs were performed in 14 patients (9 females and 5 males). The average age was 46 years, BMI: 25.5 kg/m(2), and ASA score: 2. Indications included: incidenatloma (n = 5), Conn's adenoma (n = 5), and Cushing's adenoma (n = 4)...
April 12, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405946/new-generation-of-three-dimensional-tools-to-learn-anatomy
#20
Roberto D Tabernero Rico, Juan A Juanes Méndez, Alberto Prats Galino
We present a new generation tool based of interactive 3D models. This models are based on the radiological two-dimensional images by computed tomography imaging. Our article focuses on the anatomical region of the skull base. These new three-dimensional models offer a wide field of application in the learning, as they offer multiple visualization tools (rotation, scrolling, zoom…). In this way, understanding of the anatomical region is facilitated. A feature to be dismissed is that a professional workstation is not required to work with three-dimensional models, since a personal computer can be viewed and interacted with the models...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
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