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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790420/olfactory-training-in-posttraumatic-smell-impairment-mild-improvement-in-threshold-performances-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Cristobal Langdon, Eduardo Lehrer, Sara Laxe, Isam Alobid, Llorenç Quinto, Joan Berenguer, Franklin Mariño, Montserrat Bernabeu, Concepcio Marin, Joaquim Mullol
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) can be associated with partial or total smell loss. Recent studies have suggested that olfactory outcome can be positively modulated after olfactory training (OT). This study's aim was to investigate OT's potential role in smell recovery after TBI-induced olfactory loss. A prospective, randomized, and controlled study was developed. Patients with TBI-induced olfactory dysfunction (N = 42) were randomized into an experimental group with OT and a control group without (nOT). OT was performed twice daily with a 6-odor training set during 12 weeks...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788089/the-relationship-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-rates-of-chronic-symptomatic-illness-in-202-gulf-war-veterans
#2
Linda L Chao
Introduction: Although not a "signature injury" of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (i.e., Gulf War, GW), some GW veterans have a history traumatic brain injury (TBI). For example, a previous study found that 12.2% of the GW veterans from the Fort Devens Cohort Study had self-reported TBIs. The present study sought to build upon this finding by examining the relationship between TBI and chronic symptomatic illness in a different sample of GW veterans. Materials and Methods: Participants were 202 GW veterans recruited from 2014 to 2018 at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center as part of a VA-funded study on the effects of predicted exposure to low levels of sarin and cyclosarin on brain structure and function...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774825/dietary-zinc-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Angus Scrimgeour, Christopher Carrigan, Michelle Lynn Condlin, Maria L Urso, Roland M van den Berg, Herman P M van Helden, Scott J Montain, Marloes J A Joosen
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) provide opportunity to examine the extent to which dietary interventions can be used to improve recovery after injury. Animal studies also suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodeling post-TBI. Because dietary zinc (Zn) improved recovery in non-blast mTBI models, and the MMPs are Zn-requiring enzymes, we evaluated the effects of low- and adequate Zn diets on MMP expression and behavioral responses, following exposure to a single blast...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774776/memory-deficit-in-an-object-location-task-after-mild-tbi-is-associated-with-impaired-early-object-exploration-and-both-are-restored-by-branched-chain-amino-acid-dietary-therapy
#4
Rosalia Paterno, Hannah Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
The relation between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and memory dysfunction is well established, yet imprecise. Here, we investigate whether mild TBI causes a specific deficit in spatial episodic memory. Fifty-eight (29 TBI, 29 Sham) mice were run in a spatial recognition task. To determine which phase of memory might be affected in our task, we assessed rodent performance at three different delay times (3 min, 1 hour, and 24 hours). We found that sham and TBI mice performed equally well at 3 minutes, but TBI mice had significantly impaired spatial recognition memory after a delay time of one hour...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774192/efficacy-of-the-all-in-one-therapeutic-strategy-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-outcome-and-limitation
#5
Young-Soo Park, Yohei Kogeichi, Yoichi Shida, Hiroyuki Nakase
Objective: Despite recent advances in medicine, no significant improvement has been achieved in therapeutic outcomes for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the treatment of severe multiple traumas, accurate judgment and prompt action corresponding to rapid pathophysiological changes are required. Therefore, we developed the "All-in-One" therapeutic strategy for severe TBI. In this report, we present the therapeutic concept and discuss its efficacy and limitations. Methods: From April 2007 to December 2015, 439 patients diagnosed as having traumatic intracranial injuries were treated at our institution...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769541/modchimera-a-novel-murine-closed-head-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
A D Sauerbeck, C Fanizzi, J H Kim, M Gangolli, P V Bayly, C L Wellington, D L Brody, T T Kummer
Traumatic brain injury is a major source of global disability and mortality. Preclinical TBI models are a crucial component of therapeutic investigation. We report a tunable, monitored model of murine non-surgical, diffuse closed-head injury-modCHIMERA-characterized by impact as well as linear and rotational acceleration. modCHIMERA is based on the Closed-Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) platform. We tested this model at 2 energy levels: 1.7 and 2.1 Joules-substantially higher than previously reported for this system...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766124/routine-repeat-head-ct-may-not-be-necessary-for-patients-with-mild-tbi
#7
Claire B Rosen, Diego D Luy, Molly R Deane, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
Background: Routine repeat cranial CT (RHCT) is standard of care for CT-verified traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite mixed evidence, those with mild TBI are subject to radiation and expense from serial CT scans. Thus, we investigated the necessity and utility of RHCT for patients with mild TBI. We hypothesized that repeat head CT in these patients would not alter patient care or outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively studied patients suffering from mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 13-15) and treated at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center from November 2014 through January 2015...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742960/amantadine-did-not-positively-impact-cognition-in-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury-a-multi-site-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Flora Hammond, Mark Sherer, James F Malec, Ross D Zafonte, Sureyya Dikmen, Jennifer A Bogner, Kathleen Bell, Jason Barber, Nancy Temkin
