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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286289/mechanistic-investigation-of-the-negative-food-effect-of-modified-release-zolpidem
#1
Cord J Andreas, Xavier Pepin, Constantinos Markopoulos, Maria Vertzoni, Christos Reppas, Jennifer Dressman
AIMS: When administered orally as either an immediate or modified release dosage form, zolpidem demonstrates a negative food effect, i.e. decrease in Cmax and AUC. The aim of the study was to arrive at a better understanding of the absorption of this BCS class I compound, in vivo and to simulate the observed plasma profiles using in vitro and in silico methods. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic profiles of zolpidem are presented from a bioavailability (8mg intravenous; 10mg immediate release Stilnox®; 10mg and 12...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266539/improved-bioavailability-and-antitumor-effect-of-docetaxel-by-tpgs-modified-proniosomes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluations
#2
Helong Liu, Liangxing Tu, Yongxin Zhou, Zefang Dang, Luting Wang, Junfeng Du, Jianfang Feng, Kaili Hu
A novel oral drug delivery system, TPGS modified docetaxel proniosomes (DTX-TPGS-PNs), was designed to enhance the oral bioavailability and antitumor efficiency of the poorly water-soluble drug docetaxel. DTX-TPGS-PN niosomes were 93 ± 6.5 nm in size, -18.53 ± 1.65 mV in zeta potential and exhibited spherical morphology, with an encapsulation efficiency of 97.31 ± 0.60%. The system showed sustained release in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. The results of caco-2 monolayer, everted gut sac model and improved single-pass intestinal perfusion model transport studies showed that DTX-TPGS-PN niosomes could significantly improve the absorption of DTX...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205030/safety-and-feasibility-of-reduced-port-robotic-distal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-a-phase-i-ii-clinical-trial
#3
Seungho Lee, Jin Kyong Kim, Youn Nam Kim, Dong-Su Jang, Yoo Min Kim, Taeil Son, Woo Jin Hyung, Hyoung-Il Kim
INTRODUCTION: Theoretically, reducing the number of ports required in minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer would further minimize trauma associated therewith. Advances in single-site surgery have afforded surgeons the ability to perform reduced-port distal gastrectomy via a robotic approach using the Single-Site™ system, eliminating restrictions on the movement of surgical instruments. METHODS: This phase I/II study was designed as a single-arm prospective trial of reduced-port robotic distal gastrectomy (RRDG) by a single surgeon (NCT02347956)...
February 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176219/large-buffering-effect-of-the-duodenal-bulb-in-duodenal-switch-a-wireless-ph-metric-study
#4
Z Bekhali, J Hedberg, H Hedenström, M Sundbom
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric procedures result in massive weight loss, however, not without side effects. Gastric acid is known to cause marginal ulcers, situated in the small bowel just distal to the upper anastomosis. We have used the wireless BRAVO™ system to study the buffering effect of the duodenal bulb in duodenal switch (DS), a procedure in which the gastric sleeve produces a substantial amount of acid. METHODS: We placed a pre- and a postpyloric pH capsule in 15 DS-patients (seven men, 44 years, BMI 33) under endoscopic guidance and verified the correct location by fluoroscopy...
February 7, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144230/gastrin-and-gastric-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Helge L Waldum, Liv Sagatun, Patricia Mjønes
Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119268/greenish-blue-gastric-content-literature-review-and-case-report-on-acute-copper-sulphate-poisoning
#6
REVIEW
N Nastoulis, M V Karakasi, C M Couvaris, S Kapetanakis, A Fiska, P Pavlidis
A literature review of cases of acute poisoning by copper sulfate was conducted, emphasizing therapeutic interventions, and a new fatality case is reported. Specifically, the relevant literature was reviewed for incidence rates, sociodemographic variables, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic outcome of copper sulfate poisoning. Results conclude that copper sulfate poisoning incidence varies in different regions. It is rare in western countries, while it is very common in South Asian countries...
January 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100369/-innovations-on-technology-management-and-concept-are-indispensible-for-scientific-research-prevention-and-treatment-of-malignant-tumor-in-china
#7
G W Cao
Malignant tumor has become the top cause of deaths before the average life expectancy in Chinese population. From the variations in the morbidity rate and mortality rate of malignant tumor in the mainland of China between 2000 and 2011, the primary prevention targeting the risk factors/etiological agents significantly reduced the morbidity rates of gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, and primary liver cancer, therefore reduced the mortality rates of these cancers. However, the contribution of clinical treatments to the mortality reduction was not obviously improved during this period...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079243/serum-levels-of-vitamin-a-visual-function-and-ocular-surface-after-bariatric-surgery
#8
Luana Paula Nogueira de Araújo Brandão, Lucio Vilar, Bernardo Menelau Cavalcanti, Pedro Henrique Amorim Brandão, Tiago Eugênio Faria E Arantes, Josemberg Marins Campos
BACKGROUND: - Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, but the surgery increases the risk of developing nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A deficiency. In human metabolism, vitamin A plays a role in vision. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate serum vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS: - A cross-sectional and analytical study was conduced with 28 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for at least 6 months...
