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Mild TBI

Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: RTIs, falls and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric TBIs in SSA. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric TBI in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at MRRH between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study. Information on etiology of injury was obtained via a questionnaire administered to patient caretakers at the time of admission...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jia Shi, Yuye Wang, Tunan Chen, Degang Xu, Hengli Zhao, Linyu Chen, Chao Yan, Longhuang Tang, Yixin He, Hua Feng, Jianquan Yao
The imaging diagnosis and prognostication of different degrees of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is very important for early care and clinical treatment. Especially, the exact recognition of mild TBI is the bottleneck for current label-free imaging technologies in neurosurgery. Here, we report an automatic evaluation method for TBI recognition with terahertz (THz) continuous-wave (CW) transmission imaging based on machine learning (ML). We propose a new feature extraction method for biological THz images combined with the transmittance distribution features in spatial domain and statistical distribution features in normalized gray histogram...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Hailong Song, Landry M Konan, Jiankun Cui, Catherine E Johnson, Martin Langenderfer, DeAna Grant, Tina Ndam, Agnes Simonyi, Tommi White, Utkan Demirci, David R Mott, Doug Schwer, Graham K Hubler, Ibolja Cernak, Ralph G DePalma, Zezong Gu
Explosive blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a "signature wound" of recent military conflicts, commonly affects service members. While past blast injury studies have provided insights into TBI with moderate- to high-intensity explosions, the impact of primary low-intensity blast (LIB)-mediated pathobiology on neurological deficits requires further investigation. Our prior considerations of blast physics predicted ultrastructural injuries at nanoscale levels. Here, we provide quantitative data using a primary LIB injury murine model exposed to open field detonation of 350 grams of high-energy explosive C4...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chong Sherry Cheever, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and describe the importance of alcohol screening for all patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine the relationship between gender, age, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), emergent decompressive craniectomy, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from the emergency department (ED), and the length of stay with alcohol screening. METHOD: This is a retrospective analysis of de-identified data from the 2012 TBI registry of a level 1 trauma center in the Pacific Northwest...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Tracey A Brickell, Louis M French, Sara M Lippa, Rael T Lange
OBJECTIVES: To (a) characterize a sample of post-9/11 caregivers providing help to service members and veterans (SMV) following traumatic brain injury (TBI), (b) examine the level of support provided, and (c) determine caregiver health and well-being outcomes. SETTING: Military treatment facility. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers (N = 278) of SMVs who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating TBI (96.0% female; 86.0% spouse/partner; age: M = 38...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Arundhati Undurti, Elizabeth A Colasurdo, Carl L Sikkema, Jaclyn S Schultz, Elaine R Peskind, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Charles W Wilkinson
The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25-50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jennifer M Flaherty, Robert J Spencer, Lauren L Drag, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas
OBJECTIVES: This study examined how depression, anxiety, and sleep items from the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) predict results from longer inventories. METHOD: This was a retrospective review from 484, predominantly male (96.1%) Veterans, mean age 29.7 years, who underwent brief neuropsychological screening during a comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants completed the NSI, insomnia severity index (ISI), and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Linda Marschner, An Schreurs, Benoit Lechat, Jesper Mogensen, Anton Roebroek, Tariq Ahmed, Detlef Balschun
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can lead to diffuse neurophysical damage as well as cognitive and affective alterations. The nature and extent of behavioral changes after mTBI are still poorly understood and how strong an impact force has to be to cause long-term behavioral changes is not yet known. Here, we examined spatial learning acquisition, retention and reversal in a Morris water maze, and assessed search strategies during task performance after a single, mild, closed-skull traumatic impact referred to as "minimal" TBI...
February 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Peter Smielewski, Luzius Steiner, Corina Puppo, Karol Budohoski, Georgios V Varsos, Marek Czosnyka
OBJECTIVE: Brain arterial critical closing pressure (CrCP) has been studied in several diseases such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid haemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and in various physiological scenarios: intracranial hypertension, decreased cerebral perfusion pressure, hypercapnia, etc. Little or nothing so far has been demonstrated to characterise change in CrCP during mild hypocapnia. METHOD: We retrospectively analysed recordings of intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and blood flow velocity from 27 severe TBI patients (mean 39...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Silvia D Vaca, Benjamin J Kuo, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Catherine A Staton, Linda W Xu, Michael Muhumuza, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, Joel Kiryabwire, Henry E Rice, Gerald A Grant, Michael M Haglund
BACKGROUND: Significant care continuum delays between acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and definitive surgery are associated with poor outcomes. Use of the "3 delays" model to evaluate TBI outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been performed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the care continuum, using the 3 delays framework, and its association with TBI patient outcomes in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: Prospective data were collected for 563 TBI patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Kampala from 1 June to 30 November 2016...
