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Poonam Piplani, Chhanda Charan Danta
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the statistical reports stated that Alzheimer is not just memory loss but it kills and has become the 6th leading cause of death. The number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly and expected to rise to 131.5 million by 2050. Still there is not a drug candidate that can cure the cognitive deficits completely. OBJECTIVE: Series of novel piperazine derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activity...
October 14, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Nayan Patel, Paula Pera, Penny Joshi, Mykhaylo Dukh, Walter A Tabaczynski, Kevin E Siters, Mark Kryman, Ravindra R Cheruku, Farukh Durrani, Joseph R Missert, Ramona Watson, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy, Erin Tracy, Heinz Baumann, Ravindra K Pandey
We report herein, the synthesis and biological efficacy of near-infrared (NIR), bacteriochlorin analogs: 3-(1'-butyloxy)ethyl-3-deacetyl-bacteriopurpurin-18-N-butylimide methyl ester (3) and the corresponding carboxylic acid 10. In in vitro assays, compared to its methyl ester analog 3, the corresponding carboxylic acid derivative 10 showed higher photosensitizing efficacy. However, due to drastically different pharmacokinetics in vivo, the PS 3 (HPLC purity > 99%) showed higher tumor uptake and long-term tumor cure than 10 (HPLC purity > 96...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Zobair M Younossi, Haesuk Park, Douglas Dieterich, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed, Stuart C Gordon
BACKGROUND: New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased cure rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but has also substantially raised treatment costs. AIM: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit and net costs (i.e. efficiency frontier) and the quality-adjusted cost of care associated with the evolution of treatment regimens for patients with HCV genotype 1 in the United States. DESIGN: A decision-analytic Markov model...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andreas Hellak, Jennifer Ebeling, Michael Schauseil, Steffen Stein, Matthias Roggendorf, Heike Korbmacher-Steiner
Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond™ and Scotchbond™) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™. Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n = 30) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jonas Kottmann, Julien M Rey, Markus W Sigrist
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread metabolic disease without cure. Great efforts are being made to develop a non-invasive monitoring of the blood glucose level. Various attempts have been made, including a number of non-optical approaches as well as optical techniques involving visible, near- and mid-infrared light. However, no true breakthrough has been achieved so far, i.e., there is no fully non-invasive monitoring device available. Here we present a new study based on mid-infrared spectroscopy and photoacoustic detection...
October 10, 2016: Sensors
Ningning Liu, Lailai Li, Xin Zhu, Zhiqiang Ling, Jianguo Feng, Ying Hu, Yi Wang, Lijun Mou, Yi Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem with growing prevalence in developing countries. Renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step and key factor in the development of this condition. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a basic pathological change at the later stages of the disease. Therefore, blocking the development of EMT could be a critical factor in curing CKD. We have established a cell-based high-content screening (HCS) method to identify inhibitors of EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells by automatic acquisition and processing of dual-fluorescent labeled images...
October 10, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guido Ferrari, Barton F Haynes, Scott Koenig, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, David M Margolis, Georgia D Tomaras
HIV-1 is a retrovirus that integrates into host chromatin and can remain transcriptionally quiescent in a pool of immune cells. This characteristic enables HIV-1 to evade both host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs, leading to persistent infection. Upon reactivation of proviral gene expression, HIV-1 envelope (HIV-1 Env) glycoproteins are expressed on the cell surface, transforming latently infected cells into targets for HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can engage immune effector cells to kill productively infected CD4(+) T cells and thus limit the spread of progeny virus...
October 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Duygu Karakis, Arzu Zeynep Yıldırım-Bicer, Arife Dogan, Haluk Koralay, Sukru Cavdar
PURPOSE: Dual-cure core build-up resins have been developed to take advantages of both self and light-cured resin. The aim of present study was to determine the polymerization characteristics of self and dual-cured modes of dual-cure core build-up composites evaluating degree of conversion (DC) and crosslink density by measurement of glass-transition temperature (Tg) and hardness decrease in ethanol. METHODS: Clearfil Dc Core Automix (CLF) and Grandio Core Dc (GR) core build-up resins were selected...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Ana-Paula-Rodrigues Magalhães, Francine-Couto-Lima Moreira, Denise-Ramos-Silveira Alves, Cyntia-Rodrigues-Araújo Estrela, Carlos Estrela, Marcus-Santos Carrião, Andris-Figueiroa Bakuzis, Lawrence-Gonzaga Lopes
BACKGROUND: Silver has a long history of use in medicine as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Silver nanoparticles (NAg) offer the possibility to control the formation oral biofilms through the use of nanoparticles with biocidal, anti-adhesive, and delivery abilities. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect of resin luting cements with and without NAg, and their influence on color, sorption and solubility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NAg were incorporated to two dual-cured resin cements (RelyX ARC (RA) color A1 and RelyX U200 (RU) color A2) in two concentrations (0...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Stephen D Poss
Depending on the case, predictably seating today's esthetic indirect restorations can be challenging. Ultimately, the cementation and adhesive materials selected, combined with the techniques used for their placement, can greatly affect the quality and efficient delivery of laboratory-fabricated restorations. New adhesive bonding and cementation materials have the potential to simplify the delivery of indirect restorations and simultaneously reduce and/or eliminate many of the challenges clinicians face during the placement process...
