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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329674/%C3%AE-arrestin2-couples-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-to-neuronal-protein-synthesis-and-is-a-potential-target-to-treat-fragile-x
#1
Laura J Stoppel, Benjamin D Auerbach, Rebecca K Senter, Anthony R Preza, Robert J Lefkowitz, Mark F Bear
Synaptic protein synthesis is essential for modification of the brain by experience and is aberrant in several genetically defined disorders, notably fragile X (FX), a heritable cause of autism and intellectual disability. Neural activity directs local protein synthesis via activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5), yet how mGlu5 couples to the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate mRNA translation is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that β-arrestin2 mediates mGlu5-stimulated protein synthesis in the hippocampus and show that genetic reduction of β-arrestin2 corrects aberrant synaptic plasticity and cognition in the Fmr1(-/y) mouse model of FX...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329257/lessons-learned-at-the-epicenter-of-brazil-s-congenital-zika-epidemic-evidence-from-87-confirmed-cases
#2
Jucille do Amaral Meneses, Ana Catarina Ishigami, Luisa Medeiros de Mello, Luciano Lira de Albuquerque, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Lindomar José Pena
Congenital Zika virus infection has stimulated great international concern. A prospective case series of 87 infants with laboratory-confirmed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) at the epicenter of the Brazilian Zika epidemic in Pernambuco state is presented. Mothers were interviewed for symptoms of possible Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal ultrasounds were obtained. Infant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for ZIKV specific antibodies and sera were screened for other congenital infections...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329004/gnrh-mediated-olfactory-and-visual-inputs-promote-mating-like-behaviors-in-male-zebrafish
#3
Lei Li, Jennifer L Wojtowicz, John H Malin, Tao Huang, Eric B Lee, Zijiang Chen
The engagement of sexual behaviors is regulated by a number of factors which include gene expression, hormone circulation, and multi-sensory information integration. In zebrafish, when a male and a female are placed in the same container, they show mating-like behaviors regardless of whether they are kept together or separated by a net. No mating-like behaviors are observed when same-sex animals are put together. Through the olfacto-visual centrifugal pathway, activation of the terminalis nerve in the olfactory bulb increases GnRH signaling in the brain and triggers mating-like behaviors between males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327992/cyst-fluid-from-cystic-malignant-brain-tumors-a-reservoir-of-nutrients-including-growth-factor-like-nutrients-for-tumor-cells
#4
Daniel Dahlberg, Eduard A Struys, Erwin E Jansen, Lars Mørkrid, Øivind Midttun, Bjørnar Hassel
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth. OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors. RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327959/in-reply-commentary-deep-brain-stimulation-as-clinical-innovation-an-ethical-and-organizational-framework-to-sustain-deliberations-about-psychiatric-deep-brain-stimulation
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327949/resection-of-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-positive-prerolandic-motor-areas-causes-permanent-impairment-of-motor-function
#6
Tobias Moser, Lucia Bulubas, Jamil Sabih, Neal Conway, Noémie Wildschutz, Nico Sollmann, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) helps to determine the distribution of motor eloquent areas prior to brain surgery. Yet, the eloquence of primary motor areas frontal to the precentral gyrus identified via nTMS is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the resection of nTMS-positive prerolandic motor areas and its correlation with postsurgical impairment of motor function. METHODS: Forty-three patients with rolandic or prerolandic gliomas (WHO grade I-IV) underwent nTMS prior to surgery...
February 24, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327904/the-cost-of-brain-surgery-awake-vs-asleep-craniotomy-for-perirolandic-region-tumors
#7
Chikezie I Eseonu, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Karim ReFaey, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
BACKGROUND: Cost effectiveness has become an important factor in the health care system, requiring surgeons to improve efficacy of procedures while reducing costs. An awake craniotomy (AC) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) presents one method to resect eloquent region tumors; however, some authors assert that this procedure is an expensive alternative to surgery under general anesthesia (GA) with neuromonitoring. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness and clinical outcomes between AC and GA patients...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327900/awake-craniotomy-vs-craniotomy-under-general-anesthesia-for-perirolandic-gliomas-evaluating-perioperative-complications-and-extent-of-resection
#8
Chikezie I Eseonu, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Karim ReFaey, Young M Lee, Jasvinder Nangiana, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
BACKGROUND: A craniotomy with direct cortical/subcortical stimulation either awake or under general anesthesia (GA) present 2 approaches for removing eloquent region tumors. With a reported higher prevalence of intraoperative seizures occurring during awake resections of perirolandic lesions, oftentimes, surgery under GA is chosen for these lesions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a single-surgeon's experience with awake craniotomies (AC) vs surgery under GA for resecting perirolandic, eloquent, motor-region gliomas...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327899/thirty-day-readmission-rates-following-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#9
Ashwin G Ramayya, Kalil G Abdullah, Arka N Mallela, John T Pierce, Jayesh Thawani, Dmitry Petrov, Gordon H Baltuch
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a safe and efficacious surgical intervention for several movement disorders; however, the 30-day all-cause readmission rate associated with this procedure has not previously been documented. OBJECT: To perform a retrospective cohort study to estimate the 30-day all-cause readmission rate associated with DBS. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients over the age of 18 who underwent DBS surgery at Pennsylvania Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2014...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326650/long-term-efficacy-of-constant-current-deep-brain-stimulation-in-essential-tremor
#10
Ali Rezaei Haddad, Michael Samuel, Natasha Hulse, Hsin-Ying Lin, Keyoumars Ashkan
OBJECTIVES: Ventralis intermedius deep brain stimulation is an established intervention for medication-refractory essential tremor. Newer constant current stimulation technology offers theoretical advantage over the traditional constant voltage systems in terms of delivering a more biologically stable therapy. There are no previous reports on the outcomes of constant current deep brain stimulation in the treatment of essential tremor. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of ventralis intermedius constant current deep brain stimulation in patients diagnosed with essential tremor...
