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nanomaterials, chemistry

Guankui Wang, Fangfang Chen, Nirmal K Banda, V Michael Holers, LinPing Wu, S Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Dawei Xu, Qian Ran, Yang Xiang, Jiang Linhai, Britannia M Smith, Fadi Bou-Abdallah, Reidar Lund, Zhongjun Li, He Dong
A significant challenge associated with systemic delivery of cationic antimicrobial peptides and polymers lies in their limited hemocompatibility toward vast numbers of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Supramolecular assembly of cationic peptides and polymers can be an effective strategy to develop an array of antimicrobial nanomaterials with tunable material structures, stability and thus optimized bioactivity to overcome some of the existing challenges associated with conventional antimicrobials. In this work, we will demonstrate the supramolecular design of self-assembling antimicrobial nanofibers (SAANs) which have tunable supramolecular nanostructures, stability, internal molecular packing and surface chemistry through self-assembly of de novo designed cationic peptides and peptide-PEG conjuguates...
2016: RSC Advances
Yu-Huei Peng, Yi-Chun Tsai, Chia-En Hsiung, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Yang-Hsin Shih
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used nanomaterials and their environmental impacts have received increasing attention. The fate and toxicity of ZnO NPs in the environment are determined by their stability and dissolution. In this study, the influence of water chemistry on aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of ZnO NPs was investigated. The stabilized ZnO NPs aggregated and precipitated when the aqueous pH closed to their zero point of charge (pHzpc). Counter-ions neutralized the surface charge of NPs and promoted their destabilization...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Meghan B Teunis, Katie N Lawrence, Poulami Dutta, Amanda P Siegel, Rajesh Sardar
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Peiguang Hu, Limei Chen, Xiongwu Kang, Shaowei Chen
Noble metal nanoparticles represent a unique class of functional nanomaterials with physical and chemical properties that deviate markedly from those of their atomic and bulk forms. In order to stabilize the nanoparticles and further manipulate the materials properties, surface functionalization with organic molecules has been utilized as a powerful tool. Among those, mercapto derivatives have been used extensively as the ligands of choice for nanoparticle surface functionalization by taking advantage of the strong affinity of thiol moieties to transition metal surfaces forming (polar) metal-thiolate linkages...
October 3, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mark Burgess, Jeffrey S Moore, Joaquín Rodríguez-López
It is an exciting time for exploring the synergism between the chemical and dimensional properties of redox nanomaterials for addressing the manifold performance demands faced by energy storage technologies. The call for widespread adoption of alternative energy sources requires the combination of emerging chemical concepts with redesigned battery formats. Our groups are interested in the development and implementation of a new strategy for nonaqueous flow batteries (NRFBs) for grid energy storage. Our motivation is to solve major challenges in NRFBs, such as the lack of membranes that simultaneously allow fast ion transport while minimizing redox active species crossover between anolyte (negative electrolyte) and catholyte (positive electrolyte) compartments...
September 27, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Svetlana V Kilina, Patrick K Tamukong, Dmitri S Kilin
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are near-ideal nanomaterials for energy conversion and lighting technologies. However, their photophysics exhibits supreme sensitivity to surface passivation and defects, of which control is problematic. The role of passivating ligands in photodynamics remains questionable and is a focus of ongoing research. The optically forbidden nature of surface-associated states makes direct measurements on them challenging. Therefore, computational modeling is imperative for insights into surface passivation and its impact on light-driven processes in QDs...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Alena Gábelová, Naouale El Yamani, Tamara Iglesias Alonso, Barbora Buliaková, Annamária Srančíková, Andrea Bábelová, Elise Runden Pran, Lise Marie Fjellsbø, Elisabeth Elje, Mazyar Yazdani, Maria João Silva, Mária Dušinská
Nowadays engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly used in a wide range of commercial products and biomedical applications. Despite this, the knowledge of human potential health risk as well as comprehensive biological and toxicological information is still limited. We have investigated the capacity of two frequently used metallic ENMs, nanosilver and magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), to induce thymidine kinase (Tk (+/-)) mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and transformed foci in Bhas 42 cells. Two types of nanosilver, spherical nanoparticles (AgNM300) and fibrous (AgNM302) nanorods/wires, and MNPs differing in surface modifications [MNPs coated with sodium oleate (SO-MNPs), MNPs coated with SO + polyethylene glycol (SO-PEG-MNPs) and MNPs coated with SO + PEG + poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) SO-PEG-PLGA-MNPs] were included in this study...