February 26, 2018: Neurosurgery
Andrew R Mayer, Faith M Hanlon, Eric D Claus, Andrew B Dodd, Brittny Miller, Jessica Mickey, Davin K Quinn, Sarah L Hagerty, Brandi Seaman, Kent E Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are highly comorbid and share commonly affected neuronal substrates (i.e., prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum). However, no studies have examined how combined physical trauma and heavy drinking affect neurocircuitry relative to heavy drinking alone. METHODS: The current study investigated whether comorbid AUDs and mild or moderate TBI (AUDs+TBI) would negatively affect maladaptive drinking behaviors (n = 90 AUDs+TBI; n = 62 AUDs) as well as brain structure (i...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Hua-Jiang Dong, Ming-Liang Zhao, Xiao-Hong Li, Yi-Sheng Chen, Jing Wang, Miao-Bin Chen, Sen Wu, Jing-Jing Wang, Hai-Qian Liang, Hong-Tao Sun, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Jie Xiong, Chong Chen
Both chemical and physical microenvironment appear to be important for lineage specification of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). However, physical factors such as the elastic modulus in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are seldom studied. Intracranial hypertension and cerebral edema after TBI may change the brain's physical microenvironment, which inhibits neural lineage specification of transplanted UCMSCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential regulatory effect of mild hypothermia on the elastic modulus of the injured brain...
February 23, 2018: Neuroscience
Himakarnika Alluri, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Matthew L Davis, Binu Tharakan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. It is a silently growing epidemic with multifaceted pathogenesis, and current standards of treatments aim to target only the symptoms of the primary injury, while there is a tremendous need to explore interventions that can halt the progression of the secondary injuries. The use of a reliable animal model to study and understand the various aspects the pathobiology of TBI is extremely important in therapeutic drug development against TBI-associated complications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paige S Katz, Patricia E Molina
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnoses have increased in frequency during the past decade, becoming a silent epidemic. The pathophysiology of TBI involves pathophysiological processes affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces resulting in temporary impairment of neurological function. Preclinical models have been generated to recapitulate the mechanical, neuroinflammatory, and behavioral outcomes observed in the clinical setting. The lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model is the most extensively used and well-characterized model of nonpenetrating and nonischemic TBI...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Linnéa Lagerstedt, Juan José Egea-Guerrero, Ana Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro Bustamante, Joan Montaner, Amir El Rahal, Elisabeth Andereggen, Lara Rinaldi, Asita Sarrafzadeh, Karl Schaller, Jean-Charles Sanchez
Traumatic brain injury is a common event where 70%-90% will be classified as mild TBI (mTBI). Among these, only 10% will have a brain lesion visible via CT scan. A triage biomarker would help clinicians to identify patients with mTBI who are at risk of developing a brain lesion and require a CT scan. The brain cells damaged by the shearing, tearing and stretching of a TBI event set off inflammation cascades. These cause altered concentrations of a high number of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory proteins...
2018: PloS One
Megan L Callahan, Daniel Storzbach
The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on sensory sensitivity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in an Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veteran sample. We hypothesized that the effect of PTSD on noise and light sensitivity following mTBI would be largely driven by PTSD-related hyperarousal symptoms. We compared the relationships between PTSD, noise sensitivity, and light sensitivity of 49 OEF/OIF Veterans with mTBI to that of 23 OEF/OIF Veterans without mTBI...
February 21, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Since few studies have examined the relationship between the APOE gene and clinical outcomes following military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI), we aimed to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neuropsychiatric symptoms in Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI. Participants included 133 Veterans (TBI=79, military controls [MC]=54) who underwent APOE genotyping and were divided into ε4+ (TBI=18, MC=15) and ε4- (TBI=61, MC=39) groups. All participants underwent evaluation of psychological distress using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Claudia Escudero-Lourdes, Susan M Lantz, Nasya M Sturdivant, Syed Z Imam, Sumit Sarkar, William Slikker, Merle G Paule, Kartik Balachandran, Syed F Ali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when external mechanical forces induce brain damage as result of impact, penetration or rapid acceleration/deceleration that causes deformation of brain tissue. Depending on its severity, TBI can be classified as mild, moderate or severe and can lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of uniaxial high-speed stretch (HSS) at 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a pure culture of primary rat brain endothelial cells as an in vitro model of TBI to the BBB...
February 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Janna Mantua, Antigone Grillakis, Sanaa H Mahfouz, Maura R Taylor, Allison J Brager, Angela M Yarnell, Thomas J Balkin, Vincent F Capaldi, Guido Simonelli
Sleep quality appears to be altered by traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, whether persistent post-injury changes in sleep architecture are present is unknown and relatively unexplored. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the extent to which chronic TBI (>6 months since injury) is characterized by changes to sleep architecture. We also explored the relationship between sleep architecture and TBI severity. In the fourteen included studies, sleep was assessed with at least one night of polysomnography in both chronic TBI participants and controls...
February 2, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Xu-Jia Zeng, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Zhao, Yan Peng, Nan Yang, Zi-Ai Zhao, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Recent studies have shown that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), the number of autophagosomes is markedly increased in brain cells surrounding the wound; however, whether autophagy is enhanced or suppressed by TBI remains controversial. In our study, we used a controlled cortical impact system to establish models of mild, moderate and severe TBI. In the mild TBI model, the levels of autophagy-related protein 6 (Beclin1) and autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12)-autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) conjugates were increased, indicating the enhanced initiation of autophagy...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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