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Brain stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222553/dual-afferent-sensory-input-training-for-voluntary-movement-after-stroke-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-study
#1
Seahyun Bae, Kyung-Yoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Stimulation through afferent sensory input is necessary to improve voluntary functional movement in stroke patients. OBJECTIVES: Dual-afferent sensory input, which combines electromyography-triggered functional electric stimulation (ETFES) and action observation, was investigated to determine its effects on voluntary movements in stroke patients. METHODS: This study was conducted on 18 patients with left hemiplegia diagnosed between 6 and 24 months prior...
February 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222547/brain-plasticity-after-implanted-peroneal-nerve-electrical-stimulation-to-improve-gait-in-chronic-stroke-patients-two-case-reports
#2
Aurore Thibaut, Florent Moissenet, Carol Di Perri, Céline Schreiber, Angélique Remacle, Elisabeth Kolanowski, Frédéric Chantraine, Claire Bernard, Roland Hustinx, Jean-Flory Tshibanda, Paul Filipetti, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that stimulation of the peroneal nerve using an implantable 4-channel peroneal nerve stimulator could improve gait in stroke patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess structural cortical and regional cerebral metabolism changes associated with an implanted peroneal nerve electrical stimulator to correct foot drop related to a central nervous system lesion. METHODS: Two stroke patients presenting a foot drop related to a central nervous system lesion were implanted with an implanted peroneal nerve electrical stimulator...
February 6, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222524/a-combination-of-resveratrol-and-curcumin-is-effective-against-aluminum-chloride-induced-neuroinflammation-in-rats
#3
Amira Zaky, Ahmad Bassiouny, Mahitab Farghaly, Bassma M El-Sabaa
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have demonstrated that aluminum is an environmental toxin that induces neuroinflammation and the development of Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: In this report, we investigated the beneficial effect of a combination of resveratrol and curcumin to reduce aluminum-induced neuroinflammation. METHOD: We employed both an in vivo model of aluminum-induced neuroinflammation and an in vitro aluminum stimulated cultured PC-12 cells...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222511/evaluation-of-a-dna-a%C3%AE-42-vaccine-in-aged-nzw-rabbits-antibody-kinetics-and-immune-profile-after-intradermal-immunization-with-full-length-dna-a%C3%AE-42-trimer
#4
Doris Lambracht-Washington, Min Fu, Mary Wight-Carter, Matthew Riegel, Roger N Rosenberg
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid plaques in the brain consisting of aggregated amyloid-β 42 peptide (Aβ42) derived from cellular amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Based on successful experiments in mouse AD models, active immunization with Aβ42 peptide and passive immunizations with anti-Aβ42 antibodies were started in clinical trials. Active Aβ42 peptide immunization in humans had led to an inflammatory autoimmune response, and the trial was stopped. Passive immunizations had shown some effects in slowing AD pathology...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222198/algorithmic-design-of-a-noise-resistant-and-efficient-closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-system-a-computational-approach
#5
Sofia D Karamintziou, Ana Luísa Custódio, Brigitte Piallat, Mircea Polosan, Stéphan Chabardès, Pantelis G Stathis, George A Tagaris, Damianos E Sakas, Georgia E Polychronaki, George L Tsirogiannis, Olivier David, Konstantina S Nikita
Advances in the field of closed-loop neuromodulation call for analysis and modeling approaches capable of confronting challenges related to the complex neuronal response to stimulation and the presence of strong internal and measurement noise in neural recordings. Here we elaborate on the algorithmic aspects of a noise-resistant closed-loop subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation system for advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, ensuring remarkable performance in terms of both efficiency and selectivity of stimulation, as well as in terms of computational speed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222055/ex-situ-perfusion-of-human-limb-allografts-for-24-hours
#6
Nicole L Werner, Fares Alghanem, Stephanie L Rakestraw, Dylan C Sarver, Bruce Nicely, Richard E Pietroski, Paul Lange, Steven M Rudich, Christopher L Mendias, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, John C Magee, Robert H Bartlett, Kagan Ozer
BACKGROUND: Vascularized composite allografts, particularly hand and forearm, have limited ischemic tolerance after procurement. In bilateral hand transplantations, this demands a 2 team approach and expedited transfer of the allograft, limiting the recovery to a small geographic area. Ex situ perfusion may be an alternative allograft preservation method to extend allograft survival time. This is a short report of 5 human limbs maintained for 24 hours with ex situ perfusion. METHODS: Upper limbs were procured from brain-dead organ donors...
