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nanomaterials, chemistry

Lisa M Housel, Lei Wang, Alyson Abraham, Jianping Huang, Genesis D Renderos, Calvin D Quilty, Alexander B Brady, Amy C Marschilok, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Esther S Takeuchi
Future advances in energy storage systems rely on identification of appropriate target materials and deliberate synthesis of the target materials with control of their physiochemical properties in order to disentangle the contributions of distinct properties to the functional electrochemistry. This goal demands systematic inquiry using model materials that provide the opportunity for significant synthetic versatility and control. Ideally, a material family that enables direct manipulation of characteristics including composition, defects, and crystallite size while remaining within the defined structural framework would be necessary...
February 19, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Palani R Jothi, Kunio Yubuta, Boniface P T Fokwa
Most nanomaterials, such as transition metal carbides, phosphides, nitrides, chalcogenides, etc., have been extensively studied for their various properties in recent years. The similarly attractive transition metal borides, on the contrary, have seen little interest from the materials science community, mainly because nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to synthesize. Herein, a simple, general synthetic method toward crystalline transition metal boride nanomaterials is proposed. This new method takes advantage of the redox chemistry of Sn/SnCl2 , the volatility and recrystallization of SnCl2 at the synthesis conditions, as well as the immiscibility of tin with boron, to produce crystalline phases of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal nanoborides with different morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanoparticles, etc...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
B Dumontel, M Canta, H Engelke, A Chiodoni, L Racca, A Ancona, T Limongi, G Canavese, V Cauda
The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Koyeli Girigoswami
In the recent times, nanomaterials are used in many sectors of science, medicine and industry, without revealing its toxic effects. Thus, it is in urgent need for exploring the toxicity along with the application of such useful nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are categorized with a particle size of 1-100 nm. They have gained increasing attention because of their novel properties, including a large specific surface area and high reaction activity. The various fundamental and practical applications of nanomaterials include drug delivery, cell imaging, and cancer therapy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wolfgang Tremel, Karsten Korschelt, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir
We describe elementary concepts, up-to-date developments, and per-spectives of the emerging field of nanoparticle enzyme mimics (so-called "nanozymes") at the interface of chemistry, biology, materials, and nanotechnology. The design and synthesis of functional enzyme mimics is a long-standing goal of biomimetic chemistry. Metal com-plexes, polymers and engineered biomolecules capturing the structure of natural enzymes or their active centers have been made to achieve high rates and enhanced selectivities...
February 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ziyan Warneke, Markus Rohdenburg, Jonas Warneke, Janina Kopyra, Petra Swiderek
Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a versatile tool for the direct-write fabrication of nanostructures on surfaces. However, FEBID nanostructures are usually highly contaminated by carbon originating from the precursor used in the process. Recently, it was shown that platinum nanostructures produced by FEBID can be efficiently purified by electron irradiation in the presence of water. If such processes can be transferred to FEBID deposits produced from other carbon-containing precursors, a new general approach to the generation of pure metallic nanostructures could be implemented...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Asadullah Madni, Sobia Noreen, Irsah Maqbool, Faizza Rehman, Amna Batool, Prince Muhammad Kashif, Mubashar Rehman, Nayab Tahir, Muhammad Imran Khan
Graphene, the mother of all carbon materials has unlocked a new era of biomedical nanomaterials due to its exceptional biocompatibility, physicochemical and mechanical properties. It is a single atom thick, nanosized, 2-dimensional structure and provides high surface area with adjustable surface chemistry to form hybrids. The present article provides a comprehensive review of ever-expanding application of graphene nanomaterials with different inorganic and organic materials in drug delivery and theranostics...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Flavio M Shimizu, Anielli M Pasqualeti, Fagner R Todão, Jessica Fernanda Affonso de Oliveira, Luis Carlos Silveira Vieira, Suely Pc Gonçalves, Gabriela H da Silva, Mateus B Cardoso, Angelo Luiz Gobbi, Diego Stéfani Teodoro Martinez, Osvaldo Novais Oliveira, Renato Sousa Lima
Advances in nanomaterials have led to a tremendous progress in different areas with the development of high performance and multifunctional platforms. However, a relevant gap remains in providing the mass-production of these nanomaterials with reproducible surfaces. Accordingly, the monitoring of such materials across their entire life cycle becomes mandatory to both industry and academy. In this paper, we use a microfluidic electronic tongue (e-tongue) as a user-friendly and cost-effective method to classify nanomaterials according to their surface chemistry...
