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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232685/surgical-management-of-deep-brain-stimulator-scalp-erosion-without-hardware-removal
#1
Michael D Staudt, Navid Pourtaheri, Gregory E Lakin, Hooman T Soltanian, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Scalp erosion in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware is an uncommon complication that lacks a clearly defined management strategy. Previous studies have described various therapies including conservative treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement with or without hardware removal. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of a hardware-sparing management strategy for the treatment of scalp erosion. METHODS: Five patients with previous DBS implantation presented with scalp erosion and visible hardware exposure at the calvarial burr hole site, and underwent tension-free, vascularized, rotational scalp flap, with preservation of the leads under the pericranium...
December 13, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232019/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-essential-tremor-also-reduces-voice-tremor
#2
Bornali Kundu, Lauren Schrock, Tyler Davis, Paul A House
OBJECTIVE: Voice tremor is a common feature of essential tremor (ET) that is difficult to treat medically and significantly affects quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus is effective in improving contralateral distal limb tremor and has been shown in limited studies to affect voice tremor. Our objective was to retrospectively evaluate whether Vim-DBS used to treat patients with essential motor tremor also effectively treated underlying concurrent voice tremor and assess whether particular lead locations were favorable for treating vocal tremor...
December 12, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231507/-effect-of-acupuncture-treatment-on-gene-expression-of-neurotransmitters-of-brain-tissue-in-rats-with-post-stroke-depression
#3
Wei Xiao, Xianbao Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yan Wang, Xiaoli Guo, Ling He, Fajun Liang, Huixing Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture on mRNA of the neurotransmitter serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 5-HT1Areceptor (5-HT1AR), norepinephrineα2 receptor (NEα2R) in brain tissue in rats with post-stroke depression. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a medication group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each one. The model of post-stroke depression was established by occlusion of middle cerebral artery and chronic unpredictable mild stress method...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230947/dietary-slowly-digestible-starch-triggers-the-gut-brain-axis-in-obese-rats-with-accompanied-reduced-food-intake
#4
Like Y Hasek, Robert J Phillips, Genyi Zhang, Kimberly P Kinzig, Choon Young Kim, Terry L Powley, Bruce R Hamaker
SCOPE: Slowly digestible starch (SDS), as a functional carbohydrate providing a slow and sustained glucose release, may be able to modulate food intake through activation of the gut-brain axis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese rats were used to test the effect on feeding behavior of high fat (HF) diets containing a SDS, fabricated to digest into the ileum, as compared to rapidly digestible starch (RDS). Ingestion of the HF-SDS diet over an 11-week period reduced daily food intake, through smaller meal size, to the same level as a lean body control group, while the group consuming the HF-RDS diet remained at a high food intake...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230621/electroacupuncture-stimulation-of-language-implicated-acupoint-tongli-ht-5-in-healthy-subjects-an-fmri-evaluation-study
#5
Lin-Ling Li, Xiao-Wu Liu, Fang Wu, Dong-Chang Tong, Li-Ping Ye, Hong-Xing Tao, Peng Liu, Yun-Hai Qiu, Wan-Zhang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore brain activations associated with electroacupuncture simulation at Tongli (HT 5) and its comparison with brain activations during picture-naming task. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Half of them received electroacupuncture stimulation at HT 5 (ACUP group) and the other half of them received stimulation at a nonmeridian sham acupoint (SHAM group). All subjects performed picture-naming task. Each subject finished two runs of functional magnetic resonance imaging examinations in one session and picture-naming task was performed before electroacupuncture stimulation...
December 11, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230329/regionally-specific-regulation-of-sensorimotor-network-connectivity-following-tactile-improvement
#6
Stefanie Heba, Melanie Lenz, Tobias Kalisch, Oliver Höffken, Lauren M Schweizer, Benjamin Glaubitz, Nicolaas A J Puts, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R Dinse, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Correlations between inherent, task-free low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals of the brain provide a potent tool to delineate its functional architecture in terms of intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). Still, it remains unclear how iFC is modulated during learning. We employed whole-brain resting-state magnetic resonance imaging prior to and after training-independent repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS), which is known to induce somatosensory cortical reorganization...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230054/single-cell-analysis-of-experience-dependent-transcriptomic-states-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#7
Sinisa Hrvatin, Daniel R Hochbaum, M Aurel Nagy, Marcelo Cicconet, Keiramarie Robertson, Lucas Cheadle, Rapolas Zilionis, Alex Ratner, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Allon M Klein, Bernardo L Sabatini, Michael E Greenberg
Activity-dependent transcriptional responses shape cortical function. However, a comprehensive understanding of the diversity of these responses across the full range of cortical cell types, and how these changes contribute to neuronal plasticity and disease, is lacking. To investigate the breadth of transcriptional changes that occur across cell types in the mouse visual cortex after exposure to light, we applied high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing. We identified significant and divergent transcriptional responses to stimulation in each of the 30 cell types characterized, thus revealing 611 stimulus-responsive genes...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229706/causal-evidence-for-learning-dependent-frontal-lobe-contributions-to-cognitive-control
#8
Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task-relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced the "flexible control model," which explains this regulation as resulting from a self-adjusting reinforcement-learning mechanism that infers latent statistical structure in dynamic task environments to predict forthcoming states...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229347/post-operative-stridor-and-acute-respiratory-failure-after-parkinson-s-disease-deep-brain-stimulator-placement-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Mi Wang, Wael Saasouh, Thomas Botsford, Allen Keebler, Andrew Zura, Michael S Benninger, Rafi Avitsian
