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nanomaterials, chemistry

Sara T Humes, Shannon Hentschel, Candice M Lavelle, L Cody Smith, John A Lednicky, Navid B Saleh, Tara Sabo-Attwood
Nanomaterials (NMs) of various types, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), can interfere with standard quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, resulting in inaccurate gene expression measurements; however, the precise step in the qRT-PCR pipeline where this interference occurs has not been well described. Here, we investigated where in the process surface-oxidized multi-walled CNTs (oxMWNTs) inhibited qRT-PCR measurement of the expression of the housekeeping gene GAPDH and explored several strategies to minimize such inhibition...
August 1, 2017: BioTechniques
Tianshu Wu, Meng Tang
Nanotechnology had matured significantly during the last two decades as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Even though the issue of safety of nanotechnology has been raised nearly one decade ago, the rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials has not yet been matched by toxicological investigations. Many recent studies have simply outlined the toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs), but few have systematically addressed their potentially adverse biological effects on target organs...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Chen Luo, Chaolun Wang, Xing Wu, Jian Zhang, Junhao Chu
Two-dimensional (2D) ultra-thin materials beyond graphene with rich physical properties and unique layered structures are promising for applications in electronics, chemistry, energy, and bioscience, etc. The interaction mechanisms among the structures, chemical compositions and physical properties of 2D layered materials are critical for fundamental nanosciences and the practical fabrication of next-generation nanodevices. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with its high spatial resolution and versatile external fields, is undoubtedly a powerful tool for the static characterization and dynamic manipulation of nanomaterials and nanodevices at the atomic scale...
August 7, 2017: Small
Jeroen B Guinée, Reinout Heijungs, Martina G Vijver, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
Although technological and environmental benefits are important stimuli for nanotechnology development, these technologies have been contested from an environmental point of view. The steady growth of applications of engineered nanomaterials has heated up the debate on quantifying the environmental repercussions. The two main scientific methods to address these environmental repercussions are risk assessment and life-cycle assessment. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these methods, and the relation between them, have been a topic of debate in the world of traditional chemistry for over two decades...
August 4, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Huan Tang, Ying Zhao, Xiaonan Yang, Dongmei Liu, Penghui Shao, Zhigao Zhu, Sujie Shan, Fuyi Cui, Baoshan Xing
A comparative experimental and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study was carried out to investigate the aggregation of graphene oxide (GO). Mechanisms behind the effects of solution chemistries (pH, metal ions, and tannic acid (TA)) and GO topology (carboxyl content, GO size, and GO thickness) were uncovered. For example, MD results showed that more hydrogen bonds formed between GO and water at higher pH, according well with the increased hydrophilicity of GO calculated based on contact angle measurements...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jawwad A Darr, Jingyi Zhang, Neel M Makwana, Xiaole Weng
Nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Their unique and tunable size-dependent properties (in the range 1-100 nm) make these materials indispensable in many modern technological applications. In this Review, we summarize the state-of-art in the manufacture and applications of inorganic nanoparticles made using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) processes. First, we introduce ideal requirements of any flow process for nanoceramics production, outline different approaches to CHFS, and introduce the pertinent properties of supercritical water and issues around mixing in flow, to generate nanoparticles...
August 3, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Jue Deng, Chao Wang, Guozhen Guan, Hao Wu, Hong Sun, Longbin Qiu, Peining Chen, Zhiyong Pan, Hao Sun, Bo Zhang, Renchao Che, Huisheng Peng
The determination of structural evolution at the atomic level is essential to understanding the intrinsic physics and chemistries of nanomaterials. Mechanochemistry represents a promising method to trace structural evolution, but conventional mechanical tension generates random breaking points, which makes it unavailable for effective analysis. It remains difficult to find an appropriate model to study shear deformations. Here, we synthesize high-modulus carbon nanotubes that can be cut precisely, and the structural evolution is efficiently investigated through a combination of geometry phase analysis and first-principles calculations...
