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nanomaterials, chemistry

Zuowei Xie, Yangjian Quan, Zaozao Qiu
Carboranes are a class of carbon-boron molecular clusters with unusual thermal and chemical stabilities. They have been proved as very useful building blocks in supramolecular design, optoelectronics, nanomaterials, boron neutron capture therapy agents and organometallic/coordination chemistry. Thus, the functionalization of o-carboranes has received growing interests. Over the past decades, most of the works in this area have been focused on cage carbon functionalization as the weakly acidic cage C-H proton can be readily deprotonated by strong bases...
November 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tiia-Riikka Tero, Sami Malola, Benedek Koncz, Emmi Pohjolainen, Saara Lautala, Satu Mustalahti, Perttu Permi, Gerrit Groenhof, Mika Pettersson, Hannu Häkkinen
Ligand-stabilized, atomically precise gold nanoclusters with a metal core of a uniform size of just 1 - 3 nm constitute an interesting class of nanomaterials with versatile possibilities for applications due to their size dependent properties and modifiable ligand layers. The key to extending the usability of the clusters in applications is to understand the chemical bonding in the ligand layer as a function of cluster size and ligand structure. Previously, it has been shown that monodispersed gold nanoclusters, stabilized by meta-mercaptobenzoic acid (m-MBA or 3-MBA) ligands and with sizes of 68 to 144 gold atoms, show ambient stability...
November 14, 2017: ACS Nano
Xin Qu, Jinghai Yang, Yanchao Wang, Jian Lv, Zhongfang Chen, Yanming Ma
At present, the concept of planar hypercoordination in chemistry meets the fast development of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, leading to considerable interest in searching for 2D materials with planar hypercoordinate atoms. In this work, by means of the swarm-intelligence structure search method and first-principles calculations, we predict a hitherto unknown 2D TiB4 monolayer with a planar octacoordinate Ti moiety, in which each Ti atom binds to eight B atoms with equal distances in a perfect plane, and has the highest coordination of Ti known for 2D materials thus far...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale
Colin R Zamecnik, Margaret M Lowe, David M Patterson, Michael D Rosenblum, Tejal A Desai
Injectable nanomaterials that interact with the host immune system without surgical intervention present spatially anchored complements to cell transplantation and could offer improved pharmacokinetics compared to systemic cytokine therapy. Here we demonstrate fabrication of high aspect ratio polycaprolactone nanowires coupled with cytokine-binding antibodies that assemble into porous matrices when injected into the subcutaneous space. These structures are fabricated using a nanotemplating technique that allows for tunability of particle dimensions and utilize a straightforward maleimide conjugation chemistry to allow site-specific coupling to proteins...
November 15, 2017: ACS Nano
Sijie Lin, Monika Mortimer, Ran Chen, Aleksandr Kakinen, Jim E Riviere, Thomas P Davis, Feng Ding, Pu Chun Ke
The first phase of environmental health and safety of nanomaterials (nanoEHS) studies has been mainly focused on evidence-based investigations that probe the impact of nanoparticles, nanomaterials and nano-enabled products on biological and ecological systems. The integration of multiple disciplines, including colloidal science, nanomaterial science, chemistry, toxicology/immunology and environmental science, is necessary to understand the implications of nanotechnology for both human health and the environment...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
Feng Wang, Charles E Diesendruck
o-Phthalaldehyde is, to this day, the only aromatic aldehyde that can be homopolymerized through chain-growth polymerization. The product, polyphthalaldehyde (PPA), is a brittle white solid, and, having a polyacetal main chain, presents the ability to depolymerize quite rapidly in the presence of an acid. This review highlights the unique polymerization chemistry of o-phthalaldehyde since its discovery over half a century ago, describing the different methods for the preparation of PPA and its derivatives, how the polymerization chemistry affects the structure and thermomechanical properties of the obtained PPA, and summarizes recent developments in PPA chemistry as a responsive material...
November 6, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Shimaa Eissa, Nawal Alshehri, Anas M Abdel Rahman, Majed Dasouki, Khalid M Abu Salah, Mohammed Zourob
Spinal muscular atrophy is an untreatable potentially fatal hereditary disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene which encodes the SMN protein. Currently, definitive diagnosis relies on the demonstration of biallelic pathogenic variants in SMN1 gene. Therefore, there is an urgent unmet need to accurately quantify SMN protein levels for screening and therapeutic monitoring of symptomatic newborn and SMA patients, respectively. Here, we developed a voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of SMN protein based on covalently functionalized carbon nanofiber-modified screen printed electrodes...
October 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Xiao-Tai Zhang, Guang-Jian Liu, Zhang-Wei Ning, Guo-Wen Xing
During the past decades, the interaction between boronic acids-functionalized sensors and saccharides is of great interest in the frontier domain of the interdiscipline concerning both biology and chemistry. Various boronic acid-based sensing systems have been developed to detect saccharides and corresponding derivatives in vitro as well as in vivo, which embrace unimolecular sensors, two-component sensing ensembles, functional assemblies, and boronic acid-loaded nanomaterials or surfaces. New sensing strategies emerge in endlessly with excellent selectivity and sensitivity...
November 27, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Ravi Shankaran Dhesingh, S Thambiraj, S Hema
BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the prostate gland (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer diseases among men around the world. PCa has become the major considerable health and epidemic problem which causes death in men with a high prevalence and relatively lower mortality risk. The inability of conventional diagnosis tools to detect cancer at an early and potentially curable stage further hinders effective treatment options and spur demand for improved technologies. Nanoparticles are emerging as a versatile tool for disease diagnosis to therapy...
