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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727316/primary-inguinal-hernia-the-open-repair-today-pros-and-cons
#1
REVIEW
Giampiero Campanelli, Piero Giovanni Bruni, Andrea Morlacchi, Francesca Lombardo, Marta Cavalli
Open anterior repair for inguinal hernia offers several distinct advantages over endoscopic repair, especially when real-world effectiveness is taken into account. The learning curve for endoscopic techniques is long, whereas the Lichtenstein and other open tension-free techniques are easier to teach and replicate at all levels. The outcomes of Lichtenstein repairs for primary inguinal hernia as performed by non-experts and supervised residents are comparable to those of experts. Moreover, open tension-free repair does not require expensive instruments or dedicated equipment, other than the prosthetic mesh...
August 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719722/learning-anatomy-through-thiel-vs-formalin-embalmed-cadavers-student-perceptions-of-embalming-methods-and-effect-on-functional-anatomy-knowledge
#2
Larissa Kennel, David M A Martin, Hannah Shaw, Tracey Wilkinson
Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge...
July 18, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719062/immersive-virtual-reality-as-a-teaching-tool-for-neuroanatomy
#3
Katelyn Stepan, Joshua Zeiger, Stephanie Hanchuk, Anthony Del Signore, Raj Shrivastava, Satish Govindaraj, Alfred Iloreta
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and interactive virtual reality (VR) simulation are validated teaching techniques used throughout medical disciplines. Little objective data exists supporting its use in teaching clinical anatomy. Learner motivation is thought to limit the rate of utilization of such novel technologies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness, satisfaction, and motivation associated with immersive VR simulation in teaching medical students neuroanatomy...
July 18, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714187/a-critique-of-utilitarian-and-instrumentalist-concepts-for-the-teaching-of-gross-anatomy-to-medical-and-dental-students-an-opinion-piece
#4
Bernard J Moxham, Diogo Pais
Medical and dental curricula, together with anatomical sciences courses, are increasingly having to change, mainly because there is a drive to being what is termed, without adequate definition, 'clinically relevant'. The concept of 'clinical anatomy' has accordingly been invented and it is expected that, at all times, the teaching of anatomy is directly focussed on clinical scenarios, meaning almost invariably the 'disease-based model of medicine and dentistry'. Furthermore, students are not expected to have a detailed knowledge of gross anatomy and the time devoted to teaching and learning the subject has decreased significantly...
July 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712105/evaluation-of-a-low-cost-3d-printed-model-for-bronchoscopy-training
#5
Matteo Parotto, Joshua Qua Jiansen, Ahmed AboTaiban, Svetlana Ioukhova, Alisher Agzamov, Richard Cooper, Gerald O'Leary, Massimiliano Meineri
BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy is a fundamental procedure in anesthesia and critical care medicine. Learning this procedure is a complex task, but the use of simulation-based training provides significant advantages like enhanced patient safety. Access to bronchoscopy simulators may be limited in low resources settings. We developed a low-cost 3D printed bronchoscopy training model. METHODS: A parametric airway model was obtained from an online medical model repository and fabricated using a low-cost 3D printer...
July 16, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710000/the-perisylvian-language-network-and-language-analytical-abilities
#6
Olga Kepinska, Egbert A J F Lakke, Eleanor M Dutton, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
Aiming at exploring the brain's structural organisation underlying successful second language learning, we investigate the anatomy of the perisylvian language network in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities. Utilising deterministic tractography, six tracts per participant (left and right long direct segment, left and right indirect anterior segment and left and right indirect posterior segment) were virtually dissected and measurements pertaining to their microstructural organisation were collected...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709004/mapping-the-neural-substrates-of-behavior
#7
Alice A Robie, Jonathan Hirokawa, Austin W Edwards, Lowell A Umayam, Allen Lee, Mary L Phillips, Gwyneth M Card, Wyatt Korff, Gerald M Rubin, Julie H Simpson, Michael B Reiser, Kristin Branson
Assigning behavioral functions to neural structures has long been a central goal in neuroscience and is a necessary first step toward a circuit-level understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Here, we map the neural substrates of locomotion and social behaviors for Drosophila melanogaster using automated machine-vision and machine-learning techniques. From videos of 400,000 flies, we quantified the behavioral effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted populations of neurons. We combined a novel quantification of anatomy with our behavioral analysis to create brain-behavior correlation maps, which are shared as browsable web pages and interactive software...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708546/sononet-real-time-detection-and-localisation-of-fetal-standard-scan-planes-in-freehand-ultrasound
#8
Christian F Baumgartner, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Jacqueline Matthew, Tara P Fletcher, Sandra Smith, Lisa M Koch, Bernhard Kainz, Daniel Rueckert
Identifying and interpreting fetal standard scan planes during 2D ultrasound mid-pregnancy examinations are highly complex tasks which require years of training. Apart from guiding the probe to the correct location, it can be equally difficult for a non-expert to identify relevant structures within the image. Automatic image processing can provide tools to help experienced as well as inexperienced operators with these tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on convolutional neural networks which can automatically detect 13 fetal standard views in freehand 2D ultrasound data as well as provide a localisation of the fetal structures via a bounding box...