August 8, 2017: ACS Nano
Sayan Ganguly, Poushali Das, Madhuparna Bose, Tushar Kanti Das, Subhadip Mondal, Amit Kumar Das, Narayan C Das
The emerging popularity and wide acceptance of green chemistry and environmentally benign/ecofriendly approaches have comprehensively considered for catalyst synthesis methods. Natural resource derived carbogenic quantum dots has been used in assistance with ultrasonic shock wave to graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersion in order to prepare reduced graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles following the 'top-down' method. The total reduction process is done without using any toxic external reducing agents and any surfactants or stabilizers, thus it can be accepted as green method...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
K R Krishnadas, Ananya Baksi, Atanu Ghosh, Ganapati Natarajan, Anirban Som, Thalappil Pradeep
Nanoparticles exhibit a rich variety in terms of structure, composition, and properties. However, reactions between them remain largely unexplored. In this Account, we discuss an emerging aspect of nanomaterials chemistry, namely, interparticle reactions in solution phase, similar to reactions between molecules, involving atomically precise noble metal clusters. A brief historical account of the developments, starting from the bare, gas phase clusters, which led to the synthesis of atomically precise monolayer protected clusters in solution, is presented first...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Tae Su Choi, Hong Hee Lee, Young Ho Ko, Kwang Seob Jeong, Kimoon Kim, Hugh I Kim
Amyloid fibrils have recently been highlighted for their diverse applications as functional nanomaterials in modern chemistry. However, tight control to obtain a targeted fibril length with low heterogeneity has not been achieved because of the complicated nature of amyloid fibrillation. Herein, we demonstrate that fibril assemblies can be homogeneously manipulated with desired lengths from ~40 nm to ~10 μm by a phase transfer of amyloid proteins based on host-guest chemistry. We suggest that host-guest interactions with cucurbit[6]uril induce a phase transfer of amyloid proteins (human insulin, human islet amyloid polypeptide, hen egg lysozyme, and amyloid-β 1-40 & 1-42) from the soluble state to insoluble state when the amount of cucurbit[6]uril exceeds its solubility limit in solution...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jordan M Dennison, Jennifer M Zupancic, Wayne Lin, Jonathan H Dwyer, Catherine J Murphy
The corona that forms as protein adsorbs to gold nanospheres (AuNSs) is directly influenced by the surface chemistry of the AuNS. Tools to predict adsorption outcomes are needed for intelligent design of nanomaterials for biological applications. We hypothesized that the denaturation behavior of a protein might be a useful predictor of adsorption behavior to AuNSs, and used this idea to study protein adsorption to anionic citrate-capped AuNSs and to cationic poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) wrapped AuNSs...
July 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Bonita Durnaś, Ewelina Piktel, Robert Bucki
The number and diversity of chemical structures currently available as antibacterial drugs is much higher compared with the number of active substances in relation to pathogenic fungi. In this review we focus on nanotechnology approaches, which offer promising strategies to create nanoagents that possess broad-spectrum antifungal activity and might overcome mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Special attention was given to magnetic nanoparticles and their ability to restrict fungal growth directly, which depends on surface chemistry and pathogen strains...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine
Ester J Kwon, Matthew Skalak, Alessandro Bertucci, Gary Braun, Francesco Ricci, Erkki Ruoslahti, Michael J Sailor, Sangeeta N Bhatia
There is an urgent need for new materials to treat bacterial infections. In order to improve antibacterial delivery, an anti-infective nanomaterial is developed that utilizes two strategies for localization: i) a biodegradable nanoparticle carrier to localize therapeutics within the tissue, and ii) a novel tandem peptide cargo to localize payload to bacterial membranes. First, a library of antibacterial peptides is screened that combines a membrane-localizing peptide with a toxic peptide cargo and discovers a tandem peptide that displays synergy between the two domains and is able to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa at sub-micromolar concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
Simone Nicolardi, Yuri E M van der Burgt, Jeroen D C Codée, Manfred Wuhrer, Cornelis H Hokke, Fabrizio Chiodo
Bio-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enable innovative translational research and development in biomedicine. Biomolecules such as peptides, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates can be assembled onto AuNPs to yield nanomaterials with unique properties for applications in imaging, photothermal therapy, vaccination strategies and drug delivery. The characterization of functionalized AuNPs still remains an analytical challenge that normally requires the combination of multiple techniques. Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) and matrix-assisted LDI (MALDI) has been applied successfully in combination with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of surface chemistry of AuNPs functionalized with synthetic ligands, however only for ligands with a molecular mass limited to 1000 Da...