February 9, 2018: ACS Sensors
Jianliang Shen, Wei Zhang, Ruogu Qi, Zong-Wan Mao, Haifa Shen
Cancer treatment still faces a lot of obstacles such as tumor heterogeneity, drug resistance and systemic toxicities. Beyond the traditional treatment modalities, exploitation of RNA interference (RNAi) as an emerging approach has immense potential for the treatment of various gene-caused diseases including cancer. The last decade has witnessed enormous research and achievements focused on RNAi biotechnology. However, delivery of small interference RNA (siRNA) remains a key challenge in the development of clinical RNAi therapeutics...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yunxiang Gao
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most powerful tool for deep penetration and high-quality 3D imaging of tissues with anatomical details. However, the sensitivity of the MRI technique is not as good as that of the radioactive or optical imaging methods. Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention in biomaterial research in recent decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, as well as excellent biological compatibility. Researchers have employed various carbon nano-allotropes to develop hybrid MRI contrast agents for improved sensitivity...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Flavio Della Pelle, Dario Compagnone
Polyphenolic compounds (PCs) have received exceptional attention at the end of the past millennium and as much at the beginning of the new one. Undoubtedly, these compounds in foodstuffs provide added value for their well-known health benefits, for their technological role and also marketing. Many efforts have been made to provide simple, effective and user friendly analytical methods for the determination and antioxidant capacity (AOC) evaluation of food polyphenols. In a parallel track, over the last twenty years, nanomaterials (NMs) have made their entry in the analytical chemistry domain; NMs have, in fact, opened new paths for the development of analytical methods with the common aim to improve analytical performance and sustainability, becoming new tools in quality assurance of food and beverages...
February 4, 2018: Sensors
Nan Ye, Zhuang Wang, Se Wang, Hao Fang, Degao Wang
Graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) exhibit universal applications and consequently will inevitably enter aquatic systems. However, both the fate and behavior of GFNs in aquatic environments have not been completely explored at field relevant conditions. Herein, we have systematically investigated the aqueous aggregation and stability of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) under varied solution chemistry parameters (pH, divalent cations, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) during 21 days of incubation in simulated natural environmental conditions...
February 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maria Inam, Joseph R Jones, Maria M Pérez-Madrigal, Maria C Arno, Andrew P Dove, Rachel K O'Reilly
A wide range of biorelevant applications, particularly in pharmaceutical formulations and the food and cosmetic industries, require the stabilization of two water-soluble blended components which would otherwise form incompatible biphasic mixtures. Such water-in-water emulsions can be achieved using Pickering stabilization, where two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are particularly effective due to their high surface area. However, control over the shape and size of the 2D nanomaterials is challenging, where it has not yet been possible to examine chemically identical nanostructures with the same thickness but different surface areas to probe the size-effect on emulsion stabilization ability...