July 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700420/comparison-of-2d-and-3d-video-displays-for-teaching-vitreoretinal-surgery
#9
Nisarg Chhaya, Omar Helmy, Niloofar Piri, Agustina Palacio, Shlomit Schaal
PURPOSE: To compare medical students' learning uptake and understanding of vitreoretinal surgeries by watching either 2D or 3D video recordings. METHODS: Three vitreoretinal procedures (tractional retinal detachment, exposed scleral buckle removal, and four-point scleral fixation of an intraocular lens [TSS]) were recorded simultaneously with a conventional recorder for two-dimensional viewing and a VERION 3D HD system using Sony HVO-1000MD for three-dimensional viewing...
July 11, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690440/locate-the-lesion-a-project-based-learning-case-that-stimulates-comprehension-and-application-of-neuroanatomy
#10
Michele L Lemons
A fictitious patient, Mr. Challenge, is admitted to the emergency room and displays symptoms consistent with damage to the central nervous system. In this problem-based learning case, students are challenged to determine the location of a lesion that is consistent with Mr. Challenge's symptoms. Students discover details about Mr. Challenge's symptoms while exploring three anatomical pathways: corticospinal tract, spinothalamic tract and medial lemniscal pathway. Students make predictions as to which of these pathways may be damaged in Mr...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690437/the-use-of-modular-electronic-neuron-simulators-for-neural-circuit-construction-produces-learning-gains-in-an-undergraduate-anatomy-and-physiology-course
#11
Andrew Petto, Zachary Fredin, Joseph Burdo
During the spring of 2016 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, we implemented a novel educational technology designed to teach undergraduates about the nervous system while allowing them to physically construct their own neural circuits. Modular, electronic neuron simulators called NeuroBytes were used by the students in BIOSCI202 Anatomy and Physiology I, a four-credit course consisting of three hours per week each of lecture and laboratory time. 162 students participated in the laboratory sessions that covered reflexes; 83 in the experimental sections used the NeuroBytes to build a model of the patellar tendon reflex, while 79 in the control sections participated in alternate reflex curricula...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689673/the-anatomy-of-apathy-a-neurocognitive-framework-for-amotivated-behavior
#12
C Le Heron, M A J Apps, M Husain
Apathy is a debilitating syndrome associated with many neurological disorders, including several common neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and focal lesion syndromes such as stroke. Here, we review neuroimaging studies to identify anatomical correlates of apathy, across brain disorders. Our analysis reveals that apathy is strongly associated with disruption particularly of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), ventral striatum (VS) and connected brain regions...
July 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681961/technical-tips-during-implantation-of-selective-upper-airway-stimulation
#13
Clemens Heiser, Erica Thaler, Ryan J Soose, B Tucker Woodson, Maurits Boon
OBJECTIVE: Selective upper airway stimulation is now well-established in the United States and in several European countries, with more than 1,000 patients implanted since U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in April 2014. The authors herein, all head and neck surgeons, account for approximately one of every five implants completed to date. Several of the authors also provide comprehensive longitudinal care of their patients as dual-specialty sleep medicine physicians. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-center, retrospective clinical analysis...
