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Gastric by pass

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669667/transhepatic-bile-acid-kinetics-in-pigs-and-humans
#1
Hannah M Eggink, F Samuel van Nierop, Marieke G Schooneman, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Martijn Koehorst, Gabriella A M Ten Have, L Maurits de Brauw, Albert K Groen, Johannes A Romijn, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Maarten R Soeters
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bile acids (BAs) play a key role in lipid uptake and metabolic signalling in different organs including gut, liver, muscle and brown adipose tissue. Portal and peripheral plasma BA concentrations increase after a meal. However, the exact kinetics of postprandial BA metabolism have never been described in great detail. We used a conscious porcine model to investigate postprandial plasma concentrations and transorgan fluxes of BAs, glucose and insulin using the para-aminohippuric acid dilution method...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633597/effect-of-t-2-toxin-injected-shrimp-muscle-extracts-on-mouse-macrophage-cells-raw264-7
#2
Zhanrui Huang, Yaling Wang, Mei Qiu, Lijun Sun, Jianmeng Liao, Rundong Wang, Xiaodong Sun, Siyuan Bi, Ravi Gooneratne
Following intramuscular injections of 0.1 mL, 3 mg kg(-1 )BW(-1)(1/10 LD50) T-2 toxin (T-2), the tissue concentration of T-2 in shrimp was quantitatively detected using LC-MS/MS. The biological half-time (t1/2) of T-2 in blood was 40.47 ± 0.24 min. The highest number of intramuscular T-2 shrimp could tolerate when given at blood t1/2 intervals was 4. The shrimps which were injected 5 T-2 died. The T-2 toxin highest accumulation was 0.471 ± 0.012 ng g(-1 )BW(-1). The effect of toxic shrimp muscle subjected to different processing conditions (high pressure, trifluoroacetic acid, acid and alkali digestions, artificial digestive juice [to simulate exposure to gastric and intestinal juices]) on mouse macrophage cells (RAW267...
February 10, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522788/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-among-morbidly-obese-patients
#3
Piotr Major, Aleksandra Kowalczuk, Michał Wysocki, Sonia Osadnik, Michał Pędziwiatr, Anna Głuszewska, Magdalena Pisarska, Piotr Małczak, Anna Lasek, Michał Kisielewski, Andrzej Budzyński
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass on risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data of patients operated for morbid obesity who were qualified for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass (LRYGB). Risk factors for wyłączecardiovascular diseases were assessed with the SCORE scale and both full and hard Framingham cardiovascular risk scores (FCRs)...
February 28, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507935/phospholipid-complex-technique-for-superior-bioavailability-of-phytoconstituents
#4
REVIEW
Kattamanchi Gnananath, Kalakonda Sri Nataraj, Battu Ganga Rao
Phytoconstituents have been utilized as medicines for thousands of years, yet their application is limited owing to major hurdles like deficit lipid solubility, large molecular size and degradation in the gastric environment of gut. Recently, phospholipid-complex technique has unveiled in addressing these stumbling blocks either by enhancing the solubilizing capacity or its potentiating ability to pass through the biological membranes and it also protects the active herbal components from degradation. Hence, this phospholipid-complex-technique can enable researchers to deliver the phytoconstituents into systemic circulation by using certain conventional dosage forms like tablets and capsules...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493146/laparoscopic-proximal-gastrectomy-with-oblique-jejunogastrostomy
#5
Kimitaka Tanaka, Yuma Ebihara, Yo Kurashima, Yoshitsugu Nakanishi, Toshimichi Asano, Takehiro Noji, Soichi Murakami, Toru Nakamura, Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Keisuke Okamura, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
BACKGROUND: Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes...
