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Streptolysin O

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216501/-retrospective-analysis-on-337-cases-of-%C3%A2-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#1
Lijun Zhao, Yaping Li
To determine differences in incidence, causes, clinical manifestation,prognosis between children and adults in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP).
 Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 337 patients who hospitalized in the Department of Dermatology, Peace Hospital affiliated to Changzhi Medical College from Feb. 2013 to Jan. 2016. All patients were divided into two groups by age: a child group (patients were less than 14 years old) and an adult group (patients were more than or equal to 14 years old)...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186501/intrinsic-repair-protects-cells-from-pore-forming-toxins-by-microvesicle-shedding
#2
Matthew Romero, Michelle Keyel, Guilan Shi, Pushpak Bhattacharjee, Robyn Roth, John E Heuser, Peter A Keyel
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are used by both the immune system and by pathogens to disrupt cell membranes. Cells attempt to repair this disruption in various ways, but the exact mechanism(s) that cells use are not fully understood, nor agreed upon. Current models for membrane repair include (1) patch formation (e.g., fusion of internal vesicles with plasma membrane defects), (2) endocytosis of the pores, and (3) shedding of the pores by blebbing from the cell membrane. In this study, we sought to determine the specific mechanism(s) that cells use to resist three different cholesterol-dependent PFTs: Streptolysin O, Perfringolysin O, and Intermedilysin...
February 10, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034602/contribution-of-secreted-nadase-and-streptolysin-o-to-the-pathogenesis-of-epidemic-serotype-m1-streptococcus-pyogenes-infections
#3
Luchang Zhu, Randall J Olsen, Jessica D Lee, Adeline R Porter, Frank R DeLeo, James M Musser
Streptococcus pyogenes secretes many toxins that facilitate human colonization, invasion, and dissemination. NADase (SPN) and streptolysin O (SLO) are two toxins that play important roles in pathogenesis. We previously showed that increased production of SPN and SLO in epidemic serotype M1 and M89 S. pyogenes strains is associated with rapid intercontinental spread and enhanced virulence. The biological functions of SPN and SLO have been extensively studied using eukaryotic cell lines, but the relative contribution of each of these two toxins to pathogenesis of epidemic M1 or M89 strains remains unexplored...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939014/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-induced-by-self-amplifying-mrna-vaccines-encoding-bacterial-antigens
#4
Giulietta Maruggi, Emiliano Chiarot, Cinzia Giovani, Scilla Buccato, Stefano Bonacci, Elisabetta Frigimelica, Immaculada Margarit, Andrew Geall, Giuliano Bensi, Domenico Maione
Nucleic acid vaccines represent an attractive approach to vaccination, combining the positive attributes of both viral vectors and live-attenuated vaccines, without the inherent limitations of each technology. We have developed a novel technology, the Self-Amplifying mRNA (SAM) platform, which is based on the synthesis of self-amplifying mRNA formulated and delivered as a vaccine. SAM vaccines have been shown to stimulate robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and non-human primates against a variety of viral antigens, thus representing a safe and versatile tool against viral infections...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935478/labeling-proteins-inside-living-cells-using-external-fluorophores-for-microscopy
#5
Kai Wen Teng, Yuji Ishitsuka, Pin Ren, Yeoan Youn, Xiang Deng, Pinghua Ge, Andrew S Belmont, Paul R Selvin
Site-specific fluorescent labeling of proteins inside live mammalian cells has been achieved by employing Streptolysin O, a bacterial enzyme which forms temporary pores in the membrane and allows delivery of virtually any fluorescent probes, ranging from labeled IgG's to small ligands, with high efficiency (>85% of cells). The whole process, including recovery, takes 30 min, and the cell is ready to be imaged immediately. A variety of cell viability tests were performed after treatment with SLO to ensure that the cells have intact membranes, are able to divide, respond normally to signaling molecules, and maintains healthy organelle morphology...
