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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471373/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-parameter-optimization-for-vowel-acoustics-and-speech-intelligibility-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Thea Knowles, Scott Adams, Anita Abeyesekera, Cynthia Mancinelli, Greydon Gilmore, Mandar Jog
Purpose: The settings of 3 electrical stimulation parameters were adjusted in 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) to examine their effects on vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Method: Participants were tested under permutations of low, mid, and high STN-DBS frequency, voltage, and pulse width settings. At each session, participants recited a sentence. Acoustic characteristics of vowel production were extracted, and naive listeners provided estimates of speech intelligibility...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471071/intragastric-preloads-of-l-tryptophan-reduce-ingestive-behavior-via-oxytocinergic-neural-mechanisms-in-male-mice
#2
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471017/moderate-effects-of-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-of-the-frontal-cortex-for-improving-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-meta-analysis-of-controlled-trials
#3
REVIEW
André Aleman, Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert, Henderikus Knegtering, Jozarni J Dlabac-de Lange
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia concern a clinically relevant reduction of goal-directed behavior that strongly and negatively impacts daily functioning. Existing treatments are of marginal effect and novel approaches are needed. Noninvasive neurostimulation by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are novel approaches that may hold promise. OBJECTIVES: To provide a quantitative integration of the published evidence regarding effects of rTMS and tDCS over the frontal cortex on negative symptoms, including an analysis of effects of sham stimulation...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468294/behavioral-phenotyping-and-dopamine-dynamics-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-neurons-resistance-to-the-acute-locomotor-effects-of-amphetamine
#4
Kathryn D Fischer, Alex C W Houston, Rajeev I Desai, Michelle R Doyle, Jack Bergman, Maha Mian, Rebekah Mannix, David L Sulzer, Se Joon Choi, Eugene V Mosharov, Nathaniel W Hodgson, Anita Bechtholt, Klaus A Miczek, Paul A Rosenberg
RATIONALE: GLT-1 is the major glutamate transporter in the brain and is expressed predominantly in astrocytes but is also present in excitatory axon terminals. To understand the functional significance of GLT-1 expressed in neurons, we generated a conditional GLT-1 knockout mouse and inactivated GLT-1 in neurons using Cre-recombinase expressed under the synapsin 1 promoter, (synGLT-1 KO). OBJECTIVES: Abnormalities of glutamate homeostasis have been shown to affect hippocampal-related behaviors including learning and memory as well as responses to drugs of abuse...
February 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468076/capromorelin-a-ghrelin-receptor-agonist-and-novel-therapy-for-stimulation-of-appetite-in-dogs
#5
REVIEW
Linda Rhodes, Bill Zollers, Jessica A Wofford, Ernst Heinen
Ghrelin is a hormone, secreted from cells in the stomach, which is important in the regulation of appetite and food intake in mammals. It exerts its action by binding to a specific G-protein-coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) which is found in areas of the brain associated with the regulation of food intake. Ghrelin causes a release of growth hormone (GH) through binding to GHS-R1a in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. A class of compounds known as growth hormone secretagogues, or ghrelin receptor agonists, were developed for therapeutic use in humans for the stimulation of GH in the frail elderly, and have subsequently been studied for their effects on increasing appetite and food intake, increasing body weight, building lean muscle mass, and treating cachexia...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467625/effect-of-vitamin-d-in-hn9-10e-embryonic-hippocampal-cells-and-in-hippocampus-from-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model
#6
Samuela Cataldi, Cataldo Arcuri, Stéphane Hunot, Carmen Mecca, Michela Codini, Maria E Laurenti, Ivana Ferri, Elisabetta Loreti, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Giovanna Traina, Carmela Conte, Francesco S Ambesi-Impiombato, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Curcio, Elisabetta Albi
It has long been proven that neurogenesis continues in the adult brains of mammals in the dentatus gyrus of the hippocampus due to the presence of neural stem cells. Although a large number of studies have been carried out to highlight the localization of vitamin D receptor in hippocampus, the expression of vitamin D receptor in neurogenic dentatus gyrus of hippocampus in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the molecular mechanisms triggered by vitamin D underlying the production of differentiated neurons from embryonic cells remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467611/the-vagus-nerve-at-the-interface-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#7
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Thomas Bazin, Sonia Pellissier