Despite limited evidence to support the use of amantadine to enhance cognitive function after traumatic brain injury, the clinical use for this purpose is highly prevalent and is often based on inferred belief systems. The purpose of this study was to assess effect of amantadine on cognition among individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury and behavioral disturbance employing a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of amantadine 100 mg twice daily vs placebo for 60 days...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739276/corpus-callosum-vasculature-predicts-white-matter-microstructure-abnormalities-following-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Kara M Wendel, Jeong Bin Lee, Bethann Affeldt, Mary Hamer, Indira S Harahap-Carrillo, Andrea C Pardo, Andre Obenaus
Emerging data suggest that pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with impaired developmental plasticity and poorer neuropsychological outcomes than adults with similar head injuries. Unlike adult mild TBI (mTBI), the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) microstructure and vascular supply are not well-understood in the pediatric population. The cerebral vasculature plays an important role providing necessary nutrients and removing waste. To address this critical element, we examined the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) following pediatric mTBI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and investigated myelin, oligodendrocytes, and vasculature of WM with immunohistochemistry...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738951/key-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale-hads-items-associated-with-dsm-iv-depressive-and-anxiety-disorder-12-months-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Dean P McKenzie, Marina G Downing, Jennie L Ponsford
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI), warranting routine screening. Self-report rating scales including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are associated with depression and anxiety diagnoses in individuals with TBI. The relationship between individual HADS symptoms and structured clinical interview methods (SCID) requires further investigation, particularly in regard to identifying a small number of key items that can potentially be recognised by clinicians and carers of individuals with TBI...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734566/hyperbaric-oxygen-for-post-concussive-symptoms-in-united-states-military-service-members-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Lindell K Weaver, Steffanie H Wilson, Anne S Lindblad, Susan Churchill, Kayla Deru, Robert C Price, Chris S Williams, William W Orrison, James M Walker, Anna Meehan, Susan Mirow
Background: In prior military randomized trials, participants with persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) reported improvement regardless of receiving hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) or sham intervention. This study's objectives were to identify outcomes for future efficacy trials and describe changes by intervention. Methods: This Phase II, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial enrolled military personnel with mild TBI and persistent post-concussive symptoms...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732949/repeated-mild-head-injury-leads-to-wide-ranging-deficits-in-higher-order-cognitive-functions-associated-with-the-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Amber Nolan, Edel Hennessy, Karen Krukowski, Caroline Guglielmetti, Myram Chaumeil, Vikaas S Sohal, Susanna Rosi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been identified as a precipitating risk factor for higher order cognitive deficits associated with the frontal and prefrontal cortices (PFC). In addition, mild repetitive TBI (rTBI), in particular, is being steadily recognized to increase the risk of neurodegenerative disease. Thus, further understanding of how mild rTBI changes the pathophysiology of the brain to lead to cognitive impairment is warranted. The current models of rTBI lack knowledge regarding chronic higher order cognitive functions and the underlying neuronal physiology, especially functions involving the PFC...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731669/transcranial-light-emitting-diode-therapy-for-neuropsychological-improvement-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-new-perspective-for-diffuse-axonal-lesion-management
#13
REVIEW
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
The cost of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for public health policies is undeniable today. Even patients who suffer from mild TBI may persist with cognitive symptoms weeks after the accident. Most of them show no lesion in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging, but microstructural white matter abnormalities (diffuse axonal lesion) can be found in diffusion tensor imaging. Different brain networks work together to form an important part of the cognition process, and they can be affected by TBI...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725174/clinico-radiologic-profile-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-in-western-rajasthan
#14
Pawan Kumar Dara, Manish Parakh, Shyama Choudhary, Hemant Jangid, Priyanka Kumari, Satyendra Khichar
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinico-radiological profile and outcome of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Intensive Care Unit, ward and OPD of Pediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur (tertiary care hospital). Participants: A total of 188 children (1 month-18 years) were enrolled and 108 admitted. Intervention: TBI classified as mild, moderate, or severe TBI...