December 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886579/a-cytokine-study-of-pediatric-tourette-s-disorder-without-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Seung-Min Yeon, Ju Hyung Lee, Daewon Kang, Hyuna Bae, Ki Yong Lee, Seohoon Jin, Jung Ryul Kim, Yong Woo Jung, Tae Won Park
It has been suggested that post-infectious inflammation in central nervous system is a cause of tic disorder including Tourette's disorder (TD). Since pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators inducing inflammation, the cytokine levels are regarded as one of the important indicators of inflammation. Several studies have investigated the relationship of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of TD by measuring the inflammatory cytokine levels of blood. However, when using human samples, the experimental results can be affected by the factors like size of sample, comorbidity, medication that patients take and the severity of the diseases...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830834/suilysin-induced-platelet-neutrophil-complexes-formation-is-triggered-by-pore-formation-dependent-calcium-influx
#7
Shengwei Zhang, Yuling Zheng, Shaolong Chen, Shujing Huang, Keke Liu, Qingyu Lv, Yongqiang Jiang, Yuan Yuan
Platelet activation and platelet-neutrophil interactions have been found to be involved in inflammation, organ failure and soft-tissue necrosis in bacterial infections. Streptococcus suis, an emerging human pathogen, can cause streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome (STSS) similarly to Streptococcus pyogenes. Currently, S. suis-platelet interactions are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), the S. suis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), was the sole stimulus of S. suis that induced platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNC) formation...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800304/effects-of-suilysin-on-streptococcus-suis-induced-platelet-aggregation
#8
Shengwei Zhang, Junping Wang, Shaolong Chen, Jiye Yin, Zhiyuan Pan, Keke Liu, Lin Li, Yuling Zheng, Yuan Yuan, Yongqiang Jiang
Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764982/development-of-nanosponges-from-erythrocyte-ghosts-for-removal-of-streptolysin-o-from-mammalian-blood
#9
Vikesh Chhabria, Steve Beeton
AIM: To produce mammalian biomimetic nanosponges from mammalian erythrocyte ghosts. Biomimetic nanosponges were studied in vitro as treatment platforms against exotoxin-related sepsis. METHODS: Ovine blood was treated with hypotonic buffer to create erythrocyte ghosts and then subjected to sonication to produce erythrocyte vesicles of nonuniform size. Vesicles were then serially extruded through 400-nm and 100-nm polycarbonate membranes. Nanosponges were prepared by fusing poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) cores with ovine erythrocyte vesicles...
October 21, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709445/childhood-polyarteritis-nodosa-diagnosis-with-non-invasive-imaging-techniques
#10
Z Birsin Özçakar, Suat Fitöz, Adalet Elçin Yıldız, Fatoş Yalçınkaya
There is limited number of publications about the use of non-invasive imaging modalities in the diagnosis of childhood polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN). The aim of this study was to present the clinical and imaging findings of the patients with cPAN who were diagnosed with non-invasive imaging techniques. Files of patients who had been diagnosed as cPAN in our department from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed, retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of the patients were evaluated. Nine patients (8M, 1F; age at disease onset: 12...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687479/rab3a-and-rab10-are-regulators-of-lysosome-exocytosis-and-plasma-membrane-repair
#11
Otilia V Vieira
Disruption of the cell plasma membrane can occur due to mechanical damage, pore forming toxins, etc. Resealing or plasma membrane repair (PMR) is the emergency response required for cell survival. It is triggered by Ca(2+) entering through the disruption, causing organelles such as lysosomes located underneath the plasma membrane to fuse rapidly with the adjacent plasma membrane. We have recently identified some of the molecular traffic machinery that is involved in this vital process. Specifically, we showed that 2 members of the Rab family of small GTPases, Rab3a and Rab10, are essential for lysosome exocytosis and PMR in cells challenged with a bacterial toxin, streptolysin-O (SLO)...
September 29, 2016: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663649/throat-culture-positivity-rate-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-beta-hemolytic-streptococci-in-children-on-secondary-prophylaxis-for-rheumatic-heart-disease
#12
Nigus Zegeye, Daniel Asrat, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Abebe Habte, Etsegenet Gedlu, Tone Tønjum, Abraham Aseffa
BACKGROUND: Among children diagnosed to have chronic rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) in Ethiopia, many have been observed to develop recurrence of rheumatic fever (RF) despite secondary prophylaxis. This study determined the throat culture positivity rate and drug susceptibility pattern of beta hemolytic streptococci (BHS) isolated from children attending a specialized cardiac clinic in Ethiopia. METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from 233 children receiving benzathine penicillin injection as secondary prophylaxis for RHD and cultured...
September 23, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619043/prevalence-of-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-patients-with-recurrent-tonsillitis-and-elevated-anti-streptolysin-o-titers
#13
M S Sahin, M U Yalcin, D Kocyigit
INTRODUCTION: Patients with elevated anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titers (ASOT) and recurrent tonsillitis episodes are known to be at higher risk for rheumatic heart disease (RHD). However, there is no data regarding prevalence of RHD in this high risk population. In this study, we aimed to screen ambulatory patients with elevated ASOT and recurrent tonsillitis episodes using echocardiography for identification of RHD. We hypothesized that prevalence of RHD is higher in this patient group compared to general population...