March 21, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326031/can-neuromodulation-also-enhance-social-inequality-some-possible-indirect-interventions-of-the-state
#11
Andrea Lavazza
There is evidence that noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and especially transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve some cognitive functions, at least temporarily. However, as the improvement only applies to some "lucky" people, it may raise ethical, social and legal issues related to fairness in selective contexts (exams, competitions, job interviews). In this regard, an important element tends to be overlooked: the variability in individual response to tDCS in particular. If intensive study or practice and massive doses of chemical enhancers can have slightly different effects over different people, tDCS can sometimes be completely ineffective...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325846/soluble-flt1-gene-therapy-alleviates-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-severity
#12
Wan Zhu, Fanxia Shen, Lei Mao, Lei Zhan, Shuai Kang, Zhengda Sun, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Dingquan Zou, Cameron M McDougall, Michael T Lawton, Thiennu H Vu, Zhijian Wu, Abraham Scaria, Peter Colosi, John Forsayeth, Hua Su
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is an important risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. Current therapies are associated with high morbidities. Excessive vascular endothelial growth factor has been implicated in bAVM pathophysiology. Because soluble FLT1 binds to vascular endothelial growth factor with high affinity, we tested intravenous delivery of an adeno-associated viral vector serotype-9 expressing soluble FLT1 (AAV9-sFLT1) to alleviate the bAVM phenotype...
March 21, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#13
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325011/research-on-eeg-features-of-attended-unattended-vigilance
#14
Chang Sun, Runge Chen, Miao Tian, Xingwei An, Hongzhi Qi, Minpeng Xu, Xuemin Wang, Dong Ming, Peng Zhou
Vigilance refers to the brain alertness to objective things, including the concentration of attention and the capability to response emergencies. It is of great importance to study vigilance monitoring to avoid accidents caused by decrease of vigilance. In this study, traditional Mackworth Clock Test (MCT) was modified to induce decline of attended and unattended vigilance. We analyzed EEG features in different levels of attended vigilance and assessed unattended vigilance by amplitude of mismatch negative (MMN) which can be evoked by audio odd ball stimulations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324985/a-novel-thermal-tactile-stimulator-device-for-quantitative-sensory-testing
#15
Umit Kursun, Olcay Kursun, Oleg V Favorov
This paper outlines the design and preliminary experimental results of a novel thermal stimulator device designed to measure, from some perspectives, brain health. The device delivers some thermal stimuli and asks the subject about his perception about them, thus checking the correctness of the perception and even the existence of certain perceptual illusions that would normally be present in healthy cortex and nervous system. This noninvasive sensory technology is cheap and easy to use, it has the potential to be used in telemonitoring systems and in empowering the individual to track his/her progression over time on the provided neuropathy tests...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324953/electrical-resistance-increases-at-the-tissue-electrode-interface-as-an-early-response-to-nucleus-accumbens-deep-brain-stimulation
#16
Rajas P Kale, Abbas Z Kouzani, Julian Berk, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Susannah J Tye
The therapeutic actions of deep brain stimulation are not fully understood. The early inflammatory response of electrode implantation is associated with symptom relief without electrical stimulation, but is negated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Early excitotoxic necrosis and subsequent glial scarring modulate the conductivity of the tissue-electrode interface, which can provide some detail into the inflammatory response of individual patients. The feasibility of this was demonstrated by measuring resistance values across a bipolar electrode which was unilaterally implanted into the nucleus accumbens of a rat while receiving continuous deep brain stimulation with a portable back-mounted device using clinical parameters (130Hz, 200μA, 90μs) for 3 days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324952/the-influence-of-the-pre-stimulation-neural-state-on-the-post-stimulation-neural-dynamics-via-distributed-microstimulation-of-the-hippocampus
#17
Mark J Connolly, Robert E Gross, Babak Mahmoudi
In this study we investigated how the neural state influences how the brain responds to electrical stimulation using a 16-channel microelectrode array with 8 stimulation and recording channels implanted in the rat hippocampus. In two experiments we identified the stimulation threshold at which the brain changes to an afterdischarge state. In one experiment a range of suprathreshold stimulations were applied, and in another the stimulation was not changed. The neural state was measured by the power spectral density prior to stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324930/rtms-enhanced-gamma-oscillation-through-strengthened-network-connection
#18
Mengmeng Dou, Xin Tian
Gamma oscillations emerge generally in working memory to aspect of higher cognitive functions, and typically with the interaction of brain network. How is gamma oscillatory activity influenced by the functional connection in the brain'a network? How can gamma oscillations be increased by neural modulation to result in potential benefits for working memory? The present study aims to investigate the intensity of gamma oscillations modulated by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and the possible brain network mechanism of increased gamma oscillations during working memory task in rats...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324607/sted-imaging-in-drosophila-brain-slices
#19
Sandra Fendl, Jesús Pujol-Martí, Joel Ryan, Alexander Borst, Robert Kasper
Super-resolution microscopy is a very powerful tool to investigate fine cellular structures and molecular arrangements in biological systems. For instance, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy has been successfully used in recent years to investigate the arrangement and colocalization of different protein species in cells in culture and on the surface of specimens. However, because of its extreme sensitivity to light scattering, super-resolution imaging deep inside tissues remains a challenge. Here, we describe the preparation of thin slices from the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) brain, subsequent immunolabeling and imaging with STED microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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