January 24, 2018: ACS Central Science
Martin Kögler, Yury V Ryabchikov, Sanna Uusitalo, Alexey Popov, Anton Popov, Gleb Tselikov, Anna-Liisa Välimaa, Ahmed Al-Kattan, Jussi Hiltunen, Riitta Laitinen, Peter Neubauer, Igor Meglinski, Andrei V Kabashin
The ability of noble metal-based nanoparticles (Au, Ag) to drastically enhance Raman scattering from molecules placed near metal surface, termed as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), is widely used for identification of trace amounts of biological materials in biomedical, food safety and security applications. However, conventional nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal chemistry are typically contaminated by non-biocompatible by-products (surfactants, anions), which can have negative impacts on many live objects under examination (cells, bacteria) and thus decrease the precision of bioidentification...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Ying Wang, Monika Mortimer, Chong Hyun Chang, Patricia A Holden
Robust evaluation of potential environmental and health risks of carbonaceous and boron nitride nanomaterials (NMs) is imperative. However, significant agglomeration of pristine carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs due to strong van der Waals forces renders them not suitable for direct toxicity testing in aqueous media. Here, the natural polysaccharide alginic acid (AA) was used as a nontoxic, environmentally relevant dispersant with defined composition to disperse seven types of carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs, including multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphene, boron nitride nanotubes, and hexagonal boron nitride flakes, with various physicochemical characteristics...
January 30, 2018: Nanomaterials
Zhikun Wang, Hongbing Wang, Meng Cheng, Chunling Li, Roland Faller, Shuangqing Sun, Songqing Hu
Multi-geometry nanoparticles with high complexity in composition and structure have attracted significant attention for enhanced functionality. We assess a simple but versatile strategy to construct hybrid nanoparticles with sub-divided geometries through the cooperative assembly of diblock copolymer blends with asymmetric architectures. We report the formation of multi-compartmental, vesicular, cylindrical, and spherical structures from pure AB systems. Then, we explore the assemblies of binary AB/AC blends, where the two incompatible, hydrophobic diblock copolymers sub-divide into self-assembled local geometries, and the complexity of the obtained morphologies increases...
January 31, 2018: ACS Nano
Sabrina Simoncelli, Yi Li, Emiliano Cortes, Stefan A Maier
Self-assembly processes allow designing and creating complex nanostructures using molecules as building blocks and surfaces as scaffolds. This autonomous driven construction is possible due to a complex thermodynamic balance of molecule-surface interactions. As such, nanoscale guidance and control over this process is hard to achieve. Here we use the highly localized light-to-chemical-energy conversion of plasmonic materials to spatially cleave Au-S bonds on pre-determined locations within a single nanoparticle, enabling a high degree of control over this archetypal system for molecular self-assembly...
January 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Jonas G Croissant, Jeffrey I Zink, Laurence Raehm, Jean-Olivier Durand
Coherent two-photon-excited (TPE) therapy in the near-infrared (NIR) provides safer cancer treatments than current therapies lacking spatial and temporal selectivities because it is characterized by a 3D spatial resolution of 1 µm3 and very low scattering. In this review, the principle of TPE and its significance in combination with organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) are introduced and then studies involving the design of pioneering TPE-NIR organosilica nanomaterials are discussed for bioimaging, drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Zhihua Wang, Xiaoxiao Fan, Chunju Li, Geling Men, Dongmei Han, Fubo Gu
The development of humidity sensors with excellent sensing performance is a great challenge in the field of material chemistry. Here, we synthesized 3DOM WO3 nanomaterials through a poly(methyl methacrylate) template method, and first, we applied it to humidity measurement. For the goal of better sensing performance, the structural modification of Li/K-codoping was adopted, and the test results showed that Li/K-codoped 3DOM WO3 possessed highly improved humidity sensing performances, such as high response, low-humidity hysteresis, good long-term stability, great repeatability, decent response, and recovery properties...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Smruti R Sahoo, Ramacharyulu Vrk P, Shyue-Chu Ke
Quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis combined with spectral modeling of photoelectrons can be valuable while investigating the surface chemistry of nanoparticles (NPs) with different morphologies. Herein, with the use of NIST Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA), a comparative analysis of experimental and simulated photoelectron peak intensities in gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different morphologies is presented. Three sets of supported AuNPs with different morphologies were selected from a series of as synthesized Au-TiO2 catalyst samples...
January 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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