May 10, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461264/development-of-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-for-intraoral-delivery-of-domperidone
#6
Carolin Tetyczka, Martin Griesbacher, Markus Absenger-Novak, Eleonore Fröhlich, Eva Roblegg
The oral cavity displays one potentially attractive route that is not associated with gastric transit and hepatic first pass metabolism. However, poorly soluble active candidates require a drug delivery system to facilitate their transport through oral biological membranes. To this end, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were loaded with Domperidone and produced with high pressure homogenization. NLC were characterized regarding particle size, particle size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and crystallinity...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460931/bioaccessibility-and-antioxidant-activity-of-curcumin-after-encapsulated-by-nano-and-pickering-emulsion-based-on-chitosan-tripolyphosphate-nanoparticles
#7
Bakht Ramin Shah, Chunlan Zhang, Yan Li, Bin Li
In the current study the influence of different lipid-based formulations (Pickering and nanoemulsions) and their droplet size on curcumin encapsulation and bioaccessibility, as well as on its anti-oxidant activity was investigated. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticles and nanoemulsions containing an organic phase (Span80:Tween80), were prepared with either medium chain triglyceride (MCT) or corn oil as long chain triglyceride (LCT). An in vitro gastrointestinal (GIT) model consisting of mouth, gastric and intestinal phases was used to characterize the rate and extent of lipid phase digestion of the ingested samples...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459051/bacterial-diversity-of-the-gastric-content-of-preterm-infants-during-their-first-month-of-life-at-the-hospital
#8
Laura Moles, Marta Gómez, Esther Jiménez, Gerardo Bustos, Javier de Andrés, Ana Melgar, Diana Escuder, Leónides Fernández, Rosa Del Campo, Juan Miguel Rodríguez
Studies focused on the stomach microbiota are relatively scarce, and most of them are focused on the adult population. The aim of this work is to describe the bacterial communities inhabiting the gastric content (GC) of preterm neonates. For that purpose, GC samples were collected weekly from a total of 13 preterm neonates during their first month of life within their hospital stay. Samples were analyzed by using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The former allowed the isolation of bacteria belonging mainly to the genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Serratia, Klebsiella, and Escherichia...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450226/human-carbonyl-reductase-1-participating-in-intestinal-first-pass-drug-metabolism-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-and-acyl-coas
#9
Akira Hara, Satoshi Endo, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Ossama El-Kabbani, Takeshi Miura, Toru Nishinaka, Tomoyuki Terada
Human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, reduces a variety of carbonyl compounds including endogenous isatin, prostaglandin E2 and 4-oxo-2-nonenal. It is also a major non-cytochrome P450 enzyme in the phase I metabolism of carbonyl-containing drugs, and is highly expressed in the intestine. In this study, we found that long-chain fatty acids and their CoA ester derivatives inhibit CBR1. Among saturated fatty acids, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids were inhibitory, and stearic acid was the most potent (IC50 9µM)...
April 24, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414614/intracorporeal-circular-stapled-esophagojejunostomy-using-conventional-purse-string-suture-instrument-after-laparoscopic-total-gastrectomy
#10
Weiguo Liu, Yongfang Guo, Zhigang Qiu, Dongguang Niu, Jianli Zhang
BACKGROUND: An optimal alimentary tract reconstruction technique after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) remains controversial. The authors developed a new simple technique for intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis that employs a conventional purse-string suture instrument (PSI) and circular stapler. METHODS: From May 2014 to April 2016, 41 consecutive patients with gastric cancer underwent LTG in the author's institution. Intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis using the following method was attempted for all patients...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412398/recent-update-on-nanoemulgel-as-topical-drug-delivery-system
#11
REVIEW
Hira Choudhury, Bapi Gorain, Manisha Pandey, Lipika Alok Chatterjee, Pinaki Sengupta, Arindam Das, Nagashekhara Molugulu, Prashant Kesharwani
Being an emerging transdermal delivery tool, nanoemulgel, has proved to show surprising upshots for the lipophilic drugs over other formulations. This lipophilic nature of majority of the newer drugs developed in this modern era resulting in poor oral bioavailability, erratic absorption, and pharmacokinetic variations. Therefore, this novel transdermal delivery system has been proved to be advantageous over other oral and/or topical drug delivery to avoid such disturbances. These nanoemulgels are basically oil-in-water nanoemulsions gelled with the use of some gelling agent in it...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395382/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-creation-of-a-transgastric-fistula-for-the-management-of-hepatobiliary-disease-in-patients-with-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#12
Saowanee Ngamruengphong, Jose Nieto, Rastislav Kunda, Vivek Kumbhari, Yen-I Chen, Majidah Bukhari, Mohamad Hassan El Zein, Renata P Bueno, Gulara Hajiyeva, Amr Ismail, Yamile Haito Chavez, Mouen A Khashab
Background and aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is technically challenging. We describe our multicenter experience using lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) to create an endoscopic ultrasound-guided transgastric fistula (EUS-TG) to facilitate peroral ERCP in these patients. Patients and methods Thirteen patients with RYGB who underwent EUS-TG at three tertiary centers were included. EUS was used to guide puncture of the excluded stomach from the gastric pouch or jejunum; a LAMS was placed across the transgastric fistula...