October 2016: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Jo-Ann Chuah, Akimasa Matsugami, Fumiaki Hayashi, Keiji Numata
Human mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to severe and often deadly diseases, for which there are no known cures. Although the targeted delivery of therapeutic gene to mitochondria is a promising approach to alleviate these disorders, gene carrier systems for the selective delivery of functional DNA into the mitochondria of living mammalian cells are currently unavailable. Here we rationally developed dual-domain peptides containing DNA-condensing/cell-penetrating/endosome-disruptive and mitochondria-targeting sequences...
October 3, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Marcella Esteves-Oliveira, Patrick Jansen, Martin Wehner, Andreas Dohrn, Marina Stella Bello-Silva, Carlos de Paula Eduardo, Hendrik Meyer-Lueckel
PURPOSE: To evaluate the suitability of an ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) to treat zirconia ceramic surfaces and increase their adhesion to dual-curing resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty 10 × 10 × 5 mm³ blocks were prepared from a zirconia ceramic (Y-TZP). The specimens were polished and randomly assigned to four groups (n = 5) which received the following surface treatments: sandblasting (SB) with Al₂O₃ particles and silica coating (SC) with SiO₂ particles as positive controls; two groups received USPL irradiation, one with 10 scan repetitions (L10) and the other with 20 (L20)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
C L Leal, Apv Queiroz, R M Foxton, S Argolo, P Mathias, A N Cavalcanti
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-thickness ceramic laminate translucency on water sorption and solubility in resin luting agents. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ceramic slides (15×0.7 mm) were generated using lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) that were A1 in color and had decreasing degrees of translucency (high, medium, and low). A slide of transparent glass of similar size was used as the control...
September 2016: Operative Dentistry
Y Jang, J L Ferracane, C S Pfeifer, J W Park, Y Shin, B D Roh
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of insufficient light exposure on the polymerization of conventional and self-adhesive dual-cure resin cements under ceramic restorations. METHODS: Two conventional dual-cure resin cements (Rely-X ARC, Duolink) and two self-adhesive resin cements (Rely-X U200, Maxcem Elite) were polymerized under different curing modes (dual-cure or self-cure), curing times (20 and 120 seconds), and thickness of a ceramic overlay (2 and 4 mm)...
September 30, 2016: Operative Dentistry
D P Lise, A Van Ende, J De Munck, Lcc Vieira, L N Baratieri, B Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength to a composite and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic CAD/CAM block after six-month artificial aging. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two types of CAD/CAM blocks (Cerasmart, GC; Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were cut in slabs of 4-mm thickness, divided into six groups, and subjected to the following surface treatments: group 1: no treatment; group 2: sandblasting (SB); group 3: SB + silane (Si); group 4: SB + Si + flowable composite (see below); group 5: 5% hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) + Si; and group 6: 37% phosphoric acid etching (H3PO4) + Si...
September 30, 2016: Operative Dentistry
Alexander B Beams, Damon J A Toth, Karim Khader, Frederick R Adler
Antibiotic overuse has promoted the spread of antibiotic resistance. To compound the issue, treating individuals dually infected with antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-vulnerable strains can make their infections completely resistant through competitive release. We formulate mathematical models of transmission dynamics accounting for dual infections and extensions accounting for lag times between infection and treatment or between cure and ending treatment. Analysis using the Next-Generation Matrix reveals how competition within hosts and the costs of resistance determine whether vulnerable and resistant strains persist, coexist, or drive each other to extinction...
September 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Vinícius Felipe Wandscher, Sara Fraga, João Luiz Pozzobon, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares, Edson Luiz Foletto, Liliana Gressler May, Luiz Felipe Valandro
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a novel tribochemical silica coating technique with powders made from feldspathic ceramic and leucite-based ceramic on the bond strength of zirconia to resin cement before and after aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zirconia blocks were divided into 3 groups according to the material used for airborne-particle abrasion: 1) SP (control): silica-coated alumina particles; 2) FP: feldspathic ceramic powder; 3) LP: leucite glass-ceramic powder...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
Silvia C Pérez-González, Victoria Bolaños-Carmona, María M Pérez-Gómez, Santiago González-López
This study tested the null hypothesis that the opacity of RealSeal SE (RSSE) sealer makes light-curing inefficient, while the degree of conversion (DC) is similar regardless of curing method. Fourteen uniradicular teeth were sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Root canals were instrumented using the Reciproc file system, bulk-filled with RSSE, and divided randomly into two groups (dual-cure or self-cure). DC was determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy at 24 h, 48 h, and 1 week after filling, at 6, 9, and 12 mm from the coronal end...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements, Dummy Authors
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4+ T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an SIV/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious CNS-penetrant ART. After 500 days of viral suppression animals were treated with two cycles of latency reversing agents (LRAs) and increases in viral transcripts were examined...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
Charlotte L Alston, Mariana C Rocha, Nichola Z Lax, Doug M Turnbull, Robert W Taylor
Mitochondria are double membrane-bound organelles that are present in all nucleated eukaryotic cells and responsible for the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Mitochondrial function is under dual genetic control - the 16.6 kb mitochondrial genome encoding just 37 genes with the remaining ~1300 proteins of the mitoproteome encoded by nuclear genes. Mitochondrial dysfunction can arise due to defects in either mtDNA or nuclear mitochondrial genes, and can present in childhood or adulthood in association with vast clinical heterogeneity with symptoms affecting a single organ or tissue, or multisystem involvement...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Pathology
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