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Streptolysin O

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900445/anaphylactoid-purpura-associated-with-streptococcal-cellulitis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Yuko Saito, Susumu Ookawara, Hisataka Uchima, Takeshi Ishida, Masafumi Kakei, Hitoshi Sugawara
A 54-year-old Japanese man noticed painful swelling and redness of his left leg. He was admitted for treatment of cellulitis, which was accompanied with increased anti-streptolysin O and anti-streptokinase titers in his clinical course. After Piperacillin/Tazobactam administration, the skin lesion resolved. However, the patient then developed arthritis, palpable purpura, and intermittent abdominal pain, later found to be secondary to a severe duodenal ulcer. He was diagnosed with cellulitis-associated anaphylactoid purpura and was given prednisolone, which dramatically improved his symptoms...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900022/binding-of-nad-glycohydrolase-to-streptolysin-o-stabilizes-both-toxins-and-promotes-virulence-of-group-a-streptococcus
#2
Jorge J Velarde, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Buket Baddal, Benedicte Bastiat-Sempe, Michael R Wessels
The globally dominant, invasive M1T1 strain of group A Streptococcus (GAS) harbors polymorphisms in the promoter region of an operon that contains the genes encoding streptolysin O (SLO) and NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase), resulting in high-level expression of these toxins. While both toxins have been shown experimentally to contribute to pathogenesis, many GAS isolates lack detectable NADase activity. DNA sequencing of such strains has revealed that reduced or absent enzymatic activity can be associated with a variety of point mutations in nga, the gene encoding NADase; a commonly observed polymorphism associated with near-complete abrogation of activity is a substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 330 (G330D)...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769806/a-red-blood-cell-membrane-camouflaged-nanoparticle-counteracts-streptolysin-o-mediated-virulence-phenotypes-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus
#3
Tamara Escajadillo, Joshua Olson, Brian T Luk, Liangfang Zhang, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720729/inhibition-of-inflammasome-dependent-interleukin-1%C3%AE-production-by-streptococcal-nad-glycohydrolase-evidence-for-extracellular-activity
#4
Dóra Hancz, Elsa Westerlund, Benedicte Bastiat-Sempe, Onkar Sharma, Christine Valfridsson, Lena Meyer, John F Love, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Michael R Wessels, Jenny J Persson
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common human pathogen and the etiologic agent of a large number of diseases ranging from mild, self-limiting infections to invasive life-threatening conditions. Two prominent virulence factors of this bacterium are the genetically and functionally linked pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) and its cotoxin NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase). Overexpression of these toxins has been linked to increased bacterial virulence and is correlated with invasive GAS disease. NADase can be translocated into host cells by a SLO-dependent mechanism, and cytosolic NADase has been assigned multiple properties such as protection of intracellularly located GAS bacteria and induction of host cell death through energy depletion...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662157/sex-dependent-aortic-valve-pathology-in-patients-with-rheumatic-heart-disease
#5
Feng Xiao, Rui Zheng, Di Yang, Kejiang Cao, Shijiang Zhang, Bingruo Wu, Yongfeng Shao, Bin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease is an autoimmune disease caused by group A streptococci infection and frequently affects the aortic valve. Sex differences are common in the disease progression, treatment, and outcome. However, little is known about the sex differences in the pathology of aortic valves in rheumatic heart disease. DESIGN: We studied the end-stage calcific aortic valves from male versus female patients to reveal the sex-dependent pathology differences and molecular changes associated with requiring valve replacement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631391/myosin-substitution-rate-is-affected-by-the-amount-of-cytosolic-myosin-in-cultured-muscle-cells
#6
Koichi Ojima, Emi Ichimura, Yuya Yasukawa, Mika Oe, Susumu Muroya, Takahiro Suzuki, Jun-Ichi Wakamatsu, Takanori Nishimura
In striated muscles, approximately 300 myosin molecules form a single thick filament in myofibrils. Each myosin is continuously displaced by another myosin to maintain the thick filament structure. Our previous study using a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique showed that the myosin replacement rate is decreased by inhibition of protein synthesis, but myosin is still exchangeable. This result prompted us to examine whether myosin in the cytoplasm is involved in myosin replacement in myofibrils...
June 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554544/immuno-nephelometric-determination-of-group-streptococcal-anti-streptolysin-o-titres-asot-from-dried-blood-spots-method-for-validating-a-new-assay
#7
John Joseph, Neil Kent, Asha Bowen, Julie Hart, Meru Sheel, Robert Wardrop, Sam Abbs, Scott Bazely, Monika Rybak
This study was designed to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility of recovering anti-streptolysin O titres (ASOT) from dried blood spot (DBS) samples, a methodologic subcomponent of the penicillin pharmacokinetic studies in children receiving secondary prophylaxis with intramuscular benzathine penicillin for acute rheumatic fever.