July 6, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678704/auto-context-convolutional-neural-network-auto-net-for-brain-extraction-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Deniz Erdogmus, Ali Gholipour
Brain extraction or whole brain segmentation is an important first step in many of the neuroimage analysis pipelines. The accuracy and robustness of brain extraction, therefore, is crucial for the accuracy of the entire brain analysis process. State-of-the-art brain extraction techniques rely heavily on the accuracy of alignment or registration between brain atlases and query brain anatomy, and/or make assumptions about the image geometry; therefore have limited success when these assumptions do not hold or image registration fails...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663686/complications-of-laparoscopy-in-connection-with-entry-techniques
#15
REVIEW
Ibrahim Alkatout
The anatomy of the human being has not changed. However, technical developments in operating materials and methods call for improvements in surgical procedures as well as the management of complications. A fundamental distinction between any operating method and laparoscopy is that, in the latter, the initial entry is usually performed in blind fashion. Blind entry may result in vessel or organ damage, especially in patients who have undergone previous surgery. One of the difficulties associated with the entry is that the damage may not be identified immediately and then necessitate major abdominal repair...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658804/smartphone-the-new-learning-aid-amongst-medical-students
#16
Monika Y Gavali, Deepak S Khismatrao, Yogesh V Gavali, K B Patil
INTRODUCTION: The use of smartphone is increasing day by day for personal as well as professional purpose. They are becoming a more suitable tool for advancing education in developing countries. Mobile access to information and many applications are successfully harnessed in health care. Smartphones are also becoming popular as an effective educational tool. AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate the use of smartphones as an educational tool amongst the medical students...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657997/women-s-perception-of-their-vulvar-appearance-in-a-predominantly-low-income-minority-population
#17
Christina Truong, Stephanie Amaya, Tajnoos Yazdany
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of certain predictors, such as age and media exposure, on a woman's perception of her vulva anatomy. METHODS: We recruited 346 female visitors from a county teaching hospital to complete questionnaires that determine the following: demographics, satisfaction with their vulvar appearance, whether they consider their vulvar anatomy to be normal, exposure to media (namely having had Internet access or learned about genitalia from the Internet or any type of pornography), and consideration of cosmetic vulvar surgery for themselves...
June 27, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657481/effectiveness-of-a-radiographic-anatomy-software-application-for-enhancing-learning-of-veterinary-radiographic-anatomy
#18
Rachel Reiter, Matt Viehdorfer, Kimmy Hescock, Terri Clark, Sarah Nemanic
The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an interactive radiology software application that we developed to enhance learning of normal canine radiographic anatomy. All first-year veterinary medical students were eligible to participate in this subject pre-test-post-test experimental design. When presented with the software application, all students had completed two terms of gross anatomy in which the complete anatomy of the dog had been taught using a combination of lectures and laboratory dissections, including radiographic examples...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656109/stereopsis-visuospatial-ability-and-virtual-reality-in-anatomy-learning
#19
Jan-Maarten Luursema, Marc Vorstenbosch, Jan Kooloos
A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth...
2017: Anatomy Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652965/a-protocol-for-manual-segmentation-of-medial-temporal-lobe-subregions-in-7%C3%A2-tesla-mri
#20
D Berron, P Vieweg, A Hochkeppler, J B Pluta, S-L Ding, A Maass, A Luther, L Xie, S R Das, D A Wolk, T Wolbers, P A Yushkevich, E Düzel, L E M Wisse
Recent advances in MRI and increasing knowledge on the characterization and anatomical variability of medial temporal lobe (MTL) anatomy have paved the way for more specific subdivisions of the MTL in humans. In addition, recent studies suggest that early changes in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases are better detected in smaller subregions of the MTL rather than with whole structure analyses. Here, we developed a new protocol using 7 Tesla (T) MRI incorporating novel anatomical findings for the manual segmentation of entorhinal cortex (ErC), perirhinal cortex (PrC; divided into area 35 and 36), parahippocampal cortex (PhC), and hippocampus; which includes the subfields subiculum (Sub), CA1, CA2, as well as CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) which are separated by the endfolial pathway covering most of the long axis of the hippocampus...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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