January 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071055/rapid-and-efficient-conversion-of-all-e-astaxanthin-to-9z-and-13z-isomers-and-assessment-of-their-stability-and-antioxidant-activities
#9
Cheng Yang, Lianfu Zhang, Hua Zhang, Qingrui Sun, Ronghua Liu, Jing Li, Leiyan Wu, Rong Tsao
An optimized isomerization method was developed by heating all-E-astaxanthin in ethyl acetate (70 °C) with I-TiO2 catalyst, yielding 22.7% and 16.9% of 9Z- and 13Z-astaxanthin, respectively, in 2 h, with 92-95% purity after semipreparative HPLC purification. 13Z-Astaxanthin had higher antioxidant activity than all-E- and 9Z-astaxanthins in oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay for lipophilic compounds, photochemiluminescence, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays, and 9Z-astaxanthin was higher in DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay and lower in CAA assay...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988456/acute-gastric-volvulus-a-vicious-twist-of-tummy-case-report
#10
Basudev Kumar, Tarun Kalra, Ratnakar Namdeo, Rajesh Kumar Soni, Ajit Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Gastric volvulus is an uncommon disorder and can present either in the acute or chronic setting with variable symptoms. A robust blood supply of the stomach from different sources does not allow ischemia to develop early. When it occurs in the acute scenario, patients present with severe epigastric pain and retching without vomiting. Together with inability to pass nasogastric tube, they constitute Borchardt's triad. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case which presented in the emergency department with severe abdominal pain, abdominal distension and vomiting and a previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis...
December 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982756/absorption-of-orally-administered-hyaluronan
#11
Mamoru Kimura, Takuya Maeshima, Takumi Kubota, Hitoshi Kurihara, Yasunobu Masuda, Yoshihiro Nomura
Hyaluronan (HA) has been utilized as a supplement. However, the absorption of orally administrated HA remains controversial. The degradation and absorption of HA in the intestine were investigated in this study. HA excretion into the feces, degradation in the intestinal tract, absorption through the large intestine, and translocation to the blood and skin were examined. HA administered orally was not detected in rat feces. HA was degraded by cecal content, but not by artificial gastric juice and intestinal juice...
December 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977608/risk-factors-and-management-for-pyloric-stenosis-occurred-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-adjacent-to-pylorus
#12
Jae Un Lee, Moon Sik Park, So Hee Yun, Min A Yang, Shang Hoon Han, Young Jae Lee, Gum Mo Jung, Ji Woong Kim, Yong Keun Cho, Jin Woong Cho
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely accepted as a curative treatment for gastric neoplasm. Pyloric stenosis is a chronic complication that can be caused by ESD. The aim of this study is to clarify the risk factors and management for pyloric stenosis. From January 2004 to January 2014, a total of 126 patients who underwent ESD adjacent to pylorus were reviewed retrospectively. Pyloric mucosal defect was defined as when any resection margin of ESD was involved in the pyloric ring. Pyloric stenosis was defined as when a conventional endoscope could not be passed to the duodenum...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923378/congenital-cytomegalovirus-related-intestinal-malrotation-a-case-report
#13
Claudia Colomba, Mario Giuffrè, Simona La Placa, Antonio Cascio, Marcello Trizzino, Simona De Grazia, Giovanni Corsello
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital infection in the developed countries. Gastrointestinal involvement has been extensively described in both adult and paediatric immunocompromised patients but it is infrequent in congenital or perinatal CMV infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a case of coexistent congenital Cytomegalovirus infection with intestinal malrotation and positive intestinal Cytomegalovirus biopsy. At birth the neonate showed clinical and radiological evidence of intestinal obstruction...