April 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717625/remote-changes-in-cortical-excitability-after-experimental-tbi-and-functional-reorganization
#15
Derek R Verley, Daneil Torolira, Brandon Pulido, Boris Gutman, Anatol Bragin, Andrew Mayer, Neil G Harris
Although cognitive and behavioral deficits are well known to occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), motor deficits that occur, even after mild trauma are far less known, yet are equally persistent. This study was aimed at making progress toward determining how the brain reorganizes in response to TBI. We used the adult rat, controlled cortical impact injury model to study the ipsilesional forelimb map evoked by electrical stimulation of the affected limb, as well as the contralesional forelimb map evoked by stimulation of the unaffected limb, both before injury and at 1,2,3 and 4wks after using fMRI...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717620/age-related-differences-in-diagnostic-accuracy-of-plasma-gfap-and-tau-for-identifying-acute-intracranial-trauma-on-ct-a-track-tbi-study
#16
Raquel C Gardner, Richard Rubenstein, Kevin K W Wang, Frederick Kofi Korley, John K Yue, Esther Lim Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Alex Valadka, David O Okonkwo, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Geoffrey Manley
Plasma tau and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are promising biomarkers for identifying traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with intracranial trauma on CT. Accuracy in older adults with mild TBI (mTBI), the fastest growing TBI population, is unknown. Our aim was to assess for age-related differences in diagnostic accuracy of plasma tau and GFAP for identifying intracranial trauma on CT. Samples from 169 patients (age <40y [n=79], age 40-59y [n=60], age 60y+ [n=30]), a subset of patients from the TRACK-TBI Pilot study, who presented with mTBI (GCS 13-15), received head CT, and consented to blood-draw within 24h of injury were assayed for hyperphosphorylated-tau (P-tau), total-tau (T-tau; both via amplification-linked enhanced immunoassay using multi-arrayed fiberoptics), and GFAP (via sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709658/acute-prediction-of-outcome-and-cognitive-communication-impairments-following-traumatic-brain-injury-the-influence-of-age-education-and-site-of-lesion
#17
Sandra Gauthier, Joanne LeBlanc, Alena Seresova, Andréanne Laberge-Poirier, José A Correa, Abdulrahman Y Alturki, Judith Marcoux, Mohammed Maleki, Mitra Feyz, Elaine de Guise
BACKGROUND: Communication impairment following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been well documented, yet information regarding communication skills in the acute period following the injury is limited in the literature. Also, little is known about the influence of TBI severity (mild, moderate or severe) on cognitive-communication impairments and how these impairments are related to short-term functional outcome. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of adults with mild, moderate and severe TBI on different language tests and to determine how this performance is related to functional capacity...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702410/scared-or-scarred-could-dissociogenic-lesions-predispose-to-nonepileptic-seizures-after-head-trauma
#18
REVIEW
Stoyan Popkirov, Alan J Carson, Jon Stone
A history of head injury is common in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). This association has so far been interpreted as either spurious or psychologically mediated. Biased recall and misattribution could foster illness beliefs about brain damage that promote symptom production. Furthermore, the emotional impact of head injury could induce long-term changes in stress responsivity. Lastly, maladaptive cognitive-behavioural processes involving symptom modelling and aversive conditioning, known to play a role in functional neurological disorders, could contribute to the development of PNES after head trauma...
April 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701827/differential-responses-of-the-hpa-axis-to-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-in-male-and-female-mice
#19
Ashley L Russell, M Riley Richardson, Bradly M Bauman, Ian M Hernandez, Samantha Saperstein, Robert J Handa, T John Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 10 million people world-wide, annually. TBI is linked to increased risk of psychiatric disorders. TBI induced by explosive devices has a unique phenotype. Over 1/3 of people exposed to blast-induced (b)TBI have prolonged neuroendocrine deficits, shown by anterior pituitary dysfunction. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is linked to increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Not only is there limited information on how the HPA axis responds to mild (m)bTBI, sex differences are understudied...
April 25, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684885/abnormal-muscle-activation-patterns-are-associated-with-chronic-gait-deficits-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Samuel A Acuña, Mitchell E Tyler, Yuri P Danilov, Darryl G Thelen
BACKGROUND: Gait and balance disorders are common among individuals who have experienced a mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how the neuromuscular control of gait is altered following a TBI. RESEARCH QUESTION: Investigate the relationship between lower limb muscle activation patterns and chronic gait deficits in individuals who previously experienced a mild to moderate TBI. METHODS: Lower extremity electromyographic (EMG) signals were collected bilaterally during treadmill and overground walking in 44 ambulatory individuals with a TBI >1 year prior and 20 unimpaired controls...
April 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
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