The microbiota, the gut, and the brain communicate through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a bidirectional way that involves the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve (VN), the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is able to sense the microbiota metabolites through its afferents, to transfer this gut information to the central nervous system where it is integrated in the central autonomic network, and then to generate an adapted or inappropriate response...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466733/a%C3%A3-facilitates-ltd-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-preferentially-in-the-left-hippocampus
#8
Kenneth J O'Riordan, Neng-Wei Hu, Michael J Rowan
Promotion of long-term depression (LTD) mechanisms by synaptotoxic soluble oligomers of amyloid-β (Aß) has been proposed to underlie synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, LTD was induced by relatively non-specific electrical stimulation. Exploiting optogenetics, we studied LTD using a more physiologically diffuse spatial pattern of selective pathway activation in the rat hippocampus in vivo. This relatively sparse synaptic LTD requires both the ion channel function and GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor but, in contrast to electrically induced LTD, is not facilitated by boosting endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine or metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor activation...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466703/sapp%C3%AE-and-sapp%C3%AE-increase-structural-complexity-and-e-i-input-ratio-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons-and-alter-ca-2-homeostasis-and-creb1-signaling
#9
Raphael Hesse, Björn von Einem, Franziska Wagner, Patricia Bott, Daniel Schwanzar, Rosemary J Jackson, Karl Josef Föhr, Ludwig Lausser, Katja S Kroker, Christian Proepper, Paul Walther, Hans A Kestler, Tara L Spires-Jones, Tobias Boeckers, Holger Rosenbrock, Christine A F von Arnim
One major pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is senile plaques composed of amyloid β (Aβ). In the amyloidogenic pathway, cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is shifted towards Aβ production and soluble APPβ (sAPPβ) levels. Aβ is known to impair synaptic function; however, much less is known about the physiological functions of sAPPβ. The neurotrophic properties of sAPPα, derived from the non-amyloidogenic pathway of APP cleavage, are well-established, whereas only a few, conflicting studies on sAPPβ exist...
February 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466379/activation-of-retinal-glial-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-by-extracellular-atp-induces-pronounced-increases-in-extracellular-h-flux
#10
Boriana K Tchernookova, Chad Heer, Marin Young, David Swygart, Ryan Kaufman, Michael Gongwer, Lexi Shepherd, Hannah Caringal, Jason Jacoby, Matthew A Kreitzer, Robert Paul Malchow
Small alterations in extracellular acidity are potentially important modulators of neuronal signaling within the vertebrate retina. Here we report a novel extracellular acidification mechanism mediated by glial cells in the retina. Using self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes to measure extracellular H+ fluxes, we show that activation of retinal Müller (glial) cells of the tiger salamander by micromolar concentrations of extracellular ATP induces a pronounced extracellular H+ flux independent of bicarbonate transport...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466242/mindfulness-and-meditation-treating-cognitive-impairment-and-reducing-stress-in-dementia
#11
Jesse Russell-Williams, Wafa Jaroudi, Tania Perich, Siobhan Hoscheidt, Mohamad El Haj, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study investigates the relationship between mindfulness, meditation, cognition and stress in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline. Accordingly, we explore how the use of meditation as a behavioural intervention can reduce stress and enhance cognition, which in turn ameliorates some dementia symptoms. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with any studies using meditation as an intervention for dementia or dementia-related memory conditions meeting inclusion criteria...
February 21, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465895/-clinical-neurophysiological-methods-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Ildikó Nagy, Dániel Fabó
Neurophysiological methods are gaining ground in the diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular disease. While the role of the EEG (electroencephalography) in the diagnosis of post-stroke epilepsy is constant, quantitative EEG para-meters, as new indicators of early efficiency after thrombolysis or in prognosis of patient's condition have proved their effectiveness in several clinical studies. In intensive care units, continuous EEG monitoring of critically ill patients became part of neurointenzive care protocols...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465787/nonmotor-symptoms-evolution-during-24-months-of-bilateral-subthalamic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Haidar S Dafsari, Monty Silverdale, Marian Strack, Alexandra Rizos, Keyoumars Ashkan, Picabo Mahlstedt, Lena Sachse, Julia Steffen, Till A Dembek, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Julian Evans, Angelo Antonini, Pablo Martinez-Martin, K Ray-Chaudhuri, Lars Timmermann
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate 24-month of effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: In this prospective, observational, multicenter, international study including 67 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we examined the Non-motor Symptom Scale, Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8, Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-motor examination, -activities of daily living, and -complications, and levodopa-equivalent daily dose preoperatively and at 5 and 24-month of follow-up...