October 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613869/the-rab3a-22a-chimera-prevents-sperm-exocytosis-by-stabilizing-open-fusion-pores
#14
María F Quevedo, Ornella Lucchesi, Matías A Bustos, Cristian A Pocognoni, Paola X De la Iglesia, Claudia N Tomes
At the final stage of exocytotis, a fusion pore opens between the plasma and a secretory vesicle membranes; typically, when the pore dilates the vesicle releases its cargo. Sperm contain a large dense-core secretory granule (the acrosome) whose contents are secreted by regulated exocytosis at fertilization. Minutes after the arrival of the triggering signal, the acrosomal and plasma membranes dock at multiple sites and fusion pores open at the contact points. It is believed that immediately afterward, fusion pores dilate spontaneously...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590265/dependence-receptor-involvement-in-subtilisin-induced-long-term-depression-and-in-long-term-potentiation
#15
Trevor W Stone, L Gail Darlington, Caroline M Forrest
The serine protease subtilisin induces a form of long-term depression (LTD) which is accompanied by a reduced expression of the axo-dendritic guidance molecule Unco-ordinated-5C (Unc-5C). One objective of the present work was to determine whether a loss of Unc-5C function contributed to subtilisin-induced LTD by using Unc-5C antibodies in combination with the pore-forming agents Triton X-100 (0.005%) or streptolysin O in rat hippocampal slices. In addition we have assessed the effect of subtilisin on the related dependence receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) and used antibodies to this protein for functional studies...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465582/pathological-implications-of-linear-immunoglobulin-g-staining-on-the-glomerular-capillary-walls-in-a-case-of-infection-related-glomerulonephritis
#16
Yoshihide Fujigaki, Yosuke Kawamorita, Hiromi Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki Arai, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tatsuru Ota, Shigeru Shibata, Fukuo Kondo, Yutaka Yamaguchi, Shunya Uchida
We report a 32-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome and preceding symptom of infection. He had renal insufficiency, hypocomplementemia, and elevated titer of anti-streptolysin O. Renal biopsy showed mesangial hypercellularity and focal segmental endocapillary hypercellularity with double contour of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence study showed granular C3 staining on the mesangial areas and glomerular capillary walls (GCWs) and linear immunoglobulin G (IgG) staining on GCWs. Electron microscopy revealed sporadic subepithelial humps, discontinuous small and thin deposits in the endothelial side of the GBM and mesangial deposits...
September 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411421/a-case-of-hyperkinetic-movement-disorder-associated-with-lgi1-antibodies
#17
Sevda Erer Özbek, Zuhal Yapıcı, Erdem Tüzün, Murat Giriş, Selcen Duran, Özlem Taşkapılıoğlu, Mehmet Okan
Encephalitis associated with leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies is often encountered in elderly male patients and may infrequently present with isolated syndromes. A 6-year-old boy was admitted with acute onset severe oral and facial stereotypic and choreiform movements. On his neurologic examination, he had repetitive and rhythmic movements in orolingual muscles including tongue protrusion, limb chorea and minimal facial stereotypic movements. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titers were found severely elevated in several measurements...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362457/monitoring-of-cholesterol-oxidation-in-a-lipid-bilayer-membrane-using-streptolysin-o-as-a-sensing-and-signal-transduction-element
#18
Atsushi Shoji, Kana Ikeya, Miki Aoyagi, Ryutaro Takatsuji, Akio Yanagida, Yoichi Shibusawa, Masao Sugawara
Streptolysin O (SLO), which recognizes sterols and forms nanopores in lipid membranes, is proposed as a sensing element for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer. The structural requirements of eight sterols for forming nanopores by SLO confirmed that a free 3-OH group in the β-configuration of sterols is required for recognition by SLO in a lipid bilayer. The extent of nanopore formation by SLO in lipid bilayers increased in the order of cholestanol<cholesterol<25-OH cholesterol and in a sterol concentration-dependent manner...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316546/plasmodium-rab5b-is-secreted-to-the-cytoplasmic-face-of-the-tubovesicular-network-in-infected-red-blood-cells-together-with-n-acylated-adenylate-kinase-2
#19
Kazuo Ebine, Makoto Hirai, Miako Sakaguchi, Kazuhide Yahata, Osamu Kaneko, Yumiko Saito-Nakano
BACKGROUND: Rab5 GTPase regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes and harbours a conserved C-terminal isoprenyl modification that is necessary for membrane recruitment. Plasmodium falciparum encodes three Rab5 isotypes, and one of these, Rab5b (PfRab5b), lacks the C-terminal modification but possesses the N-terminal myristoylation motif. PfRab5b was reported to localize to the parasite periphery. However, the trafficking pathway regulated by PfRab5b is unknown...
2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302756/differing-efficacies-of-lead-group-a-streptococcal-vaccine-candidates-and-full-length-m-protein-in-cutaneous-and-invasive-disease-models
#20
Tania Rivera-Hernandez, Manisha Pandey, Anna Henningham, Jason Cole, Biswa Choudhury, Amanda J Cork, Christine M Gillen, Khairunnisa Abdul Ghaffar, Nicholas P West, Guido Silvestri, Michael F Good, Peter M Moyle, Istvan Toth, Victor Nizet, Michael R Batzloff, Mark J Walker
UNLABELLED: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for both superficial infections and invasive diseases. Autoimmune sequelae may occur upon repeated infection. For this reason, development of a vaccine against GAS represents a major challenge, since certain GAS components may trigger autoimmunity. We formulated three combination vaccines containing the following: (i) streptolysin O (SLO), interleukin 8 (IL-8) protease (Streptococcus pyogenes cell envelope proteinase [SpyCEP]), group A streptococcal C5a peptidase (SCPA), arginine deiminase (ADI), and trigger factor (TF); (ii) the conserved M-protein-derived J8 peptide conjugated to ADI; and (iii) group A carbohydrate lacking the N-acetylglucosamine side chain conjugated to ADI...
June 14, 2016: MBio
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