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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149245/high-dimensional-therapeutic-inference-in-the-focally-damaged-human-brain
#1
Tianbo Xu, Hans Rolf Jäger, Masud Husain, Geraint Rees, Parashkev Nachev
Though consistency across the population renders the extraordinarily complex functional anatomy of the human brain surveyable, the inverse inference-from common functional maps to individual behaviour-is constrained by marked individual deviation from the population mean. Such inference is fundamental to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions in focal brain injury, where the impact of an induced structural change in the brain is quantified by its behavioural consequences, inevitably refracted through the lens of lesion-outcome relations...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138215/physiology-undergraduate-degree-requirements-in-the-u-s
#2
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
Course-level learning objectives and core concepts for undergraduate physiology teaching exist. The next step is to consider how these resources fit into generalizable program-level guidelines for Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees in Physiology. In the absence of program-level guidelines for Physiology degree programs, we compiled a selective internal report to review degree requirements from 18 peer BS programs entitled "Physiology" in the United States (U.S.). There was a range of zero to three required semesters of math, physics, physics laboratory, general biology, biology laboratory, general chemistry, chemistry laboratory, organic chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory, biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory, anatomy, anatomy laboratory, core systems physiology, and physiology laboratory...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127153/analysis-of-unsuccessful-intubations-in-neonates-using-videolaryngoscopy-recordings
#3
Joyce E O'Shea, Prakash Loganathan, Marta Thio, C Omar Farouk Kamlin, Peter G Davis
OBJECTIVES: Neonatal intubation is a difficult skill to learn and teach. If an attempt is unsuccessful, the intubator and instructor often cannot explain why. This study aims to review videolaryngoscopy recordings of unsuccessful intubations and explain the reasons why attempts were not successful. STUDY DESIGN: This is a descriptive study examining videolaryngoscopy recordings obtained from a randomised controlled trial that evaluated if neonatal intubation success rates of inexperienced trainees were superior if they used a videolaryngoscope compared with a laryngoscope...
November 10, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122473/automated-radiology-operative-note-communication-tool-closing-the-loop-in-musculoskeletal-imaging
#4
William Moore, Ankur Doshi, Priya Bhattacharji, Soterios Gyftopoulos, Gina Ciavarra, Danny Kim, Michael Recht
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Correlation of imaging studies and reference standard outcomes is a significant challenge in radiology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a new communication tool by assessing the ability of this system to correctly match the imaging studies to arthroscopy reports and qualitatively assessing radiologist behavior before and after the implementation of this system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a commercially available communication or educational tool and applying a novel matching rule algorithm, radiology and arthroscopy reports were matched from January 17, 2017 to March 1, 2017 based on anatomy...
November 6, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120528/student-performance-in-a-flipped-classroom-dental-anatomy-course
#5
S Chutinan, C A Riedy, S E Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. METHODS: Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118107/morphological-constraints-on-cerebellar-granule-cell-combinatorial-diversity
#6
Jesse I Gilmer, Abigail L Person
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar granule cell layer and examined how GCL architecture contributes to granule cell (GrC) combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114928/a-new-substitute-for-formalin-application-to-embalming-cadavers
#7
Yoshinori Haizuka, Miki Nagase, Satoshi Takashino, Yasushi Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Fujikura, George Matsumura
The development of formalin-free fixatives is an urgent issue in gross anatomy because of the health hazard and the tissue-hardening actions of formalin. We recently identified the fixative, antimicrobial, and preservative effects of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), a precursor of the water-soluble macromolecular polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, in animal experiments. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether NVP solution can be used as an alternative to formalin in human cadaveric dissection. Twelve donated cadavers were infused with NVP via the femoral and common carotid arteries using a peristaltic pump...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112798/perceptions-of-first-year-medical-students-towards-learning-anatomy-using-cadaveric-specimens-through-peer-teaching
#8
Andee Agius, Neville Calleja, Christian Camenzuli, Roberta Sultana, Richard Pullicino, Christian Zammit, Jean Calleja Agius, Cristoforo Pomara
During the last decade, global interest in the multiple benefits of formal peer teaching has increased. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of first-year medical students towards the use of peer teaching to learn anatomy using cadaveric specimens. A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective survey was carried out. Data were collected using an online questionnaire which was administered to all medical students who were in their second year of their medical school curriculum and who had participated in sessions taught by their peers during their first year...
November 7, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112797/exploring-anatomy-and-physiology-using-ipad-applications
#9
Tandra R Chakraborty, Deborah F Cooperstein
This study examined the use of iPads with anatomy applications (apps) in the laboratory sections of the largest undergraduate course at the university, Anatomy and Physiology, serving more than 300 students. The majority of these students were nursing, exercise science/physical education and biology majors. With a student survey (student opinion) and student practicum grades as metrics, this study determined whether the introduction of this novel mobile technology improved student grades and aided the students in learning the course material...
November 7, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112336/what-do-the-public-know-about-anatomy-anatomy-education-to-the-public-and-the-implications
#10
Adam M Taylor, Peter Diggle, Quenton Wessels
Public knowledge of the anatomical "self" is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty-three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures on a blank human body template. Responses were scored independently and then collated. A mixed effects logistic model was used to examine any associations with participants' as a random effect and all other factors as fixed effects...