April 10, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393901/changes-in-scd-gene-dna-methylation-after-bariatric-surgery-in-morbidly-obese-patients-are-associated-with-free-fatty-acids
#13
Sonsoles Morcillo, Gracia Mª Martín-Núñez, Sara García-Serrano, Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Francisca Rodriguez-Pacheco, Sergio Valdes, Montserrat Gonzalo, Gemma Rojo-Martinez, Francisco J Moreno-Ruiz, Alberto Rodriguez-Cañete, Francisco Tinahones, Eduardo García-Fuentes
Stearoyl CoA Desaturase-1 (SCD) is considered as playing an important role in the explanation of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the DNA methylation SCD gene promoter is associated with the metabolic improvement in morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery. The study included 120 subjects with morbid obesity who underwent a laparoscopic Roux-en Y gastric by-pass (RYGB) and a control group of 30 obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) to that found in morbidly obese subjects six months after RYGB...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386250/means-to-facilitate-the-overcoming-of-gastric-juice-barrier-by-a-therapeutic-staphylococcal-bacteriophage-a5-80
#14
Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Marlena Kłak, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Barbara Bubak, Anna Wójcik, Marta Kaszowska, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Małgorzata Łobocka, Andrzej Górski
In this article we compare the efficacy of different pharmacological agents (ranitidine, and omeprazole) to support phage transit from stomach to distal portions of the gastrointestinal tract in rats. We show that a temporal modification of environment in the animal stomach may protect Twort-like therapeutic antistaphylococcal phage A5/80 (from bacteriophage collection of the Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy PAS in Wroclaw, Poland) from the inactivation by gastric juice effectively enough to enable a significant fraction of orally administered A5/80 to pass to the intestine...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358331/absorption-metabolic-stability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-ginger-phytochemicals
#15
Rao Mukkavilli, Chunhua Yang, Reenu Singh Tanwar, Ahmed Ghareeb, Latika Luthra, Ritu Aneja
We have previously demonstrated promising anticancer efficacy of orally-fed whole ginger extract (GE) in preclinical prostate models emphasizing the importance of preservation of the natural "milieu". Essentially, GE primarily includes active ginger phenolics viz., 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G), and 6-shogaol (6S). However, the druglikeness properties of active GE phenolics like solubility, stability, and metabolic characteristics are poorly understood. Herein, we determined the physicochemical and biochemical properties of GE phenolics by conducting in vitro assays and mouse pharmacokinetic studies with and without co-administration of ketoconazole (KTZ)...
March 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353071/the-preliminary-study-of-prebiotic-potential-of-polish-wild-mushroom-polysaccharides-the-stimulation-effect-on-lactobacillus-strains-growth
#16
Renata Nowak, Natalia Nowacka-Jechalke, Marek Juda, Anna Malm
PURPOSE: According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286289/mechanistic-investigation-of-the-negative-food-effect-of-modified-release-zolpidem
#17
Cord J Andreas, Xavier Pepin, Constantinos Markopoulos, Maria Vertzoni, Christos Reppas, Jennifer B Dressman
AIMS: When administered orally as either an immediate or modified release dosage form, zolpidem demonstrates a negative food effect, i.e. decrease in Cmax and AUC. The aim of the study was to arrive at a better understanding of the absorption of this BCS class I compound in vivo and to simulate the observed plasma profiles using in vitro and in silico methods. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic profiles of zolpidem are presented from a bioavailability (8mg intravenous; 10mg immediate release Stilnox®; 10mg and 12...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266539/improved-bioavailability-and-antitumor-effect-of-docetaxel-by-tpgs-modified-proniosomes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluations
#18
Helong Liu, Liangxing Tu, Yongxin Zhou, Zefang Dang, Luting Wang, Junfeng Du, Jianfang Feng, Kaili Hu
A novel oral drug delivery system, TPGS modified docetaxel proniosomes (DTX-TPGS-PNs), was designed to enhance the oral bioavailability and antitumor efficiency of the poorly water-soluble drug docetaxel. DTX-TPGS-PN niosomes were 93 ± 6.5 nm in size, -18.53 ± 1.65 mV in zeta potential and exhibited spherical morphology, with an encapsulation efficiency of 97.31 ± 0.60%. The system showed sustained release in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. The results of caco-2 monolayer, everted gut sac model and improved single-pass intestinal perfusion model transport studies showed that DTX-TPGS-PN niosomes could significantly improve the absorption of DTX...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205030/safety-and-feasibility-of-reduced-port-robotic-distal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-a-phase-i-ii-clinical-trial
#19
Seungho Lee, Jin Kyong Kim, Youn Nam Kim, Dong-Su Jang, Yoo Min Kim, Taeil Son, Woo Jin Hyung, Hyoung-Il Kim
INTRODUCTION: Theoretically, reducing the number of ports required in minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer would further minimize trauma associated therewith. Advances in single-site surgery have afforded surgeons the ability to perform reduced-port distal gastrectomy via a robotic approach using the Single-Site™ system, eliminating restrictions on the movement of surgical instruments. METHODS: This phase I/II study was designed as a single-arm prospective trial of reduced-port robotic distal gastrectomy (RRDG) by a single surgeon (NCT02347956)...
February 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176219/large-buffering-effect-of-the-duodenal-bulb-in-duodenal-switch-a-wireless-ph-metric-study
#20
Z Bekhali, J Hedberg, H Hedenström, M Sundbom
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric procedures result in massive weight loss, however, not without side effects. Gastric acid is known to cause marginal ulcers, situated in the small bowel just distal to the upper anastomosis. We have used the wireless BRAVO™ system to study the buffering effect of the duodenal bulb in duodenal switch (DS), a procedure in which the gastric sleeve produces a substantial amount of acid. METHODS: We placed a pre- and a postpyloric pH capsule in 15 DS-patients (seven men, 44 years, BMI 33) under endoscopic guidance and verified the correct location by fluoroscopy...
July 2017: Obesity Surgery
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