December 7, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900201/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-rapunzel-syndrome
#14
Zhe Wang, Feng Cao, Diangang Liu, Yu Fang, Fei Li
Trichobezoars are hairballs or hair-like fibers formed by chewing and swallowing hair or any other indigestible materials. Trichobezoars usually form in the gastric body and are thus prepyloric. However, trichobezoars may rarely pass through the pylorus into the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and even the colon, in a condition referred to as Rapunzel syndrome. Here, we present a case of a 13-year-old girl with this rare syndrome and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
November 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856796/oral-ultra-long-lasting-drug-delivery-application-toward-malaria-elimination-goals
#15
Andrew M Bellinger, Mousa Jafari, Tyler M Grant, Shiyi Zhang, Hannah C Slater, Edward A Wenger, Stacy Mo, Young-Ah Lucy Lee, Hormoz Mazdiyasni, Lawrence Kogan, Ross Barman, Cody Cleveland, Lucas Booth, Taylor Bensel, Daniel Minahan, Haley M Hurowitz, Tammy Tai, Johanna Daily, Boris Nikolic, Lowell Wood, Philip A Eckhoff, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
Efforts at elimination of scourges, such as malaria, are limited by the logistic challenges of reaching large rural populations and ensuring patient adherence to adequate pharmacologic treatment. We have developed an oral, ultra-long-acting capsule that dissolves in the stomach and deploys a star-shaped dosage form that releases drug while assuming a geometry that prevents passage through the pylorus yet allows passage of food, enabling prolonged gastric residence. This gastric-resident, drug delivery dosage form releases small-molecule drugs for days to weeks and potentially longer...
November 16, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806647/slow-release-l-cysteine-capsule-prevents-gastric-mucosa-exposure-to-carcinogenic-acetaldehyde-results-of-a-randomised-single-blinded-cross-over-study-of-helicobacter-associated-atrophic-gastritis
#16
Per M Hellström, Panu Hendolin, Pertti Kaihovaara, Leif Kronberg, Axel Meierjohann, Anders Millerhovf, Lea Paloheimo, Heidi Sundelin, Kari Syrjänen, Dominic-Luc Webb, Mikko Salaspuro
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. OBJECTIVE: To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. METHODS: Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776258/atherosclerosis-of-aberrant-arteries-from-the-left-gastric-artery-into-the-right-intralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-complicated-by-mycobacterial-epithelioid-cell-granuloma
#17
Hirotsugu Hashimoto, Masahiro Yanagiya, Masashi Kusakabe, Atsushi Kurata, Sayaka Ohara, Yoshio Suzuki, Jun Matsumoto, Hajime Horiuchi
Vascular changes observed in intralobar pulmonary sequestration (PS) have been reported to be similar to those observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, atherosclerosis in the pulmonary artery, which is one of the characteristic arterial changes of PH, has scarcely been reported in PS. Here, we report this unique manifestation in a 66-year-old man, in whom an intralobar PS fed by an aberrant artery branching from the left gastric artery had been identified 10 years earlier, and who was diagnosed with pneumonia after having symptoms of fever and cough...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624750/twelve-year-natural-history-of-a-gastric-adenocarcinoma-of-fundic-gland-type
#18
Yoshinori Sato, Takashi Fujino, Akira Kasagawa, Ryo Morita, Shun-Ichiro Ozawa, Yasumasa Matsuo, Tadateru Maehata, Hiroshi Yasuda, Masayuki Takagi, Fumio Itoh
A 77-year-old woman underwent an upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy screening examination, and a 10-mm reddish, submucosal tumor-like lesion was found on the posterior wall of the fornix. Biopsy was performed, but there was no evidence of malignancy, so annual follow-up by UGI endoscopy was decided upon. After 12 years, examination of another biopsy specimen revealed an adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type. There had been no significant change in the size or shape of the lesion over the long follow-up period...
December 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568854/development-of-protocatechualdehyde-proliposomes-based-sustained-release-pellets-with-improved-bioavailability-and-desired-pharmacokinetic-behavior-for-angina-chronotherapy
#19
Shuangshuang Zhang, Hongxiang Yan, Panpan Yu, Yulong Xia, Wenli Zhang, Jianping Liu
The present study was aimed to develope a proliposomal formulation to decrease the hepatic first-pass metabolism of protocatechualdehyde (PD), followed by pellet coating to modify the drug release for angina chronotherapy. PD proliposomes were prepared by depositing PD-phospholipid complex on mannitol powders to improve the drug encapsulation. Afterwards, the PD proliposomes were prepared into pellet cores via extrusion-spheronization using 10% κ-carrageenan as pelletization aid prior to the development of PD sustained-release pellets (PD-SRPs)...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554217/-gastric-mucormycosis-followed-by-traumatic-cardiac-rupture-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#20
Sang Won Lee, Hyun Seok Lee
Gastric mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening fungal disease, caused by fungus in the order Mucorales. While rhino-cerebral and pulmonary forms are common, gastric mucormycosis is an uncommon site for the disease. We diagnosed gastric mucormycosis in a 41-year-old female who had severe multiple trauma, including cardiac rupture, due to a traffic accident. Eighteen days after hospitalization, she passed 800 mL of melena over one day. We performed upper esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and found a huge gastric ulcer with bleeding...
August 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
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