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain is commonly thought of as a motion disorder, but it can have significant effect on the respiratory system. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in these patients, but it can also affect laryngeal function causing dysphonia, dysphagia, and dysarthric speech.. Acute upper airway obstruction is a very rare finding in PD, especially in the perioperative settings...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229313/emerging-role-of-adipocytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-as-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Ravindran Jaganathan, Rajeswari Ravindran, Sugapriya Dhanasekaran
Adipose tissue is an enormously active endocrine organ, secreting various hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, together with classical cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). All these adipocytokines plays significant roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function and immunity. Adipocytokines are significantly regulated by nutritional status and can directly influence other organ systems, including brain, liver and skeletal muscle...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228978/asiatic-acid-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-neuroinflammation-and-neurotoxicity-through-blocking-of-nf-kb-stat3-erk-and-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-pathway
#11
Ji-Hyun Park, Young Ho Seo, Jung-Hee Jang, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee, Byoungduck Park
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is a commonly abused drug that may result in neurotoxic effects. Recent studies have suggested that involvement of neuroinflammatory processes in brain dysfunction is induced by misuse of this drug. However, the mechanism underlying METH-induced inflammation and neurotoxicity in neurons is still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether asiatic acid (AA) effected METH-mediated neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neuronal cells. And we further determined whether the effect involved in the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228953/a-simple-and-accurate-rule-based-modeling-framework-for-simulation-of-autocrine-paracrine-stimulation-of-glioblastoma-cell-motility-and-proliferation-by-l1cam-in-2-d-culture
#12
Justin Caccavale, David Fiumara, Michael Stapf, Liedeke Sweitzer, Hannah J Anderson, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati, Deni S Galileo
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells...
December 11, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#13
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228889/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-brain-activity-with-deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-depression
#14
Silke Conen, Julian C Matthews, Nikunj K Patel, José Anton-Rodriguez, Peter S Talbot
Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227865/cytochrome-b5-reductase-is-the-component-from-neuronal-synaptic-plasma-membrane-vesicles-that-generates-superoxide-anion-upon-stimulation-by-cytochrome-c
#16
Alejandro K Samhan-Arias, Sofia Fortalezas, Cristina M Cordas, Isabel Moura, José J G Moura, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino
In this work, we measured the effect of cytochrome c on the NADH-dependent superoxide anion production by synaptic plasma membrane vesicles from rat brain. In these membranes, the cytochrome c stimulated NADH-dependent superoxide anion production was inhibited by antibodies against cytochrome b5 reductase linking the production to this enzyme. Measurement of the superoxide anion radical generated by purified recombinant soluble and membrane cytochrome b5 reductase corroborates the production of the radical by different enzyme isoforms...
November 27, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227296/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-and-its-variants-examining-the-behavioral-and-neurocognitive-phenotype
#17
James C Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS) is a metabolic disorder involving mutations in the HGPRT1 gene that result in hyperuricemia, intellectual disability, a dystonic movement disorder, and compulsive self-injury with self-mutilation. The aim of this review is to summarize recent research that documents the extended behavioral, neurologic, and neurocognitive phenotype in classic LNS, to describe milder variants of HGprt deficiency that do not self-injure and have less severe neurological and cognitive deficits, and to provide an update on treatment for associated psychiatric and behavioral disorders...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227127/symptom-and-performance-validity-with-veterans-assessed-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#18
Robert D Shura, John H Denning, Holly M Miskey, Jared A Rowland
Little is known about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans. Practice standards recommend the use of both symptom and performance validity measures in any assessment, and there are salient external incentives associated with ADHD evaluation (stimulant medication access and academic accommodations). The purpose of this study was to evaluate symptom and performance validity measures in a clinical sample of veterans presenting for specialty ADHD evaluation. Patients without a history of a neurocognitive disorder and for whom data were available on all measures (n = 114) completed a clinical interview structured on DSM-5 ADHD symptoms, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 (TOMM1) as part of a standardized ADHD diagnostic evaluation...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226825/desacetyl-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-are-required-to-regulate-energy-balance
#19
Kathleen G Mountjoy, Alexandre Caron, Kristina Hubbard, Avik Shome, Angus C Grey, Bo Sun, Sarah Bould, Martin Middleditch, Beau Pontré, Ailsa McGregor, Paul W R Harris, Renata Kowalczyk, Margaret A Brimble, Rikus Botha, Karen M L Tan, Sarah J Piper, Christina Buchanan, Syann Lee, Anthony P Coll, Joel K Elmquist
OBJECTIVE: Regulation of energy balance depends on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the predicted natural POMC-derived peptide that regulates energy balance. Desacetyl-α-MSH, the precursor for α-MSH, is present in brain and blood. Desacetyl-α-MSH is considered to be unimportant for regulating energy balance despite being more potent (compared with α-MSH) at activating the appetite-regulating MC4R in vitro...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226424/activation-of-ep2-receptor-suppresses-poly-i-c-and-lps-mediated-inflammation-in-primary-microglia-and-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures-contributing-role-for-mapks
#20
Nizar M Yousif, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Simone Brioschi, Michael Huell, Knut Biber, Bernd L Fiebich
Brain inflammation is a critical factor involved in neurodegeneration. Recently, the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) downstream members were suggested to modulate neuroinflammatory responses accompanying neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2 ) during TLR3 and TLR4-driven inflammatory response using in vitro primary microglia and ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Depletion of microglia from OHSCs differentially affected TLR3 and TLR4 receptor expression...
December 11, 2017: Glia
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