February 21, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465741/management-of-hardware-related-infections-after-dbs-surgery-a-cost-analysis
#14
Pim Wetzelaer, Tim Bouwens VAN DER Vlis, Mehmet Tönge, Linda Ackermans, Pieter Kubben, Silvia Evers, Ersoy Kocabiçak, Yasin Temel
AIM: One of the most distressing hardware-related complications of deep brain stimulation is an infection. These infections can be either treated with antibiotics or with removal of the infected hardware followed by reimplantation. In our experience the success of antibiotic therapy was about 50%. Here, we have investigated the costs of treating the infection with antibiotics only with the risk of surgery when unsuccessful versus immediate removal followed by reimplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We calculated the costs of the different strategies through a standard costing procedure...
January 22, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465102/non-invasive-electrical-brain-stimulation-as-a-treatment-for-depression
#15
S P Tomlinson, A Khusnullina, R M Bracewell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464809/mapping-and-characterization-of-positive-and-negative-bold-responses-to-visual-stimulation-in-multiple-brain-regions-at-7t
#16
João Jorge, Patrícia Figueiredo, Rolf Gruetter, Wietske van der Zwaag
External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation...
February 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464565/ryanodine-receptor-structure-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#17
Gaetano Santulli, Daniel Lewis, Amedee des Georges, Andrew R Marks, Joachim Frank
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are ubiquitous intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) release channels required for the function of many organs including heart and skeletal muscle, synaptic transmission in the brain, pancreatic beta cell function, and vascular tone. In disease, defective function of RyRs due either to stress (hyperadrenergic and/or oxidative overload) or genetic mutations can render the channels leaky to Ca2+ and promote defective disease-causing signals as observed in heat failure, muscular dystrophy, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegerative disease...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464512/feasibility-of-continuous-sedation-monitoring-in-critically-ill-intensive-care-unit-patients-using-the-neurosense-wav-cns-index
#18
Nicholas West, Paul B McBeth, Sonia M Brodie, Klaske van Heusden, Sarah Sunderland, Guy A Dumont, Donald E G Griesdale, J Mark Ansermino, Matthias Görges
Sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is challenging, as both over- and under-sedation are detrimental. Current methods of assessment, such as the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), are measured intermittently and rely on patients' behavioral response to stimulation, which may interrupt sleep/rest. A non-stimulating method for continuous sedation monitoring may be beneficial and allow more frequent assessment. Processed electroencephalography (EEG) monitors have not been routinely adopted in the ICU...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464193/online-li-rtms-during-a-visual-learning-task-differential-impacts-on-visual-circuit-and-behavioral-plasticity-in-adult-ephrin-a2a5-mice
#19
Eugenia Z Poh, Alan R Harvey, Kalina Makowiecki, Jennifer Rodger
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces plasticity in normal and abnormal neural circuitries, an effect that may be influenced by intrinsic brain activity during treatment. Here, we study potential synergistic effects between low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) and concurrent neural activity in promoting circuit reorganization and enhancing visual behavior. We used ephrin-A2A5-/- mice, which are known to possess visuotopic mapping errors that are ameliorated by LI-rTMS, and assessed the impact of stimulation when mice were engaged in a visual learning task...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464011/a-microfluidic-device-to-study-electrotaxis-and-dopaminergic-system-of-zebrafish-larvae
#20
Amir Reza Peimani, Georg Zoidl, Pouya Rezai
The zebrafish is a lower vertebrate model organism offering multiple applications for both fundamental and biomedical research into the nervous system from genes to behaviour. Investigation of zebrafish larvae's movement in response to various stimuli, which involves the dopaminergic system, is of interest in the field of sensory-motor integration. Nevertheless, the conventional methods of movement screening in Petri dishes and multi-well plates are mostly qualitative, uncontrollable, and inaccurate in terms of stimulus delivery and response analysis...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
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