March 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222054/ucp2-expression-is-increased-in-pancreas-from-brain-dead-donors-and-involved-in-cytokine-induced-%C3%AE-cells-apoptosis
#7
Leticia A Brondani, Tatiana H Rech, Gabriela Boelter, Andrea C Bauer, Cristiane B Leitão, Décio L Eizirik, Daisy Crispim
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation associated with brain death (BD) decreases islet yield and quality, negatively affecting outcomes of human islet transplantation. A recent study from our group showed an increased expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in pancreas from rats with BD as compared with controls. UCP2 is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and regulates production of reactive oxygen species and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. It has been suggested that UCP2 also plays a role in β cell apoptosis, but these findings remain controversial...
March 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222046/evaluation-method-for-in-situ-electric-field-in-standardized-human-brain-for-different-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-coils
#8
Masahiro Iwahashi, Jose Gomez-Tames, Ilkka Laakso, Akimasa Hirata
This study proposes a method to evaluate the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to realize focal stimulation in the target area considering the inter-subject difference of the brain anatomy. The TMS is a non-invasive technique used for treatment/diagnosis, and it works by inducing an electric field in a specific area of the brain via a coil-induced magnetic field. Recent studies that report on the electric field distribution in the brain induced by TMS coils have been limited to simplified human brain models or a small number of detailed human brain models...
February 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221990/an-integrated-circuit-for-simultaneous-extracellular-electrophysiology-recording-and-optogenetic-neural-manipulation
#9
Chang Hao Chen, Elizabeth A McCullagh, Sio Hang Pun, Peng Un Mak, Mang I Vai, Pui In Mak, Achim Klug, Tim C Lei
OBJECTIVE: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. METHODS: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221365/glial-glt-1-blockade-in-infralimbic-cortex-as-a-new-strategy-to-evoke-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects-in-rats
#10
J Gasull-Camós, M Tarrés-Gatius, F Artigas, A Castañé
Ketamine and deep brain stimulation produce rapid antidepressant effects in humans and rodents. An increased AMPA receptor (AMPA-R) signaling in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been suggested to mediate these responses. However, little research has addressed the direct effects of enhancing glutamate tone or AMPA-R stimulation in mPFC subdivisions. The current study investigates the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) blockade or s-AMPA microinfusion in the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PrL) cortex...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#11
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220987/brain-tissue-reaction-to-deep-brain-stimulation-a-longitudinal-study-of-dbs-in-the-goettingen-minipig
#12
Dariusz Orlowski, Alexandre Michalis, Andreas N Glud, Anders R Korshøj, Lise M Fitting, Trine W Mikkelsen, André Mercanzini, Alain Jordan, Alain Dransart, Jens C H Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: The use of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in treatment of various brain disorders is constantly growing; however, the number of studies of the reaction of the brain tissue toward implanted leads is still limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze the impact of DBS leads on brain tissue in a large animal model using minipigs. METHODS: Twelve female animals, one control and eleven with bilaterally implanted DBS electrodes were used in our experiment...
February 21, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220786/intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-of-pregnant-immunocompetent-mice-models-transplacental-transmission-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes
#13
Meghan S Vermillion, Jun Lei, Yahya Shabi, Victoria K Baxter, Nathan P Crilly, Michael McLane, Diane E Griffin, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein, Irina Burd
Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220756/deep-brain-stimulation-for-childhood-dystonia-is-where-as-important-as-in-whom
#14
REVIEW
Daniel E Lumsden, Margaret Kaminska, Keyoumars Ashkan, Richard Selway, Jean-Pierre Lin
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a mainstay of dystonia management in adulthood. Typically targeting electrode placement in the GPi, sustained improvement in dystonic symptoms are anticipated in adults with isolated genetic dystonias. Dystonia in childhood is more commonly a symptomatic condition, with dystonia frequently expressed on the background of a structurally abnormal brain. Outcomes following DBS in this setting are much more variable, the reasons for which have yet to be elucidated. Much of the focus on improving outcomes following DBS in dystonia management has been on the importance of patient selection, with, until recently, little discussion of the choice of target...