September 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444097/chronic-polyarthritis-as-the-first-manifestation-of-childhood-systemic-polyarteritis-nodosa
#8
Glaucia Vanessa Novak, Koken Hayashi, Kohei Sampa, Yosuke Okumura, Gabriela Ribeiro Viola Ferreira, Clovis Artur Silva
Arthritis has been reported as an acute pattern, generally evanescent with oligoarthritis, mostly affecting knees and ankles in childhood systemic polyarteritis nodosa. However, chronic polyarthritis with morning stiffness mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis has not been reported. We describe the case of a 4-year old girl who had additive and chronic polyarthritis with edema, tenderness, pain on motion and morning stiffness for 2 months. After 45 days, she also presented painful subcutaneous nodules and erythematous-violaceous lesions in the extensor region of upper and lower limbs...
January 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426384/a-2-year-old-boy-with-circulatory-failure-owing-to-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-case-report
#9
Werner Keenswijk, Johan Vande Walle
A 2-year-old boy presented with severe hypotension and acute kidney injury after a prodrome of non-bloody diarrhoea and fever in the preceding 3 days. He had a mild Ebstein cardiac anomaly but otherwise a normal past history and growth. On examination, he looked ill, his temperature was 37.5 °C, circulation was poor, and there were several purpuric lesions on the face, hands and scrotum. Haemoglobin was 7.8 g/dL (11-14), total white cell count 27 × 10(9)/L, platelets 62 × 10(9)/L, blood urea nitrogen 20...
April 20, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411150/comparative-diagnostic-efficacy-of-recombinant-llo-and-pi-plc-based-elisas-for-detection-of-listeriosis-in-animals
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rahul D Suryawanshi, Satya Veer Singh Malik, Bhushan Jayarao, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Emily Savage, Jess Vergis, Nitin V Kurkure, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Deepak B Rawool
The present study for the first time evaluates the serodiagnostic efficacy of two recombinant antigens namely, listeriolysin O (rLLO) and phosphatidyl-inositol phospholipase C (rPI-PLC). Indirect ELISA with the above recombinant antigens was used on samples collected from bovines (n=106), goats (n=138) and pigs (n=92) having either a history of abortion, emaciation and/or apparently healthy animals. Isolation of Listeria was attempted from the blood samples using USDA-FSIS method. On screening of test sera by rLLO-based ELISA, antibodies against anti-listeriolysin O (ALLO) were observed in goats (22...
June 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381239/prevalence-of-group-a-streptococcus-pharyngeal-carriage-and-clinical-manifestations-in-school-children-aged-5-15%C3%A2-yrs-in-wakiso-district-uganda
#11
Irene Nayiga, Emmy Okello, Peter Lwabi, Grace Ndeezi
BACKGROUND: Beta-hemolytic streptococci carrier rates in children living in low-income countries are high ranging from 10 to 50%. Although most of these children are asymptomatic, they are a reservoir and pose a risk of transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of group a streptococcus pharyngeal carriage and clinical manifestations in school going children in Wakiso district, Uganda. METHODS: A cross sectional study targeting children age 5-15 years in primary schools in one sub-county of Wakiso district was carried out...
April 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293224/prevalence-of-m75-streptococcus-pyogenes-strains-harboring-slaa-gene-in-patients-affected-by-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-central-italy
#12
Elisa Viciani, Francesca Montagnani, Giacinta Tordini, Antonio Romano, Lorenzo Salerni, Andrea De Luca, Paolo Ruggiero, Andrea G O Manetti
Recently we reported an association between pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and Group A streptococcus (GAS) sub-acute chronic tonsil colonization. We showed that GAS may contribute to tonsil hyperplasia via a streptolysin O (SLO)-dependent cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) production, which can trigger T and B cell proliferation. In the present study, we characterized the GAS strains isolated from pediatric OSAS patients in comparison with a panel of age and sex matched GAS strains unrelated to OSAS, but isolated in the same area and during the same period ranging from 2009 to 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288328/case-control-exploratory-study-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-chemokines-cytokines-and-lymphocyte-subsets-in-childhood-tourette-syndrome-with-positive-streptococcal-markers
#13
Michael R Pranzatelli, Elizabeth D Tate, Tyler J Allison
A longstanding question is whether neuroinflammation is present in children symptomatic for Tourette syndrome (TS) with positive streptococcal serology and throat cultures. The objective was to directly test for it using modern hypothesis-driven approaches. Profiling studies for 14 immune cell types (flow cytometry), 7 chemokines/cytokines (ELISA), oligoclonal bands, and other immunoglobulins were performed in this IRB-approved study of 5 children with TS and streptococcal markers compared to data from 26 non-inflammatory pediatric neurological controls...
March 10, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216501/-retrospective-analysis-on-337-cases-of-%C3%A2-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#14
Lijun Zhao, Yaping Li
To determine differences in incidence, causes, clinical manifestation,prognosis between children and adults in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP).
 Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 337 patients who hospitalized in the Department of Dermatology, Peace Hospital affiliated to Changzhi Medical College from Feb. 2013 to Jan. 2016. All patients were divided into two groups by age: a child group (patients were less than 14 years old) and an adult group (patients were more than or equal to 14 years old)...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186501/intrinsic-repair-protects-cells-from-pore-forming-toxins-by-microvesicle-shedding
#15
Matthew Romero, Michelle Keyel, Guilan Shi, Pushpak Bhattacharjee, Robyn Roth, John E Heuser, Peter A Keyel
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are used by both the immune system and by pathogens to disrupt cell membranes. Cells attempt to repair this disruption in various ways, but the exact mechanism(s) that cells use are not fully understood, nor agreed upon. Current models for membrane repair include (1) patch formation (e.g., fusion of internal vesicles with plasma membrane defects), (2) endocytosis of the pores, and (3) shedding of the pores by blebbing from the cell membrane. In this study, we sought to determine the specific mechanism(s) that cells use to resist three different cholesterol-dependent PFTs: Streptolysin O, Perfringolysin O, and Intermedilysin...
May 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034602/contribution-of-secreted-nadase-and-streptolysin-o-to-the-pathogenesis-of-epidemic-serotype-m1-streptococcus-pyogenes-infections
#16
Luchang Zhu, Randall J Olsen, Jessica D Lee, Adeline R Porter, Frank R DeLeo, James M Musser
Streptococcus pyogenes secretes many toxins that facilitate human colonization, invasion, and dissemination. NADase (SPN) and streptolysin O (SLO) are two toxins that play important roles in pathogenesis. We previously showed that increased production of SPN and SLO in epidemic serotype M1 and M89 S. pyogenes strains is associated with rapid intercontinental spread and enhanced virulence. The biological functions of SPN and SLO have been extensively studied using eukaryotic cell lines, but the relative contribution of each of these two toxins to pathogenesis of epidemic M1 or M89 strains remains unexplored...
March 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939014/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-induced-by-self-amplifying-mrna-vaccines-encoding-bacterial-antigens
#17
Giulietta Maruggi, Emiliano Chiarot, Cinzia Giovani, Scilla Buccato, Stefano Bonacci, Elisabetta Frigimelica, Immaculada Margarit, Andrew Geall, Giuliano Bensi, Domenico Maione
Nucleic acid vaccines represent an attractive approach to vaccination, combining the positive attributes of both viral vectors and live-attenuated vaccines, without the inherent limitations of each technology. We have developed a novel technology, the Self-Amplifying mRNA (SAM) platform, which is based on the synthesis of self-amplifying mRNA formulated and delivered as a vaccine. SAM vaccines have been shown to stimulate robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and non-human primates against a variety of viral antigens, thus representing a safe and versatile tool against viral infections...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935478/labeling-proteins-inside-living-cells-using-external-fluorophores-for-microscopy
#18
Kai Wen Teng, Yuji Ishitsuka, Pin Ren, Yeoan Youn, Xiang Deng, Pinghua Ge, Andrew S Belmont, Paul R Selvin
Site-specific fluorescent labeling of proteins inside live mammalian cells has been achieved by employing Streptolysin O, a bacterial enzyme which forms temporary pores in the membrane and allows delivery of virtually any fluorescent probes, ranging from labeled IgG's to small ligands, with high efficiency (>85% of cells). The whole process, including recovery, takes 30 min, and the cell is ready to be imaged immediately. A variety of cell viability tests were performed after treatment with SLO to ensure that the cells have intact membranes, are able to divide, respond normally to signaling molecules, and maintains healthy organelle morphology...
December 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886579/a-cytokine-study-of-pediatric-tourette-s-disorder-without-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Seung-Min Yeon, Ju Hyung Lee, Daewon Kang, Hyuna Bae, Ki Yong Lee, Seohoon Jin, Jung Ryul Kim, Yong Woo Jung, Tae Won Park
It has been suggested that post-infectious inflammation in central nervous system is a cause of tic disorder including Tourette's disorder (TD). Since pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators inducing inflammation, the cytokine levels are regarded as one of the important indicators of inflammation. Several studies have investigated the relationship of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of TD by measuring the inflammatory cytokine levels of blood. However, when using human samples, the experimental results can be affected by the factors like size of sample, comorbidity, medication that patients take and the severity of the diseases...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830834/suilysin-induced-platelet-neutrophil-complexes-formation-is-triggered-by-pore-formation-dependent-calcium-influx
#20
Shengwei Zhang, Yuling Zheng, Shaolong Chen, Shujing Huang, Keke Liu, Qingyu Lv, Yongqiang Jiang, Yuan Yuan
Platelet activation and platelet-neutrophil interactions have been found to be involved in inflammation, organ failure and soft-tissue necrosis in bacterial infections. Streptococcus suis, an emerging human pathogen, can cause streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome (STSS) similarly to Streptococcus pyogenes. Currently, S. suis-platelet interactions are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), the S. suis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), was the sole stimulus of S. suis that induced platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNC) formation...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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