November 7, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111178/dose-dependent-neurocognitive-deficits-following-postnatal-day-10-hiv-1-viral-protein-exposure-relationship-to-hippocampal-anatomy-parameters
#11
Sylvia Fitting, Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylactic treatment, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to be a significant risk factor in the post-cART era. The time of infection (i.e., during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding) may play a role in the development of neurocognitive deficits in pediatric HIV-1. HIV-1 viral protein exposure on postnatal day (P)1, preceding the postnatal brain growth spurt in rats, had deleterious effects on neurocognitive development and anatomical parameters of the hippocampus (Fitting et al...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101075/development-of-patient-spesific-3d-printed-dural-venous-models-for-preoperative-planning
#13
Figen Govsa, Asli Beril Karakas, Mehmet Asim Ozer, Cenk Eraslan
BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvement in clinical care, operative strategies, and technology, neurosurgery is still risky, and optimal preoperative planning and anatomical assessment are necessary to minimize risks of serious complications. Our purpose is to document of dural venous sinuses (DVS) and its variations were identified during routine 3D venography created through three dimensional (3D) models for teaching and learning of complex cerebral anatomy. METHODS: 3D models of the DVS networks were printed...
October 31, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099322/student-perceptions-of-veterinary-anatomy-practical-classes-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Erica Gummery, Kate A Cobb, Liz H Mossop, Malcolm A Cobb
Using cadaveric material to teach veterinary students poses many challenges. However, little research exists on the contribution of this traditional approach to student learning. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate student perceptions of cadaver-based anatomy classes in a vertically integrated veterinary curriculum at the University of Nottingham's School of Veterinary Medicine and Science. Likert-scale statements and free-text boxes were used in a questionnaire distributed to second-year veterinary students (response rate 59%, 61/103)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096042/what-type-of-learner-are-your-students-preferred-learning-styles-of-undergraduate-gross-anatomy-students-according-to-the-index-of-learning-styles-questionnaire
#15
Melissa M Quinn, Theodore Smith, Eileen L Kalmar, Jennifer M Burgoon
Students learn and process information in many different ways. Learning styles are useful as they allow instructors to learn more about students, as well as aid in the development and application of useful teaching approaches and techniques. At the undergraduate level there is a noticeable lack of research on learning style preferences of students enrolled in gross anatomy courses. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in a large enrollment undergraduate gross anatomy course with laboratory to determine their preferred learning styles...
November 2, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093436/learning-curve-for-surgical-treatment-of-acetabular-fractures-a-retrospective-clinical-study-of-a-practical-and-theoretical-training-course
#16
Haci Bayram Tosun, Sancar Serbest, Seyit Ali Gümüştaş, Abuzer Uludag, Suat Celik
BACKGROUND Surgical treatment of acetabular fracture and the anatomic reconstruction of the hip joint are difficult to achieve due to the complex pelvic anatomy, and surgical training requires a prolonged and steep learning curve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an applied training course, including cadaveric dissection, for the surgical treatment of acetabular fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included 35 patients who underwent surgical treatment for acetabulum fractures between 2012-2016...
November 2, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091339/undergraduate-dental-students-perceptions-of-head-and-neck-anatomy-teaching-in-australia
#17
N M Hassan, R Akhter, H Al-Aubaidy, A Flatau
INTRODUCTION: Most Australian universities have abbreviated the anatomy curriculum and modified its mode of delivery. This study examines dental student perceptions of different methods of head and neck anatomy teaching with respect to the adequacy of allocated time and the relative meaningfulness of the teaching methods. METHODS: All second-year students in the School of Dentistry and Health Sciences at Charles Sturt University (CSU) were invited to complete a matrix-grid questionnaire...
November 1, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082561/the-role-of-anatomy-demonstrators-a-surgical-trainees-perspective
#18
C F Smith, B Gami, N Standfield, D C Davies
Core Surgical Trainees (CST) in the London (UK) Postgraduate School of Surgery receive clinical anatomy teaching in their first year of training, and, in their second year, give thirty sessions of anatomy teaching to medical and other students. This study set out to investigate the role of demonstrators from the perspective of the trainees. A focus group was convened to ascertain trainees' perspectives on demonstrating anatomy and to identify problems and improvement strategies to optimise their ability to enhance students' learning...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079524/whole-brain-white-matter-connectivity-analysis-using-machine-learning-an-application-to-autism
#19
Fan Zhang, Peter Savadjiev, Weidong Cai, Yang Song, Yogesh Rathi, Birkan Tunç, Drew Parker, Tina Kapur, Robert T Schultz, Nikos Makris, Ragini Verma, Lauren J O'Donnell
In this paper, we propose an automated white matter connectivity analysis method for machine learning classification and characterization of white matter abnormality via identification of discriminative fiber tracts. The proposed method uses diffusion MRI tractography and a data-driven approach to find fiber clusters corresponding to subdivisions of the white matter anatomy. Features extracted from each fiber cluster describe its diffusion properties and are used for machine learning. The method is demonstrated by application to a pediatric neuroimaging dataset from 149 individuals, including 70 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 79 typically developing controls (TDC)...
October 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075561/using-machine-learning-to-classify-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-based-on-diffusion-mri
#20
John Del Gaizo, Neda Mofrad, Jens H Jensen, David Clark, Russell Glenn, Joseph Helpern, Leonardo Bonilha
BACKGROUND: It is common for patients diagnosed with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to have extrahippocampal damage. However, it is unclear whether microstructural extrahippocampal abnormalities are consistent enough to enable classification using diffusion MRI imaging. Therefore, we implemented a support vector machine (SVM)-based method to predict TLE from three different imaging modalities: mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA). While MD and FA can be calculated from traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MK requires diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
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