November 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Chris Guhrenz, Vladimir Sayevich, Florian Weigert, Eileen Hollinger, Annett Reichhelm, Ute Resch-Genger, Nikolai Gaponik, Alexander Eychmüller
We report on a novel and simple approach to surface ligand design of CdSe-based nanocrystals (NCs) with biocompatible, heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules. This method provides high transfer yields of the NCs into aqueous media with preservation of the narrow and symmetric emission bands of the initial organic-capped NCs regardless of their interior crystal structure and surface chemistry. The PEG-functionalized NCs show small sizes, high photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 75%, as well as impressive optical and colloidal stability...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Brandon L Greene, Gregory E Vansuch, Bryant C Chica, Michael W W Adams, R Brian Dyer
Rapid and facile redox chemistry is exemplified in nature by the oxidoreductases, the class of enzymes that catalyze electron transfer (ET) from a donor to an acceptor. The key role of oxidoreductases in metabolism and biosynthesis has imposed evolutionary pressure to enhance enzyme efficiency, pushing some toward the diffusion limit. Understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms of these highly optimized enzymes would provide an important foundation for the rational design of catalysts for multielectron chemistry, including fuel production...
October 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Priya Roy, Swadhin K Saha, Prajna Gayen, Pranesh Chowdhury, Santi P Sinha Babu
The present work seeks to explore the antifilarial activity of biopolymer functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against human filarial parasite (Wuchereria bancrofti) through Nrf2 signaling for the first time. A natural polymer, chitosan is used along with Terminalia chebula extract to synthesize AuNPs following the principles of green chemistry. The probable mode of action of AuNPs as filaricidal agent has been investigated in detail using model filarial parasite, Setaria cervi (bovine parasite). Biopolymers inspired AuNPs exhibit superior antifilarial activity against both human and bovine filarial parasites, and are able to induce oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in filarial parasites mediated through mitochondria...
October 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Lily Arrue, Lars Ratjen
The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts...
October 26, 2017: ChemMedChem
Min Wei, Song Li, Weidong Le
Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Margaret Chern, Thuy T Nguyen, Andrew H Mahler, Allison M Dennis
Heterostructured core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are prized in biomedical imaging and biosensing applications because of their bright, photostable emission and effectiveness as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) donors. However, as nanomaterials chemistry has progressed beyond traditional QDs to incorporate new compositions, ultra-thick shells, and alloyed structures, few of these materials have had their optical properties systematically characterized for effective application. For example, thick-shelled QDs, also known as 'giant' QDs (gQDs) are useful in single-particle tracking microscopy because of their reduced blinking, but we know only that CdSe/CdS gQDs are qualitatively brighter than thin-shelled CdSe/CdS in aqueous media...
November 2, 2017: Nanoscale
Ryo Sekine, Katie L Moore, Marianne Matzke, Pascal Vallotton, Haibo Jiang, Gareth M Hughes, Jason K Kirby, Erica Donner, Chris R M Grovenor, Claus Svendsen, Enzo Lombi
Increasing consumer use of engineered nanomaterials has led to significantly increased efforts to understand their potential impact on the environment and living organisms. Currently, no individual technique can provide all the necessary information such as their size, distribution, and chemistry in complex biological systems. Consequently, there is a need to develop complementary instrumental imaging approaches that provide enhanced understanding of these "bio-nano" interactions to overcome the limitations of individual techniques...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Daniel Prochowicz, Arkadiusz Kornowicz, Janusz Lewiński
Readily available cyclodextrins (CDs) with an inherent hydrophobic internal cavity and hydrophilic external surface are macrocyclic entities that display a combination of molecular recognition and complexation properties with vital implications for host-guest supramolecular chemistry. While the host-guest chemistry of CDs has been widely recognized and led to their exploitation in a variety of important functions over the last five decades, these naturally occurring macrocyclic systems have emerged only recently as promising macrocyclic molecules to fabricate environmentally benign functional nanomaterials...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Tianxiang Wei, Tingting Dong, Hong Xing, Ying Liu, Zhihui Dai
To achieve high selectivity and sensitivity simultaneously in an electrochemical biosensing platform, cucurbituril and azide cofunctionalized graphene oxide, a new functional nanomaterial that acts as a go-between to connect the recognition element with amplified signal architecture, is developed in this work. The cucurbituril and azide cofunctionalized graphene oxide features a high specific surface area with abundant levels of the two types of functional groups. Specifically, it emerges as a powerful tool to link recognition elements with simplicity, high yield, rapidity, and highly selective reactivity through azide-alkynyl click chemistry...
October 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Qing Peng, Yu-Chih Tseng, Yun Long, Anil U Mane, Shane DiDona, Seth B Darling, Jeffrey W Elam
There are broad interests in selective and localized synthesis in nanodomains of self-assembled block copolymers (BCPs) for a variety of applications. Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) shows promise to selectively grow a controllable amount of materials in one type of nanodomain of a self-assembled BCP film. However, the effects of nanostructured domains in a BCP film and SIS cycles on the material growth behavior of SIS are rarely studied. In this work, we investigated the growth behavior of TiO2 SIS within self-assembled polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films and the two corresponding pure homopolymer films (PS and PMMA) by using in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)...
November 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jonghoon Kim, Nohyun Lee, Taeghwan Hyeon
Molecular imaging enables us to non-invasively visualize cellular functions and biological processes in living subjects, allowing accurate diagnosis of diseases at early stages. For successful molecular imaging, a suitable contrast agent with high sensitivity is required. To date, various nanoparticles have been developed as contrast agents for medical imaging modalities. In comparison with conventional probes, nanoparticles offer several advantages, including controllable physical properties, facile surface modification and long circulation time...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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