July 7, 2017: ACS Nano
Miguel Ángel González-Curbelo, Diana Angélica Varela-Martínez, Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier Hernández-Borges
Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties...
July 6, 2017: Electrophoresis
Shawn E Bourdo, Radwan Al Faouri, Robert Sleezer, Zeid A Nima, Andersen Lafont, Bijay P Chhetri, Mourad Benamara, Betty Martin, Gregory J Salamo, Alexandru S Biris
Graphene-based nanomaterials have received significant attention in the last decade due to their interesting properties. Its electrical and thermal conductivity and strength make graphene well suited for a variety of applications, particularly for use as a composite material in plastics. Furthermore, much work is taking place to utilize graphene as a biomaterial for uses such as drug delivery and tissue regeneration scaffolds. Owing to the rapid progress of graphene and its potential in many marketplaces, the potential toxicity of these materials has garnered attention...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Juan Yao, David B Lao, Xiao Sui, Yufan Zhou, Satish K Nune, Xiang Ma, Tyler P Troy, Musa Ahmed, Zihua Zhu, David J Heldebrant, Xiao-Ying Yu
Switchable ionic liquids (SWILs) derived from organic bases and alcohols are attractive due to their applications in gas capture, separations, and nanomaterial synthesis. However, their exact solvent structure still remains a mystery. We present the first chemical mapping of a SWIL solvent structure using in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. In situ chemical mapping discovers two coexisting liquid phases and molecular structures vastly different from conventional ionic liquids. SWIL chemical speciation is found to be more complex than the known stoichiometry...
June 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Chih-Jen Shih
This account reviews our recent research activities and achievements in the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials surface chemistry. 2D materials are atomically thin, so that carriers are less-restricted to move in the in-plane direction, whereas the out-of-plain motion is quantum-confined. Semiconductor quantum wells and graphene are two well-known examples. Applications of 2D materials in optoelectronics, surface modification, and complex materials must overcome engineering challenges associated with understanding and engineering surface chemistry of 2D materials, which essentially bridge multiscale physical phenomena...
November 30, 2016: Chimia
Tânia V Pinto, Céu M Sousa, Carlos A D Sousa, Mohamed M Aboelhassan, Andreia F Peixoto, Clara Pereira, Paulo J Coelho, Cristina Freire
Novel photochromic 1-vinylidene-naphtho[2,1-b]furan derivatives (VNF-1 and VNF-2) were successfully anchored onto silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) through direct adsorption (SiO2@VNF-1) and covalent post-grafting (SiO2@VNF-2). SiO2 NPs with different sizes (15 ± 3 and 123 ± 7 nm) and surface chemistry (pHpzc in the range of 5-9) were used, offering a wide range of possibilities to fabricate tailor-made photochromic materials. The characterization of VNF-based SiO2 NPs confirmed the efficient VNF immobilization and the integrity of both organic and inorganic components...
July 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Letian Dou, Minliang Lai, Christopher S Kley, Yiming Yang, Connor G Bischak, Dandan Zhang, Samuel W Eaton, Naomi S Ginsberg, Peidong Yang
Halide perovskites are promising semiconductor materials for solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Their strong ionic bonding nature results in highly dynamic crystal lattices, inherently allowing rapid ion exchange at the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interface. Here, we show that the anion-exchange chemistry can be precisely controlled in single-crystalline halide perovskite nanomaterials when combined with nanofabrication techniques. We demonstrate spatially resolved multicolor CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or alloy of two halides) nanowire heterojunctions with a pixel size down to 500 nm with the photoluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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