September 22, 2016: Mutagenesis
S Sureshkumar, B Jothimani, T M Sridhar, Arul Santhosh, B Venkatachalapathy
Surface modified ZnO nanomaterial is widely used in the field of bioimaging worldwide due to its optical properties, electronic characteristics and biocompatibility. Fluorescent enhanced, Polyquaternium-7(PQ7) capped, ZnO hexagonal nano disks (ZnO-PQ7) were synthesised by simple wet chemical method. The structural and optical properties of ZnO-PQ7 hexagonal nano disks were characterized using XRD, UV-Visible, Fluorescence, HRTEM, EDAX and FTIR studies. The size of synthesised ZnO-PQ7 were around 30-45 nm as confirmed by HRTEM studies...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
Junran Feng, Hailong Fan, Dao-An Zha, Le Wang, Zhaoxia Jin
Recent studies demonstrated that polydopamine (PDA) coating is universal to nearly all substrates, and it endows substrates with biocompatibility, postfunctionality, and other useful properties. Surface chemistry of PDA coating is important for its postmodifications and applications. However, there is less understanding of the formation mechanism and surface functional groups of PDA layers generated in different conditions. Halloysite is a kind of clay mineral with tubular nanostructure. Water-swellable halloysite has unique reactivity...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Svetlana Neretina, Robert A Hughes, Kyle D Gilroy, Maryam Hajfathalian
Modern technologically driven societies could not exist in their current form if it were not for a great many synthetic achievements reliant on solution-based chemistry and substrate-based processing techniques. It is, hence, not surprising that these same materials preparation techniques have given rise to an impressive list of functional nanomaterials including those derived from noble metals, a class of materials renowned for their extraordinary optical and catalytic properties. Acting as the foundation for substrate-based processing is a collection of techniques such as physical and chemical vapor deposition, epitaxy, self- and directed assembly, and a host of lithographic methods...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Waqar Majeed, Shawn Bourdo, Dayton M Petibone, Viney Saini, Kieng Bao Vang, Zeid A Nima, Karrer M Alghazali, Emilie Darrigues, Anindya Ghosh, Fumiya Watanabe, Daniel Casciano, Syed F Ali, Alexandru S Biris
Graphene and its derivative, because of their unique physical, electrical and chemical properties, are an important class of nanomaterials being proposed as foundational materials in nanomedicine as well as for a variety of industrial applications. A major limitation for graphene, when used in biomedical applications, is its poor solubility due to its rather hydrophobic nature. Therefore, chemical functionalities are commonly introduced to alter both its surface chemistry and biochemical activity. Here, we show that surface chemistry plays a major role in the toxicological profile of the graphene structures...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Panoraia I Siafaka, Neslihan Üstündağ Okur, Evangelos Karavas, Dimitrios N Bikiaris
Nanocarriers, due to their unique features, are of increased interest among researchers working with pharmaceutical formulations. Polymeric nanoparticles and nanocapsules, involving non-toxic biodegradable polymers, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and inorganic-organic nanomaterials, are among the most used carriers for drugs for a broad spectrum of targeted diseases. In fact, oral, injectable, transdermal-dermal and ocular formulations mainly consist of the aforementioned nanomaterials demonstrating promising characteristics such as long circulation, specific targeting, high drug loading capacity, enhanced intracellular penetration, and so on...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lyndsey R Powell, Yanmei Piao, YuHuang Wang
Covalent chemistries have been widely used to modify carbon nanomaterials; however, they typically lack the precision and efficiency required to directly engineer their optical and electronic properties. Here, we show, for the first time, that visible light which is tuned into resonance with carbon nanotubes can be used to drive their functionalization by aryldiazonium salts. The optical excitation accelerates the reaction rate 154-fold (±13) and makes it possible to significantly improve the efficiency of covalent bonding to the sp(2) carbon lattice...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jyotilima Saikia, Bardwi Narzary, Sonali Roy, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Prasenjit Saikia, Binoy K Saikia
Studies on coal-derived nanoparticles as well as nano-minerals are important in the context of the human health and the environment. The coal combustion-generated aerosols also affect human health and environmental quality aspects in any coal-fired station. In this study, the feed coals and their combustion-generated aerosols from coal-fired boilers of two tea industry facilities were investigated for the presence of nanoparticles/nano minerals, fullerene aggregates, and potentially hazardous elements (PHEs)...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Ying Pan, Ye Tao, Guangzhao Qin, Yuriy Fedoryshyn, Shyamprasad N Raja, Ming Hu, Christian L Degen, Dimos Poulikakos
We report electronic and phononic transport measurements of monocrystalline batch-fabricated silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays functionalized with different surface chemistries. We find that hydrogen-terminated SiNWs prepared by vapor HF etching of native-oxide-covered devices show increased electrical conductivity but decreased thermal conductivity. We used the kinetic Monte Carlo method to solve the Boltzmann transport equation and also numerically examine the effect of phonon boundary scattering. Surface transfer doping of the SiNWs by cobaltocene or decamethylcobaltocene drastically improves the electrical conductivity by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude without affecting the thermal conductivity...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Vincent M Rotello
The atom-by-atom control provided by synthetic organic chemistry presents a means of generating new functional nanomaterials with great precision. Bringing together these two very disparate skill sets is, however, quite uncommon. This autobiographical review provides some insight into how my program evolved, as well as giving some idea of where we are going.
2016: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Kizhmuri P Divya, Mikhail Miroshnikov, Debjit Dutta, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Pulickel M Ajayan, George John
The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes...
September 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
João Pinto da Costa, Ana Violeta Girão, Tito Trindade, Maria Clara Costa, Armando Duarte, Teresa Rocha-Santos
There have been extensive and comprehensive reviews in the field of metal sulfide precipitation in the context of environmental remediation. However, these works have focused mainly on the removal of metals from aqueous solutions-usually, metal-contaminated effluents-with less emphasis on the precipitation process and on the end-products, frequently centering on metal removal efficiencies. Recently, there has been an increasing interest not only in the possible beneficial effects of these bioremediation strategies for metal-rich effluents but also on the formed precipitates...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chisato Kataoka, Kousuke Nakahara, Kaori Shimizu, Shinsuke Kowase, Seiji Nagasaka, Shinsuke Ifuku, Shosaku Kashiwada
To investigate the effects of salinity on the behavior and toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which are chemical modified nanotube to increase dispersibility, medaka embryos were exposed to non-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (N-SWCNTs), water-dispersible, cationic, plastic-polymer-coated, single-walled carbon nanotubes (W-SWCNTs), or hydrophobic polyethylene glycol-functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) at different salinities, from freshwater to seawater...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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