January 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220655/ppars-in-the-central-nervous-system-roles-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#15
Juan M Zolezzi, Manuel J Santos, Sussy Bastías-Candia, Claudio Pinto, Juan A Godoy, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Over 25 years have passed since peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs), were first described. Like other members of the nuclear receptors superfamily, PPARs have been defined as critical sensors and master regulators of cellular metabolism. Recognized as ligand-activated transcription factors, they are involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism, taking part in different cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and apoptosis, inflammatory modulation and attenuation of acute and chronic neurological damage in vivo and in vitro...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220070/neural-correlates-of-mirror-visual-feedback-induced-performance-improvements-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#16
Viola Rjosk, Jöran Lepsien, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J Steele, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220063/vibrotactile-discrimination-training-affects-brain-connectivity-in-profoundly-deaf-individuals
#17
Andrés A González-Garrido, Vanessa D Ruiz-Stovel, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Rebeca Romo-Vázquez, Ricardo A Salido-Ruiz, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Luis R Campos
Early auditory deprivation has serious neurodevelopmental and cognitive repercussions largely derived from impoverished and delayed language acquisition. These conditions may be associated with early changes in brain connectivity. Vibrotactile stimulation is a sensory substitution method that allows perception and discrimination of sound, and even speech. To clarify the efficacy of this approach, a vibrotactile oddball task with 700 and 900 Hz pure-tones as stimuli [counterbalanced as target (T: 20% of the total) and non-target (NT: 80%)] with simultaneous EEG recording was performed by 14 profoundly deaf and 14 normal-hearing (NH) subjects, before and after a short training period (five 1-h sessions; in 2...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219725/planar-implantable-sensor-for-in-vivo-measurement-of-cellular-oxygen-metabolism-in-brain-tissue
#18
Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Fatih Akkenti, Elena Pumbo, Qinggong Tang, Yu Chen, Reha S Erzurumlu, Dmitri B Papkovsky
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging methods are continually improving. Imaging of the cerebral cortex is widely used in both animal experiments and charting human brain function in health and disease. Among the animal models, the rodent cerebral cortex has been widely used because of patterned neural representation of the whiskers on the snout and relative ease of activating cortical tissue with whisker stimulation. NEW METHOD: We tested a new planar solid-state oxygen sensor comprising a polymeric film with a phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive coating on the working side, to monitor dynamics of oxygen metabolism in the cerebral cortex following sensory stimulation...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219717/effects-of-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-glucose-uptake-in-the-rat-brain
#19
I Miederer, K Uebbing, J Röhrich, S Maus, N Bausbacher, K Krauter, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, R Urban
Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected...
February 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219712/the-combination-of-mdpv-and-ethanol-results-in-decreased-cathinone-and-increased-alcohol-levels-study-of-such-pharmacological-interaction
#20
R López-Arnau, M Buenrostro-Jáuregui, P Muñoz-Villegas, J Rodríguez-Morató, A Ciudad-Roberts, L Duart, J Camarasa, R De la Torre, D Pubill, E Escubedo
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a new psychostimulant cathinone acting as a selective dopamine transporter blocker. Due to the concomitant consumption of ethanol (EtOH) and new psychoactive substances, it is of interest to explore a possible pharmacological interaction between MDPV and EtOH. In locomotor activity assays, EtOH (1g/kg i.p.) elicited a reduction in the stimulant effect induced by low doses of MDPV (0.1-0.3mg/kg, s.c.) in rats, jointly with a decrease in blood and brain MDPV concentrations...
February 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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